Adaptive tutorials versus web-based resources in radiology: a mixed methods analysis in junior doctors of efficacy and engagement.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Radiology education is limited in undergraduate Medicine programs. Junior doctors might not have the necessary background to effectively order and interpret diagnostic imaging investigations. Furthermore, junior doctors are often time-poor, balancing clinical commitments with ongoing learning, leadership and teaching responsibilities. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of radiology-themed online adaptive tutorials for senior medical students. Such adaptive tutorials might therefore be an efficient and effective form of radiology education for junior doctors. METHODS:A randomised controlled crossover trial was performed to evaluate the impact of adaptive tutorials on learning the indications for, and interpretation of, basic imaging studies, compared with peer-reviewed web-based resources. Ninety-one volunteer junior doctors, comprising 53 postgraduate year 1 (PGY 1) and 38 postgraduate year 2 (PGY 2), were randomly allocated into two groups. In the first phase of the trial, focusing on head CT, one group accessed adaptive tutorials while the other received web-based resources. In the second phase of the trial, focusing on chest CT, the groups crossed over. Following each phase of the trial, participants completed exam-style online assessments. At the conclusion of the study, participants also completed an online questionnaire regarding perceived engagement and efficacy of each type of educational resource. RESULTS:Junior doctors completed the adaptive tutorials significantly faster than the relevant web-based resources for both head CT and chest CT (p =?0.03 and?
Project description:To obtain medical students' evaluation of the quality of undergraduate radiology teaching received, preferred teaching methods and resources. This is a follow-up project to an earlier study of junior doctors who felt that radiology teaching left them ill prepared for medical practice.A questionnaire to third and fifth year medical students undertaking clinical rotations at Newcastle University, UK.The questionnaire was completed by 57/60 (95 %) of third and 37/40 (93 %) of final year medical students. Students received minimal radiology teaching in pre-clinical years, feeling this was insufficient. The majority of students rated interactive case-based teaching as effective. Self-directed learning resources such as textbooks, journals and even online learning modules were perceived as less effective. Other types of web resources rated higher. Motivation for most students when studying radiology was to achieve learning objectives needed to pass their next exams and/or to improve as a doctor.Medical students criticise the lack of radiology teaching in pre-clinical undergraduate years. Radiology teaching should be represented in all undergraduate years, preferably delivered via interactive teaching sessions. Currently available e-learning modules do not meet the students' learning needs and there is a call for reliable, up-to-date open access electronic resources.• Radiology teaching should be represented in all pre-clinical and clinical undergraduate years. • Medical students rate interactive case-based teaching sessions as very effective. • There is a call for reliable, up-to-date open access electronic resources for medical students.
Project description:This study uses data from a Rural Clinical School of Western Australia (RCSWA) and WA Country Health (WACHS) study on rural work intentions among junior doctors to explore their internal decision-making processes and gain a better understanding of how junior doctors make decisions along their career pathway. This was a qualitative study involving junior doctor participants in postgraduate years (PGY) 1 to 5 undergoing training in Western Australia (WA). Data was collected through semi-structured telephone interviews. Two main themes were identified: career decision-making as an on-going process; and early career doctors' internal decision-making process, which fell broadly into two groups ('explorers' and 'planners'). Both groups of junior doctors require ongoing personalised career advice, training pathways, and career development opportunities that best "fit" their internal decision-making processes for the purposes of enhancing rural workforce outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a serious infectious disease that causes severe respiratory illness. This pandemic represents a serious public health risk. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis is essential to control disease progression. Radiological examination plays a crucial role in the early identification and management of infected patients. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review was to identify the diagnostic value of different imaging modalities used for diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS:A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The keywords diagnostic imaging, radiology, respiratory infection, pneumonia, coronavirus infection and COVID-19 were used to identify radiology articles focusing on the diagnosis of COVID-19 and to determine the diagnostic value of various imaging modalities, including x-ray, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine for identification and management of infected patients. RESULTS:We identified 50 articles in the literature search. Studies that investigated the diagnostic roles and imaging features of patients with COVID-19, using either chest CT, lung ultrasound, chest x-ray, or positron emission topography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, were discussed. Of these imaging modalities, chest x-ray and CT scan are the most commonly used for diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients, with chest CT scan being more accurate and sensitive in identifying COVID-19 at early stages. Only a few studies have investigated the roles of ultrasound and PET/CT scan in diagnosing COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS:Chest CT scan remains the most sensitive imaging modality in initial diagnosis and management of suspected and confirmed patients with COVID-19. Other diagnostic imaging modalities could add value in evaluating disease progression and monitoring critically ill patients with COVID-19.
Project description:Objective:Junior doctors routinely request radiological investigations for patients. Prior studies have noted that among this group there is a lack of knowledge on radiation legislation and radiation exposure in common radiological investigations. However, no studies have compared this against radiology trainees and radiographers. We compared knowledge of radiation legislation and radiation exposure in common radiological investigations among final year medical students (FYMS), foundation year doctors (FY1, FY2) against specialist radiology trainees (SRT) and radiographers (RG). Methods:A 12-question multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) was distributed to FYMS, FY1, FY2, SRT and RG at a UK teaching hospital. Questions assessed knowledge of radiation legislation and radiation-dose estimates of common radiological investigations. Mean MCQ scores were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-test to determine statistical significance (p-value < 0.05). Results:127 participants were included in the study. Mean scores (%) for FYMS (49.3%), FY1 (52.6%) and FY2 (51.1%) were significantly lower compared to SRT (64.4%) and RG (66.3%) (p-value < 0.05). Mean test scores between FYMS, FY1 and FY2 did not significantly differ (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion:FYMS, FY1 and FY2 knowledge of radiation legislation and radiation exposure in common radiological investigations was poor compared to SRT and RG. Patients require knowledge of radiation risk to provide informed consent as per IRMER regulations, thus we propose formal teaching on the subject matter to promote radiation safety culture among medical undergraduates and postgraduates. Advances in knowledge:First study to compare knowledge of radiation legislation and radiation exposure in common radiological investigations between medical students and junior doctors to radiology trainees and radiographers.
Project description:Sternalis muscle (SM) is an anatomical variant that lies parallel to the sternum. It is present in (8%) of human population. Awareness about its presence during thoracic imaging is important, since it might be misdiagnosed as a tumor. This study is the first that discusses the prevalence of SM in the Jordanian population and document the level of awareness about SM among intern doctors and surgery and radiology residents. Our aims are to know the prevalence of SM in the Jordanian population, using thoracic multi-detector computerized tomography (CT) images, and to assess the awareness about SM among a sample of intern and resident Jordanian physicians. Random anonymous axial thoracic multi-detector CT images of 1,709 (801 females and 908 males) Jordanian patients, were examined for the presence or absence of unilateral and/or bilateral SM. A questionnaire aiming to identify SM was distributed among 175 intern doctors, 26 surgery resident and 28 radiology resident doctors, their answers were summarized. The prevalence of SM among Jordanians is 5.9%. The prevalence of unilateral SM is 2.1% on the right side of the thorax and 1.9% on the left side, bilateral prevalence was 1.8%. While 35.7% of the radiology residents could identify SM using CT and/or anatomy images, only 3.9% of surgery residents and none of the intern doctors could. We concluded that SM is present in the Jordanian population, with a prevalence of 5.9% which falls within the global average. Intern doctors and surgery and radiology residents are almost unaware and unfamiliar about SM.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Development of surgical skills is an integral component of residency education in obstetrics and gynecology. OBJECTIVE: We report data from a supervised, deliberate, dry lab practice in hysteroscopy for junior obstetrics-gynecology residents, undertaken to evaluate whether simulation training improved hysteroscopy performance to a skill level similar to that of senior residents. METHODS: A prospective, comparative, multicenter trial compared Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills (OSATS) performance of 2 groups: 19 postgraduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2 and 18 PGY-3 and PGY-4 Ob-Gyn residents. PGY-1 and PGY-2 participants underwent 4 sessions of brief, deliberate, focused training in hysteroscope assembly and operative hysteroscopic polypectomy using uterine models. Subsequently, all participants completed a simulated hysteroscopic polypectomy OSATS, and procedure times and structured assessment scores were compared among groups. RESULTS: PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents who had completed OSATS training performed at or above the level of untrained PGY-3 and PGY-4 residents. Junior residents had better assembly times and scores, resection scores, and global skills scores (P < .05). Resection times did not differ between groups but differed among institutions. DISCUSSION: Brief, hands-on training sessions, which were task-specific and repetitive facilitated short-term gains in learning operative hysteroscopy and increased the dry lab skill level of junior residents compared to that of senior residents. This curriculum was effectively implemented at 3 institutions and generated comparable results, suggesting generalizability.
Project description:Background The role and performance of chest CT in the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains under active investigation. Purpose To evaluate the French national experience using Chest CT for COVID-19, results of chest CT and RT-PCR were compared together and with the final discharge diagnosis used as reference standard. Materials and Methods A structured CT scan survey (NCT04339686) was sent to 26 hospital radiology departments in France between March 2 and April 24 2020. These dates correspond to the peak of the national COVID-19 epidemic. Radiology departments were selected to reflect the estimated geographical prevalence heterogeneities of the epidemic. All symptomatic patients suspected of having a COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent within 48 hours both initial chest CT and at least one RT-PCR testing were included. The final discharge diagnosis, based on multiparametric items, was recorded. Data for each center were prospectively collected and gathered each week. Test efficacy was determined by using Mann-Whitney Test, Student's t-test, Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation. A p value <.05 determined statistical significance. Results Twenty-six of 26 hospital radiology departments responded to the survey with 7500 patients entered; 2652 did not have RT-PCR results or had unknown or excess delay between RT-PCR and CT. After exclusions, 4824 patients (mean age 64, ± 19 yrs, 2669 males) were included. Using final diagnosis as the reference, 2564 of the 4824 patients were positive for COVID-19 (53%). Sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of chest CT for diagnosing COVID-19 were 2319/2564 (90%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 89, 91), 2056/2260 (91%, 95%CI: 91, 92%), 2056/2300 (89%, 95%CI; 87, 90%) and 2319/2524 (92%, 95%CI 91, 93%) respectively. There was no significant difference for chest CT efficacy among the 26 geographically separate sites, each with varying amounts of disease prevalence. Conclusion Use of chest CT for the initial diagnosis and triage of suspected COVID-19 patients was successful.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The interventional radiology (IR) trainee recruitment in the UK is lagging behind the pace of service expansion and is potentially hindered by underrepresented undergraduate curricula. Understanding the contributing factors that encourage junior doctors and medical students to consider an IR career will help the IR community to better focus the efforts on recruiting and nurturing the next generation. METHODS:Anonymised questionnaires on undergraduate and postgraduate IR exposure were distributed to attendees of five UK IR symposia between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS:220 responses were received from 103 (47%) junior doctors and 117 (53%) medical students. Prior IR exposure strongly correlates with individuals' positive views towards an IR career (Pearson's R = 0.40, p < 0.001), with involvement in clinical activities as the most important independent contributor (OR 3.6, 95%CI 1.21-10.50, p = 0.021). Longer time spent in IR (especially as elective modules) and IR-related portfolio-building experiences (such as participating in research, attending conferences and obtaining career guidance) demonstrate strong association with willingness to pursue an IR career for the more motivated (p values < 0.05). The symposia had overall positive effects on subjective likelihood to pursue an IR career, particularly among junior doctors who face near-term career choices (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Our study, focusing on a self-selected cohort, identified contributing factors to individuals' willingness to pursue an IR career. Symposia have additional recruitment effects in extra-curricular settings. Active engagement with junior doctors and medical students through clinical activities and non-clinical portfolio-related experiences are key to generate informed and motivated candidates for the future of IR.
Project description:Junior doctors often have concerns about quality and safety but show low levels of engagement with incident reporting systems. We aimed to develop and pilot a web-based reporting tool for junior doctors to proactively report concerns about quality and safety of care, and optimise it for future use.We developed the gripes tool with input from junior doctors and piloted it at a large UK teaching hospital trust. We evaluated the tool through an analysis of concerns reported over a 3-month pilot period, and through interviews with five stakeholders and two focus groups with medical students and junior doctors about their views of the tool.Junior doctors reported 111 concerns during piloting, including a number of problems previously unknown to the trust. Junior doctors felt the tool was easy to use and encouraged them to report. Barriers to engagement included lack of motivation of junior doctors to report concerns, and fear of repercussions. Ensuring transparency about who would see reported concerns, and providing feedback across whole cohorts of junior doctors about concerns raised and how these had been addressed to improve patient safety at the trust, were seen having the potential to mitigate against these barriers. Sustainability of the tool was seen as requiring a revised model of staffing to share the load for responding to concerns and ongoing efforts to integrate the tool and data with other local systems for gathering intelligence about risks and incidents. Following piloting the trust committed to continuing to operate the gripes tool on an ongoing basis.The gripes tool has the potential to enable trusts to proactively monitor and address risks to patient safety, but sustainability is likely to be dependent on organisational commitment to staffing the system and perceptions of added value over the longer term.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim is to review current literature related to the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of suspected and confirmed Covid-19 cases. KEY FINDINGS:Medical Imaging plays an important auxiliary role in the diagnosis of Covid-19 patients, mainly those most seriously affected. Practice differs widely among different countries, mainly due to the variability of access to resources (viral testing and imaging equipment, specialised staff, protective equipment). It has been now well-documented that chest radiographs should be the first-line imaging tool and chest CT should only be reserved for critically ill patients, or when chest radiograph and clinical presentation may be inconclusive. CONCLUSION:As radiographers work on the frontline, they should be aware of the potential risks associated with Covid-19 and engage in optimal strategies to reduce these. Their role in vetting, conducting and often reporting the imaging examinations is vital, as well as their contribution in patient safety and care. Medical Imaging should be limited to critically ill patients, and where it may have an impact on the patient management plan. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:At the time of publication, this review offers the most up-to-date recommendations for clinical practitioners in radiology departments, including radiographers. Radiography practice has to significantly adjust to these new requirements to support optimal and safe imaging practices for the diagnosis of Covid-19. The adoption of low dose CT, rigorous infection control protocols and optimal use of personal protective equipment may reduce the potential risks of radiation exposure and infection, respectively, within Radiology departments.