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Diagnosis of Acute Gastroenteritis with Immunochromatography and Effectiveness of Rotavirus Vaccine in a Japanese Clinic.


ABSTRACT: Despite the well known effectiveness of two licensed live attenuated oral rotavirus (RV)-vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, constant monitoring of vaccine effectiveness (VE) is essential considering the evolving power and reassortment capability of RVs. In this study, we detected RV, norovirus (NV) and adenovirus (AV) infections using immunochromatography (IC)-based kits in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) who attended a pediatric clinic in Kiryu city, Gunma, Japan during June, 2014-September, 2018. VEs were determined using a test-negative study design. Among 1658 AGE-children, RV, NV and AV were detected in 96 (5.8?%), 146 (8.8?%) and 46 (2.8?%) children, respectively. Interestingly, the distributions of infections were found to be associated with age and sex. Namely, RV infections were significantly higher in female (P=0.02) and in the 19-30?month age group children, while NV and AV infections predominated in the 13-24?month and 7-18?month age groups, respectively. The disease severity for RV and NV infections remained similar and significantly higher than that of AV infections. The VE of RV-vaccines was 49.8?% (95?% CI: 22.7 to 67.3?%) against all RV infections, which was increased up to 67.2?% (95?% CI: 35.3 to 83.4?%) against severe RV infections. RV-vaccinated children experienced less severe symptoms in RV-infections while non-RV AGE remained less serious for both RV-vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Finally, the prevalence of RV infection remained minimized (?5.4?%) in this population since 2015. Thus, this study provided important information on distribution of major AGEs in young children and exhibited the effective role of RV vaccines in post-vaccine era.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7470309 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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