Cumbersome but desirable-Breaking the code of everyday cycling.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Cycling for transport could integrate physical activity (PA) into daily routines and potentially increase total PA levels. However, for parents with young children, most factors affecting transport mode choice tend to facilitate car use. Greater insight is necessary into reasons for (not) using sustainable transport modes in parents with young children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the experiences, including motives, perceptions, attitudes, and norms, of parents of young children by using an e-bike, a longtail bike, and a traditional bike for everyday travel to the workplace, kindergarten, and the grocery store during the autumn, winter, and spring, in nine months. METHODS:Semistructured focus group interviews were conducted with 18 parents of young children residing in southern Norway. Parents were recruited through Facebook announcements and direct contact with kindergartens, selected organisations, and companies in the Kristiansand municipality. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation by using NVivo V.11. RESULTS:Participants' experiences were summarised by three main themes: 'cycling is cumbersome', 'cycling reflects the desirable me', and 'breaking the cycling code'. Time use, planning, logistics, wet and cold weather, long distances, and no cycling habit were frequently mentioned barriers, and the most notable facilitator was the children's attitude towards cycling. In general, children loved to cycle and preferred cycling to driving. Additionally, the freedom and independence of cycling were emphasised and valued. CONCLUSION:In challenging weather conditions, parents of young children may experience cycling as cumbersome but desirable, and bike access could increase the feasibility of daily cycling.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:We aimed to investigate whether providing parents with children in kindergarten with access to different bicycle types could influence (i) travel behavior and cycling amount, and (ii) intrinsic motivation for cycling and psychological constructs related to car use. METHODS:A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Southern Norway from September 2017 to June 2018. In total 36 parents were recruited and randomly drawn into an intervention (n = 18) or control group (n = 18). The intervention group was in random order equipped with an e-bike with trailer (n = 6), a cargo (longtail) bike (n = 6) and a traditional bike with trailer (n = 6). RESULTS:At follow-up, more participants from the intervention group (vs. the control group) were classified as cyclists to the workplace (n = 7 (38.9%) vs. n = 1 (5.9%), p = 0.04), but not to the kindergarten (n = 6 (33.3%) vs. n = 2 (11.8%), p = 0.23) or to the grocery store (n = 2 (11.1%) vs. n = 0 (0%), p = 0.49). A significant (p = ?0.05) increase in cycling frequency (0.1 to 2.0 days/week) from baseline to follow-up was found in the intervention group for all destinations and seasons, except to the grocery store during winter (p = 0.16). A decrease in frequency of car driving (-0.2 to -1.7 days/week) was found to be apparent in terms of travelling to the workplace and the kindergarten for all seasons, yet not to the grocery store for any season (p = 0.15-0.49). The intervention group (vs. the control group) reported significantly higher "intrinsic regulation" for cycling (p = 0.01) at follow-up. CONCLUSION:Access to different bike types for parents with children attending kindergarten resulted in overall increased cycling, decreased car use and higher intrinsic motivation for cycling. E-bikes obtained the greatest cycling amount in total, with the smallest sample variability. Hence, providing parents with children in kindergarten with access to e-bikes might result in increased and sustained cycling, also during the winter season.
Project description:The present study aims to increase bicycling and level of physical activity (PA), and thereby promote health in parents of toddlers, by giving access to different bicycle types. There is a need for greater understanding of e-bikes and their role in the transportation network, and further effects on PA levels and health. Moreover, longtail bikes could meet certain practical needs not fulfilled by e-bikes or traditional bikes, hence increased knowledge regarding their feasibility should be obtained. No previous studies have investigated whether providing an e-bike or a longtail bike over an extended period in a sample of parents of toddlers influence objectively assessed amount of bicycling and total PA level, transportation habits, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and blood pressure.A randomized cross-over trial will be performed, entailing that participants in the intervention group (n?=?18) complete the following intervention arms in random order: (i) three months access to an e-bicycle with trailer for child transportation (n?=?6), (ii) three months access to a longtail bicycle (n?=?6), and (iii) three months access to a regular bicycle with trailer (n?=?6), in total nine months. Also, a control group (n?=?18) maintaining usual transportation and PA habits will be included. A convenience sample consisting of 36 parents of toddlers residing in Kristiansand municipality, Southern Norway, will be recruited. Total amount of bicycling (distance and time), total level of PA, and transportation habits will be measured at baseline and in connection to each intervention arm. Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and blood pressure will be measured at baseline and post-intervention. Main outcome will be bicycling distance and time spent cycling.New knowledge relevant for the timely issues of public health and environmental sustainability will be provided among parents of toddlers, representing a target group of greatest importance. There is a call for research on the influence of e-bikes and longtail bikes on travel behavior and PA levels, and whether voluntary cycling could improve health. If the present study reveals promising results, it should be replicated in larger and more representative samples. Eventually, inclusion in national public health policies should be considered.ID NCT03131518 , made public 26.04.2017.
Project description:Introduction:Electrically assisted bicycles (e-bikes) have become increasingly popular in the past decade. This review aimed to scope the literature to identify what is known about the frequency and duration of e-bike use, their impact on travel behaviour, the purposes for which e-bikes are used and factors associated with e-bike use. In addition, the review aimed to identify gaps in the literature and highlight future research priorities. Methods:A scoping review of published and unpublished literature in any language. Relevant articles were identified through searching six databases, two grey literature platforms and reference lists. Searches were conducted until August 2019. Data were extracted using a standardised extraction form and descriptive and narrative results are provided. Results:Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria. The volume of research has increased since 2017 and primarily examines personal e-bike use, as opposed to e-bike share/rental schemes or organizational e-bike initiatives. The use of e-bikes increased the frequency and duration of cycling compared to conventional cycling and may help overcome barriers associated with conventional cycling. The uptake in e-cycling largely substitutes for conventional cycling or private car journeys, though the degree of substitution depends on the primary transport mode prior to e-bike acquisition. E-bikes are primarily used for utilitarian reasons, though older adults also engage in recreational e-cycling. Research priorities include quantitatively examining e-bike use, their impact on overall transport behaviour and identifying determinants of e-cycling to inform intervention and policy. Conclusions:This review suggests that the personal use of e-bikes is associated with a reduction in motorized vehicle use, which has potential positive impacts on the environment and health. The impacts of e-bike share schemes and workplace initiatives are less well understood. Evidence describing the purposes for which e-bikes are used, and the factors associated with usage, are useful to inform e-cycling promotion policy.
Project description:Cycling is considered to have a positive effect on public health through increased physical activity. In Norway, the e-bike is seen as a way of getting more people to cycle. However, the motorized assistance of an e-bike potentially eliminates any physical activity associated with its use. It is possible that the assumed health effect of increased cycling is "erased" through a reduction in other physical activities (a substitution effect). In this paper we study the public health effects of e-bikes using a combined cross-sectional and quasi-experimental design. First, we explore the existence of potentially hedonistic values in relation to interest in acquiring an e-bike and, second, we conduct an intervention study of physical activity pre- and post-purchase.A sample of 340 people responded to a questionnaire before buying an e-bike and follow-up 4 weeks later, when 45 had bought one. A further 28 (mainly physically inactive) were recruited through a Norwegian NGO. For a comparison group, 1995 people were recruited through the Falck National Register of Bicycle Owners. All respondents were asked about the intensity of their cycling, (kilometres cycled in the previous week), walking and physical activity in addition to cycling as means of transport (days and hours).A structural equation model showed that hedonistic life values, and general physical activity, were predictive of interest in buying an e-bike. However people who already cycled a lot showed less interest. The trial showed that increased cycling - whether as a mean of transport or exercise -was related to higher levels of total physical activity in both groups compared to a comparison group (one-way ANOVA).Our findings indicate that in the Norwegian cycle population there is no substantial substitution effect of physical activity with the introduction of an e-bike. The appeal of the e-bike is strongest among those with little existing interest in, or levels of, physical activity. The net effect of the e-bike therefore seems positive from a public health perspective.
Project description:The rapid decline in young children's active commutes to and from school has prompted investigations into ways to raise activity levels. The period after school is recognized as very important in the daily activity regime of primary school children. In this study, we examine the relative effects of local environmental factors and socio-economic status on children's after-school commute mode choice. Environmental factors are pedestrian priority streets, street intersection density, motorways, shops, and play spaces. Property values are used as a proxy for income. Twenty-four school districts are selected using intersection density and motorway length as criteria. All children's exit behaviors were film-recorded on October weekdays and extracted as four choices-alone, in a group of children, on foot with a parent or guardian, on e-bike driven by an adult. A multinomial logistic regression reveals that gated communities, higher priced housing, motorways and bus stops are associated with children accompanied by adults. The presence of pedestrian streets is associated with children travelling alone and in groups. Greater travel distance is also associated with parents accompanying children on foot or on e-bike. The amount of play space is associated with children leaving school in groups. Overall, social and environmental factors are influential in the independent travel of primary school children after the school day ends in south China.
Project description:Background:Undisputedly, traffic crashes constitute a public health concern whose impact and importance have been increasing during the past few decades. Specifically, road safety data have systematically shown how cyclists are highly vulnerable to suffering traffic crashes and severe injuries derived from them. Furthermore, although the empirical evidence is still very limited in this regard, in addition to other human factors involved in cycling crashes, distractions while cycling appear to be a major contributor to the road risk of cyclists. Objectives:The main objectives of this study were, first, to explore the prevalence and trends of cycling distractions within an international sample of bike users, and second, to determine the influence of such distractions on road crashes suffered by cyclists, simultaneously considering the explanatory role of risky behaviors (errors and traffic violations) as potentially mediating variables between cycling distractions and traffic crashes. Methods:For this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data obtained from 1,064 cyclists-61.2% male and 38.8% female-from 20 different countries, who answered an on-line questionnaire on cycling-related features, habits, behaviors and accidents. Results:The prevalence of different cycling distractions oscillated between 34.7% and 83.6%. The most common distractions were those related to the behavior of other users, physical elements of the road, weather conditions and phone calls. Age trends and differences were also found, thus establishing a positive association between age and distractibility during cycling. Furthermore, the effect of distractions on traffic crashes of cyclists was significant when tested together with age, risk perception and risky behaviors on the road. Conclusion:The results of this study support the hypotheses that distractions have a major prevalence among bike users, and that they play a significant role in the prediction of the traffic crash rates of cyclists, through the mediation of risky behaviors.
Project description:Positive activity behaviours (i.e. higher physical activity [PA]/lower sedentary behaviour [SB]) are beneficial from infancy, yet evidence suggests that young children (0- to 6-year-olds) are relatively inactive. To better understand the perceived influences on these behaviours and to aid intervention development, this paper systematically synthesizes the extensive qualitative literature regarding perceived barriers and facilitators to PA and SB in young children (0-6 years old). A search of eight electronic databases (July 2016) identified 43 papers for inclusion. Data extraction and evidence synthesis were conducted using thematic content analysis, underpinned by the socio-ecological model (i.e. individual, interpersonal, community, organizational and policy levels). Parents, childcare providers and children perceived seven broad themes to be important for PA and SB, including the child; the home; out-of-home childcare; parent-childcare provider interactions; environmental factors; safety; and weather. Each theme mapped onto between one and five levels of the socio-ecological model; barriers and facilitators at the interpersonal level (e.g. parents, care providers and family) were most frequently cited, reflecting the important (perceived) role adults/peers play in shaping young children's behaviours. We provide an overarching framework to explain PA and SB in early childhood. We also highlight where gaps in the current literature exist (e.g. from male carers; in developing countries; and barriers and facilitators in the environmental and policy domains) and where future quantitative work may focus to provide novel insights about children's activity behaviours (e.g. safety and weather).
Project description:Large-scale analyses on the travel behavior of e-bikes are scarce, and current knowledge regarding who the e-bike owners are is inconsistent. Also, commuters represent a relevant user group with an unexploited potential. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine (i) associations between type of bike (e-bike vs. regular bike) with place of residence (county), sociodemographic variables (age, sex, educational level, income and ethnicity) and habitual physical activity level, and (ii) if public employees possessing an e-bike cycle more often and longer distances to work. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2017 among 1977 (5.2% of eligible subjects) public employees in Southern and Western Norway. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted. Respondents possessing an e-bike were less likely to perform high levels of leisure time physical activity (OR 0.56 (CI 0.39-0.82)), compared to those possessing a regular bike only. For those residing in Agder, the likelihood of possessing an e-bike (vs. regular bike) was almost 4 times higher (OR 3.98 (CI 2.53-6.26)), compared with participants residing in Sogn og Fjordane. Compared with those possessing a regular bike only, e-bike users cycled more frequently to work, both occasionally (OR 3.71 (CI 2.44-5.65)) and most of the time (OR 4.28 (CI 2.79-6.55)), and they had higher odds of cycling medium distances to the workplace (OR 1.74 (CI 1.04-2.90)). In conclusion, e-bike access could result in increased commuter cycling, both in terms of cycling frequency and cycling distance, which in turn could contribute to enhanced physical activity levels.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Two-wheel bike riding can be a goal for children with cerebral palsy (CP) and a means of participating in physical activity. It is possible for some children with CP to ride a two-wheel bike; however, currently far fewer can ride compared with their typically developing peers. Evidence supports training targeted towards goals of the child with CP and their family; yet there is little evidence to guide best-practice bike skills training. Task-specific training may lead to attainment of two-wheel bike-specific goals. This study aims to determine if a novel task-specific approach to training two-wheel bike skills is more effective than a parent-led home programme for attaining individualised two-wheel bike-specific goals in independently ambulant children with CP aged 6-15 years. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Sixty eligible children with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-II) aged 6-15 years with goals relating to riding a two-wheel bike will be randomised to either a novel task-specific centre-based group programme (intervention) or a parent-led home-based programme (comparison), both involving a 1-week intervention period. The primary outcome is goal attainment in the week following the intervention period (T1). Secondary outcomes include: goal attainment and participation in physical activity at 3?months postintervention (T2) and bike skills, attendance and involvement in bike riding, self-perception and functional skills at T1 and T2. Economic appraisal will involve cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses. Adherence of clinicians and parents to the intervention and comparison protocols will be assessed. Linear and logistic regression will be used to assess the effect of the intervention, adjusted for site as used in the randomisation process. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at The Royal Children's Hospital (#36209). Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03003026; Pre-results.
Project description:Increasing population levels of cycling has the potential to improve public health by increasing physical activity. As cyclists have begun using smartphone apps to record trips, researchers have begun using data generated from these apps to monitor cycling levels and evaluate cycling-related interventions. The goal of this research is to assess the extent to which app-using cyclists represent the broader cycling population to inform whether use of app-generated data in bike-infrastructure intervention research may bias effect estimates. Using an intercept survey, we asked 95 cyclists throughout Atlanta, Georgia, USA about their use of GPS-based smartphone apps to record bike rides. We asked respondents to draw their common bike routes, from which we assessed the proportion of ridership captured by app-generated data sources overall and on types of bicycle infrastructure. We measured socio-demographics and bike-riding habits, including cyclist type, ride frequency, and most common ride purpose. Cyclists who used smartphone apps to record their bike rides differed from those who did not across some but not all socio-demographic characteristics and differed in several bike-riding attributes. App users rode more frequently, self-classified as stronger riders, and rode proportionately more for leisure. Although groups had similar infrastructure preferences at the person level, differences appeared at the level of the estimated ride, where, for example, the proportion of ridership captured by an app on protected bike lanes was lower than the overall proportion of ridership captured. A sample calculation illustrated how such differences may induce selection bias in smartphone-data-based research on infrastructure and motor-vehicle-cyclist crash risk. We illustrate in the sample scenario how the bias can be corrected, assuming inverse-probability-of-selection weights can be accurately specified. The presented bias-adjustment method may be useful for future bike-infrastructure research using smartphone-generated data.