First echinoderm alpha-amylase from a tropical sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, cellular localization and functional production in a heterogenous E.coli system with codon optimization.
ABSTRACT: Holothuria leucospilota (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is a widespread tropical sea cucumber with strong value for the ecological restoration of coral reefs. Therefore, some studies regarding the artificial breeding and cultivation of H. leucospilota have been undertaken recently. However, the biological functions of the digestive system of this species have not been elucidated. In this study, a cDNA coding for ?-amylase, an indicator of digestive maturity in animals, was identified from H. leucospilota and designated Hl-Amy. The full-length cDNA of the Hl-Amy gene, which is 1734 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1578 bp, encodes a 525 amino acid (a.a.) protein with a deduced molecular weight of 59.34 kDa. According to the CaZy database annotation, Hl-Amy belongs to the class of GH-H with the official nomenclature of ?-amylase (EC 22.214.171.124) or 4-?-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. The Hl-Amy protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal followed by a functional amylase domain, which includes the catalytic activity site. The mRNA expression of Hl-Amy was abundantly exhibited in the intestine, followed by the transverse vessel with a low level, but was hardly detected in other selected tissues. During embryonic and larval development, Hl-Amy was constitutively expressed in all stages, and the highest expression level was observed in the blastula. By in situ hybridization (ISH), positive Hl-Amy signals were observed in different parts of the three different intestinal segments (foregut, midgut and hindgut). The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was generated in an E. coli system with codon optimization, which is necessary for Hl-Amy successfully expressed in this heterogenous system. The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), and its activity of starch hydrolysis was further detected. The optimal temperatures and pH for Hl-Amy recombinant protein were 55°C and 6.0, respectively, with an activity of 62.2 U/mg. In summary, this current study has filled a knowledge gap on the biological function and expression profiles of an essential digestive enzyme in sea cucumber, which may encourage future investigation toward rationalized diets for H. leucospilota in artificial cultivation, and optimized heterogenous prokaryotic systems for producing recombinant enzymes of marine origins.
Project description:In order to minimize re-discovery of already known anti-infective compounds, we focused our screening approach on understudied, almost untapped marine environments including marine invertebrates and their associated bacteria. Therefore, two sea cucumber species, Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus vastus, were collected from Lampung (Indonesia), and 127 bacterial strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA-gene sequencing analysis and compared with the NCBI database. In addition, the overall bacterial diversity from tissue samples of the sea cucumbers H. leucospilota and S. vastus was analyzed using the cultivation-independent Illumina MiSEQ analysis. Selected bacterial isolates were grown to high densities and the extracted biomass was tested against a selection of bacteria and fungi as well as the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Identification of putative bioactive bacterial-derived compounds were performed by analyzing the accurate mass of the precursor/parent ions (MS1) as well as product/daughter ions (MS2) using high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of all active fractions. With this attempt we were able to identify 23 putatively known and two previously unidentified precursor ions. Moreover, through 16S rRNA-gene sequencing we were able to identify putatively novel bacterial species from the phyla Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and also Firmicutes. Our findings suggest that sea cucumbers like H. leucospilota and S. vastus are promising sources for the isolation of novel bacterial species that produce compounds with potentially high biotechnological potential.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota belongs to echinoderm, which is evolutionally the most primitive group of deuterostomes. Sea cucumber has a cavity between its digestive tract and the body wall that is filled with fluid and suspended coelomic cells similar to blood cells. The humoral immune response of the sea cucumber is based on the secretion of various immune factors from coelomocytes into the coelomic cavity. The aim of this study is to lay out a foundation for the immune mechanisms in echinoderms and their origins in chordates by using RNA-seq. RESULTS:Sea cucumber primary coelomocytes were isolated from healthy H. leucospilota and incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10??g/ml), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C), 10??g/ml] and heat-inactived Vibrio harveyi (107 cell/ml) for 24?h, respectively. After high-throughput mRNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq2500, a de novo transcriptome was assembled and the Unigenes were annotated. Thirteen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected randomly from our data and subsequently verified by using RT-qPCR. The results of RT-qPCR were consistent with those of the RNA-seq (R2?=?0.61). The top 10 significantly enriched signaling pathways and immune-related pathways of the common and unique DEGs were screened from the transcriptome data. Twenty-one cytokine candidate DEGs were identified, which belong to 4 cytokine families, namely, BCL/CLL, EPRF1, IL-17 and TSP/TPO. Gene expression in response to LPS dose-increased treatment (0, 10, 20 and 50??g/ml) showed that IL-17 family cytokines were significantly upregulated after 10??g/ml LPS challenge for 24?h. CONCLUSION:A de novo transcriptome was sequenced and assembled to generate the gene expression profiling across the sea cucumber coelomocytes treated with LPS, Poly (I:C) and V. harveyi. The cytokine genes identified in DEGs could be classified into 4 cytokine families, in which the expression of IL-17 family cytokines was most significantly induced after 10??g/ml LPS challenge for 24?h. Our findings have laid the foundation not only for the research of molecular mechanisms related to the immune response in echinoderms but also for their origins in chordates, particularly in higher vertebrates.
Project description:This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two Malaysian sea cucumber species.
Project description:?-Amylase is a common enzyme for hydrolyzing starch. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), ?-amylase is found in both digestive fluid and hemolymph. Here, the complete genomic sequence of the Amy gene encoding ?-amylase from a local Thai silkworm, the Nanglai strain, was obtained. This gene was 7981 bp long with 9 exons. The full length Amy cDNA sequence was 1749 bp containing a 1503 bp open reading frame. The ORF encoded 500 amino acid residues. The deduced protein showed 81-54% identity to other insect ?-amylases and more than 50% identity to mammalian enzymes. Southern blot analysis revealed that in the Nanglai strain Amy is a single-copy gene. RT- PCR showed that Amy was transcribed only in the foregut. Transgenic B. mori also showed that the Amy promoter activates expression of the transgene only in the foregut.
Project description:Recombinant chimeric ?-amylase (Ba-Gt-amy) has been produced extracellularly in <i>Pichia pastoris</i> under <i>AOX</i> promoter. Clones of <i>P. pastoris</i> with multiple gene copies have been generated by multiple transformations and post-transformational vector amplification, which led to 10.7-fold enhancement in ?-amylase titre as compared to a clone with a copy of the gene. The recombinant <i>P. pastoris</i> integrated eight copies of <i>Ba-Gt-amy</i> in the genome of <i>P. pastoris</i>, as revealed by real time PCR data analysis. Heterologous protein expression as well as mRNA level of <i>Ba-Gt-amy</i> was higher in multi-copy clone than that with single copy. The pure Ba-Gt-amy expressed in <i>P. pastoris</i> is a glycoprotein of 75 kDa, which is optimally active at pH 4.0 and 60°C with T<sub>1/2</sub> of 40 min at 70°C. The Kinetic parameters and end product analysis suggested that glycosylation has no effect on catalytic properties of Ba-Gt-amy. The enzyme saccharifies soluble as well as raw starches efficiently and generates maltose and maltooligosaccharides, thus, useful in baking and sugar syrup industries. The strategy for generating multi-copy clones is being reported for the first time, which could be useful in enhancing the production of other recombinant proteins.
Project description:As the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, Aves possesses diverse feeding habits, with multiple origins of insectivory, carnivory, frugivory, nectarivory, granivory and omnivory. Since digestive enzymes mediate and limit energy and nutrient uptake, we hypothesized that genes encoding digestive enzymes have undergone adaptive evolution in birds. To test this general hypothesis, we identified 16 digestive enzyme genes (including seven carbohydrase genes (hepatic amy, pancreatic amy, salivary amy, agl, g6pc, gaa and gck), three lipase genes (cyp7a1, lipf and pnlip), two protease genes (ctrc and pgc), two lysozyme genes (lyz and lyg) and two chitinase genes (chia and chit1)) from the available genomes of 48 bird species. Among these 16 genes, three (salivary amy, lipf and chit1) were not found in all 48 avian genomes, which was further supported by our synteny analysis. Of the remaining 13 genes, eight were single-copy and five (chia, gaa, lyz, lyg and pgc) were multi-copy. Moreover, the multi-copy genes gaa, lyg and pgc were predicted to exhibit functional divergence among copies. Positively selected sites were detected in all of the analyzed digestive enzyme genes, except agl, g6pc, gaa and gck, suggesting that different diets may have favored differences in catalytic capacities of these enzymes. Furthermore, the analysis also revealed that the pancreatic amylase gene and one of the lipase genes (cyp7a1) have higher ? (the ratio of nonsynonymous to the synonymous substitution rates) values in species consuming a larger amount of seeds and meat, respectively, indicating an intense selection. In addition, the gck carbohydrase gene in species consuming a smaller amount of seeds, fruits or nectar, and a lipase gene (pnlip) in species consuming less meat were found to be under relaxed selection. Thus, gene loss, gene duplication, functional divergence, positive selection and relaxed selection have collectively shaped the evolution of digestive enzymes in birds, and the evolutionary flexibility of these enzymes may have facilitated their dietary diversification.
Project description:The present study describes the simultaneous expression of thermostable industrial alpha (?) and beta (?) amylase enzymes that have been used widely in starch industry. Genomic DNA of Bacillus stearothermophilus DSM 22 strain for ? amylase and, Thermoanaerobacterium (Clostridium) thermosulfurogenes DSM 2229 strain for ? amylase were used as gene sources. Both genes were ligated into pETDuet-1 expression vector separately and resulting recombinant vectors were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 competent cells by electroporation. The cells were first transformed by pETDuet-1/ ?Amy recombinant plasmid, then the competent cells carrying this plasmid were prepared for the transformation of pETDuet-1/ ?Amy plasmid. Enzymatic activities of bacterial colonies were detected on LB agar staining with iodide. Both enzymes were more produced by IPTG induction in BL21 cells and were purified using Ni-NTA agarose column. SDS-PAGE and western blot analyses showed that the molecular weight of purified ? and ? amylase to be approximately 60 kDa and 55kDa, respectively. The concentration of the purified ? and ? amylase were calculated as 4.59 ?g/mL and 3.17 ?g/mL with IPTG as an inducer in LB medium. The present study proposes a novel and efficient method for the production of thermostable ? and ? amylases at the same E coli cells containing separate engineered plasmid vectors.
Project description:Wild sea cucumber resources have been rapidly exhausted and therefore there is an urgent need to develop approaches that will help restocking. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding the genes involved in sea cucumber reproductive processes. The neurohormone relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) has been identified as the active gonad-stimulating peptide in sea stars (Asteroidea), which could also be present in other echinoderm groups. In this study, a sea cucumber RGP was identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. A recombinant Holothuria scabra RGP was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris and confirmed by mass spectrometry. To assess bioactivity, four levels of purification were tested in an in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) bioassay. The most pure form induced 98.56 ± 1.19% GVBD in H. scabra and 89.57 ± 1.19% GVBD in Holothuria leucospilota. Cruder levels of purification still resulted in some GVBD. Upon single injection into female H. scabra, the recombinant RGP induced head waving behavior followed by spawning within 90-170 min. Spawned oocytes were fertilized successfully, larvae settled and developed into juveniles. Our results provide a key finding for the development of a break-through new artificial breeding approach in sea cucumber aquaculture.
Project description:Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding alpha-amylases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong similarity (60% amino acid identity) to the intracellular alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis and, in common with this enzyme, lacked a signal sequence. Amylase activity was found only in S. mutans cell extracts, with no activity detected in culture supernatants. Inactivation of amy by insertion of an antibiotic resistance marker confirmed that S. mutans has a single alpha-amylase activity. The amylase activity was induced by maltose but not by starch, and no acid was produced from starch. S. mutans can, however, transport limit dextrins and maltooligosaccharides generated by salivary amylase, but inactivation of amy did not affect growth on these substrates or acid production. The amylase digested the glycogen-like intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) purified from S. mutans, but the amy mutant was able to digest and produce acid from IPS; thus, amylase does not appear to be essential for IPS breakdown. However, when grown on excess maltose, the amy mutant produced nearly threefold the amount of IPS produced by the parent strain. The role of Amy has not been established, but Amy appears to be important in the accumulation of IPS in S. mutans grown on maltose.