A Macromolecule Reversing Antibiotic Resistance Phenotype and Repurposing Drugs as Potent Antibiotics.
ABSTRACT: In order to mitigate antibiotic resistance, a new strategy to increase antibiotic potency and reverse drug resistance is needed. Herein, the translocation mechanism of an antimicrobial guanidinium-functionalized polycarbonate is leveraged in combination with traditional antibiotics to afford a potent treatment for drug-resistant bacteria. Particularly, this polymer-antibiotic combination approach reverses rifampicin resistance phenotype in Acinetobacter baumannii demonstrating a 2.5 × 105-fold reduction in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a 4096-fold reduction in minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). This approach also enables the repurposing of auranofin as an antibiotic against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria with a 512-fold MIC and 128-fold MBC reduction, respectively. Finally, the in vivo efficacy of polymer-rifampicin combination is demonstrated in a MDR bacteremia mouse model. This combination approach lays foundational ground rules for a new class of antibiotic adjuvants capable of reversing drug resistance phenotype and repurposing drugs against MDR Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:This work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from thirteen Cameroonian edible plants and their antibiotic-potentiating effects against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts, as well as their antibiotic-potentiating activities. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to the standard methods. The results of phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, polyphenols, and tannins in most of the tested extracts, with the other classes of secondary metabolites being selectively distributed. Tested extracts showed variable antibacterial activities with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024?<i>?</i>g/mL. However, some extracts were significantly active against certain bacterial strains: seeds extract of <i>Theobroma cacao</i> (64?<i>?</i>g/mL) against <i>Escherichia coli</i> AG100Atet and <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> K24, and the bark extract of <i>Uapaca guineensis</i> against <i>E. coli</i> ATCC 8739. The leaves extract of <i>T. cacao</i> displayed the best MBC values (256?<i>?</i>g/mL) against <i>E. aerogenes</i> EA27. Some tested extracts included extracts from the leaves of <i>T. cacao</i> and <i>P. vulgaris,</i> and the seeds of <i>D. edulis</i> and barks <i>A. indica</i> has selectively improved (2- to 64-fold) the antibacterial activities of some of the tested antibiotics, chloramphenicol (CHL), tetracycline (TET), kanamycin (KAN), streptomycin (STR), and erythromycin (ERY), against more than 70% of tested MDR bacteria. The findings of this work showed that tested plant extracts and particularly those from <i>T. cacao</i> and <i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i> can be used alone or in combination with conventional antibiotics in the treatment of infections involving multiresistant bacteria.
Project description:Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are rare but long-lasting and are serious complications without any spontaneous resolution, requiring additional surgery and long-term treatment with antibiotics. Staphylococci are the most important aetiological agents of PJIs, and among the coagulase-negative staphylococci Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common. However, S. epidermidis often displays multidrug resistance (MDR), demanding additional treatment options. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of tedizolid and linezolid against S. epidermidis isolated from PJIs. The standard antibiotic susceptibility pattern of S. epidermidis (n = 183) obtained from PJIs was determined by disc diffusion test, and MIC was determined by Etest for tedizolid, linezolid, and vancomycin. Tedizolid displayed MIC values ranging from 0.094 to 0.5 mg/L (MIC50: 0.19 mg/L, MIC90: 0.38 mg/L), linezolid MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 2 mg/L (MIC50: 0.75 mg/L, MIC90: 1 mg/L), and vancomycin MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 3 mg/L (MIC50 and MIC90 both 2 mg/L). According to the disc diffusion test, 153/183 (84%) isolates were resistant to ≥3 antibiotic groups, indicating MDR. In conclusion, S. epidermidis isolates from PJIs were fully susceptible, and the MIC50 and MIC90 values for tedizolid were two- to four-fold dilution steps lower compared with linezolid. Tedizolid is not approved, and there are no reports of long-term treatment, but it may display better tolerability and fewer adverse effects than linezolid; it thus could be a possible treatment option for PJIs, alone or in combination with rifampicin.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance poses an increasingly grave threat to the public health. Of pressing concern, rapid spread of carbapenem-resistance among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative rods (GNR) is associated with few treatment options and high mortality rates. Current antibiotic susceptibility testing guiding patient management is performed in a standardized manner, identifying minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in bacteriologic media, but ignoring host immune factors. Lacking activity in standard MIC testing, azithromycin (AZM), the most commonly prescribed antibiotic in the U.S., is never recommended for MDR GNR infection. Here we report a potent bactericidal action of AZM against MDR carbapenem-resistant isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii. This pharmaceutical activity is associated with enhanced AZM cell penetration in eukaryotic tissue culture media and striking multi-log-fold synergies with host cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 or the last line antibiotic colistin. Finally, AZM monotherapy exerts clear therapeutic effects in murine models of MDR GNR infection. Our results suggest that AZM, currently ignored as a treatment option, could benefit patients with MDR GNR infections, especially in combination with colistin.
Project description:The lack of therapeutic options to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria, is apparent. Therefore, it is imperative to develop new strategies to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance. Repurposing non-antibiotic commercial drugs for antimicrobial therapy presents a viable option. We screened six anticancer drugs for their potential use in antimicrobial therapy. Here, we provide in vitro evidence that suggests feasibility to repurpose the anticancer drug mitomycin C against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that mitomycin C, etoposide and doxorubicin were affected by drug efflux in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In combination with a tobramycin-ciprofloxacin antibiotic hybrid (TOB-CIP), the antibacterial activity of mitomycin C was enhanced against MDR clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae. In fact, 4 ?g/mL (3 ?M) TOB-CIP reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of mitomycin C to ?1 ?g/mL against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, except A. baumannii. We showed that synergy was inherent to TOB-CIP and that neither tobramycin nor ciprofloxacin individually synergized with mitomycin C. Our finding supports identifying adjuvant partners for mitomycin C, such as TOB-CIP, to enhance suitability for antimicrobial therapy.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to study the presence of mutators in a set of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and to explore whether there is a correlation between mutation rates and antibiotic resistance.The variation in mutation rate was evaluated for 237 clinical A. baumannii isolates by determining the frequency of their mutation to rifampicin resistance. For each isolate, the antibiotic resistance profile was determined by disc diffusion and/or Etest. Isolates were divided into susceptible, resistant and MDR groups according to their resistance to five groups of different antibiotics. A comparison between differences in mutation frequency (f) and strain-specific factors was performed.Of the 237 isolates 32%, 18% and 50% were classified as susceptible, resistant and MDR, respectively. The f of rifampicin resistance varied between 2.2?×?10(-10) and 1.2?×?10(-6). Of the strains under investigation, 16% had an ?2.5- to 166-fold higher f. The presence of mutators (definition ?2.5-fold increase in f compared with ATCC 19606) in the MDR group (22%) was significantly higher (P?<?0.05) than that in the susceptible and resistant groups (11% and 7%, respectively). Furthermore, f was significantly higher in the MDR group compared with that in the susceptible and resistant groups.The facts that 26 of 37 mutator isolates (70%) in the population were MDR and that there was a significantly higher general f in isolates exhibiting an MDR profile suggest that hypermutability can be of advantage for the organism in a selective environment with extensive exposure to antimicrobials.
Project description:Central dogma suggests that rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis develops solely through rpoB gene mutations.To determine whether rifampicin induces efflux pumps activation in rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis strains thereby defining rifampicin resistance levels and reducing ofloxacin susceptibility.Rifampicin and/or ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined in rifampicin resistant strains by culture in BACTEC 12B medium. Verapamil and reserpine were included to determine their effect on rifampicin and ofloxacin susceptibility. RT-qPCR was applied to assess expression of efflux pump/transporter genes after rifampicin exposure. To determine whether verapamil could restore susceptibility to first-line drugs, BALB/c mice were infected with a MDR-TB strain and treated with first-line drugs with/without verapamil.Rifampicin MICs varied independently of rpoB mutation and genetic background. Addition reserpine and verapamil significantly restored rifampicin susceptibility (p = 0.0000). RT-qPCR demonstrated that rifampicin induced differential expression of efflux/transporter genes in MDR-TB isolates. Incubation of rifampicin mono-resistant strains in rifampicin (2 ?g/ml) for 7 days induced ofloxacin resistance (MIC > 2 ?g/ml) in strains with an rpoB531 mutation. Ofloxacin susceptibility was restored by exposure to efflux pump inhibitors. Studies in BALB/c mice showed that verapamil in combination with first-line drugs significantly reduced pulmonary CFUs after 1 and 2 months treatment (p < 0.05).Exposure of rifampicin resistant M. tuberculosis strains to rifampicin can potentially compromise the efficacy of the second-line treatment regimens containing ofloxacin, thereby emphasising the need for rapid diagnostics to guide treatment. Efflux pump inhibitors have the potential to improve the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis drug treatment.
Project description:Antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens pose an urgent healthcare threat, prompting a demand for new medicines. We report the mode of action of the natural ansamycin antibiotic kanglemycin A (KglA). KglA binds bacterial RNA polymerase at the rifampicin-binding pocket but maintains potency against RNA polymerases containing rifampicin-resistant mutations. KglA has antibiotic activity against rifampicin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-M. tuberculosis). The X-ray crystal structures of KglA with the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme and Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase-promoter complex reveal an altered-compared with rifampicin-conformation of KglA within the rifampicin-binding pocket. Unique deoxysugar and succinate ansa bridge substituents make additional contacts with a separate, hydrophobic pocket of RNA polymerase and preclude the formation of initial dinucleotides, respectively. Previous ansa-chain modifications in the rifamycin series have proven unsuccessful. Thus, KglA represents a key starting point for the development of a new class of ansa-chain derivatized ansamycins to tackle rifampicin resistance.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria have become a severe problem for public health. Developing new antibiotics for MDR bacteria is difficult, from inception to the clinically approved stage. Here, we have used a new approach, modification of an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CFX), with triphenylphosphonium (TPP, PPh3) moiety via ester- (CFX-ester-PPh3) and amide-coupling (CFX-amide-PPh3) to target bacterial membranes. In this study, we have evaluated the antibacterial activities of CFX and its derivatives against 16 species of bacteria, including MDR bacteria, using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, morphological monitoring, and expression of resistance-related genes. TPP-conjugated CFX, CFX-ester-PPh3, and CFX-amide-PPh3 showed significantly improved antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, including MDR S. aureus (methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) strains. The MRSA ST5 5016 strain showed high antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 11.12 µg/mL for CFX-ester-PPh3 and 2.78 µg/mL for CFX-amide-PPh3. The CFX derivatives inhibited biofilm formation in MRSA by more than 74.9% of CFX-amide-PPh3. In the sub-MIC, CFX derivatives induced significant morphological changes in MRSA, including irregular deformation and membrane disruption, accompanied by a decrease in the level of resistance-related gene expression. With these promising results, this method is very likely to combat MDR bacteria through a simple TPP moiety modification of known antibiotics, which can be readily prepared at clinical sites.
Project description:Synthetic peptidomimetics may be designed to mimic functions of antimicrobial peptides, including potentiation of antibiotics, yet possessing improved pharmacological properties. Pairwise screening of 42 synthetic peptidomimetics combined with the antibiotics azithromycin and rifampicin in multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli ST131 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 led to identification of two subclasses of ?-peptide/?-peptoid hybrids that display synergy with azithromycin and rifampicin (fractional inhibitory concentration indexes of 0.03-0.38). Further screening of the best three peptidomimetics in combination with a panel of 21 additional antibiotics led to identification of peptidomimetics that potentiated ticarcillin/clavulanate and erythromycin against E. coli, and clindamycin against K. pneumoniae. The study of six peptidomimetics was extended to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, confirming synergy with antibiotics for five of them. The most promising compound, H-(Lys-?NPhe)8-NH2, exerted only a minor effect on the viability of mammalian cells (EC50 ? 124-210 ?M), and thus exhibited the highest selectivity toward bacteria. This compound also synergized with rifampicin and azithromycin at sub-micromolar concentrations (0.25-0.5 ?M), thereby inducing susceptibility to these antibiotics at clinically relevant concentrations in clinical MDR isolates. This peptidomimetic lead and its analogs constitute promising candidates for efficient repurposing of rifampicin and azithromycin against Gram-negative pathogens.
Project description:The increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms in hospital infections is causing a global public health crisis. The development of drugs with effective antibiotic action against such agents is of the highest priority. In the present study, the action of Fluopsin C against MDR clinical isolates was evaluated under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Fluopsin C was produced in cell suspension culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain, purified by liquid adsorption chromatography and identified by mass spectrometric analysis. Bioactivity, bacterial resistance development risk against clinically important pathogenic strains and toxicity in mammalian cell were initially determined by in vitro models. In vivo toxicity was evaluated in Tenebrio molitor larvae and mice. The therapeutic efficacy of intravenous Fluopsin C administration was evaluated in a murine model of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) acute sepsis, using six different treatments. The in vitro results indicated MIC and MBC below 2 ?g/mL and low bacterial resistance development frequency. Electron microscopy showed that Fluopsin C may have altered the exopolysaccharide matrix and caused disruption of the cell wall of MDR bacteria. Best therapeutic results were achieved in mice treated with a single dose of 2 mg/kg and in mice treated with two doses of 1 mg/kg, 8 h apart. Furthermore, acute and chronic histopathological studies demonstrated absent nephrotoxicity and moderate hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated the efficacy of Fluopsin C against MDR organisms in in vitro and in vivo models, and hence it can be a novel therapeutic agent for the control of severe MDR infections.