Family and School Context: Effects on the Mental Health of Brazilian Students.
ABSTRACT: Mental health during adolescence can affect an individual's long-term quality of life. However, the effects of family and school contexts on students' mental health have been little explored. This study aims to analyze the relationships between family and school life and feelings of loneliness and trouble sleeping owing to worries in adolescents. The data from this cross-sectional study were obtained from Brazil's National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which obtained its data through questionnaires. This study's sample consisted of 102,072 ninth-grade students aged between 11 and 19 years, 52,782 (51.7%) of whom were female, enrolled in public and private schools throughout Brazil. The methodology consisted of an analysis using the Poisson regression model. Regarding the family context, mental health issues were associated with hunger, distant relationships with parents, and family violence. Regarding the school context, feelings of loneliness and trouble sleeping were associated with poor peer relationships, insecurity at school, and schools in more violent areas. This study contributes to the elaboration of public policies aimed at bringing awareness to family members and school bodies that indicators of mental health in adolescents are influenced by the quality of bonds established within these environments.
Project description:The prevalence of poor health, in particular stress-related mental ill-health, is increasing over time and birth cohorts. As rapid societal changes have occurred in the last decade and still are occurring, there is an interest in investigating the trends in health-related factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate trends in self-reported general health, overall stress, work-related stress, feelings of loneliness, and sleeping problems in 335,625 Swedish adults across categories of gender, geographic regions, length of education, and age from 2000 to 2016. On population level, sleeping problems and poor general health have increased markedly and significantly, while experiences of work stress decreased between 2000 and 2016 (p < 0.05). Overall stress and level of loneliness were unchanged (p > 0.05). The risk of having ?3 symptoms (any of poor or very poor general health, often or very often perceived overall stress, loneliness, or sleeping problems) has increased significantly from 2000 to 2016 (ß = 1034 (1027-1040)). This increase was significantly higher in young (ß = 1052 (1038-1065)) and individuals with lower education (ß = 1056 (1037-1076)) compared to older and high length of education.
Project description:We investigate how daughters' feelings of loneliness are impacted when widowed parents develop health limitations, and when daughters take on personal care tasks in response. Using longitudinal data from daughters of widowed parents drawn from the French Family and Intergenerational Relationships Study (ERFI, 1485 observations nested in 557 daughters), we assess (a) whether health limitations of widowed parents are associated with daughters' feelings of loneliness regardless of whether or not daughters provide personal care and (b) whether there is an effect of care provision on loneliness that cannot be explained by parental health limitations. Fixed effect regression analyses show that widowed parents' health limitations were associated with raised feelings of loneliness among their daughters. No significant additional effect of providing personal care to a widowed parent was found. Prior research on the impact of health limitations of older parents on the lives of their adult-children has focused mostly on issues related to informal caregiving. Our findings suggest that more attention to the psychosocial impact of parental health limitations-net of actual caregiving-on adult children's lives is warranted.
Project description:School staff have an important role to play in identifying and assisting pupils who require additional support to regularly attend school, but their beliefs about risk factors might influence their decisions regarding intervention. This qualitative study investigated educational practitioners' beliefs about risk factors for attendance problems. Sixteen practitioners from three secondary schools were interviewed via focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Practitioners identified risk factors related to the individual, their family, peers and school. Poor mental health was identified as a risk factor, but practitioners primarily focused on anxiety rather than other mental health problems like depression or behavioural disorders. The overall perception was that school factors were less important than individual, family and peer factors. Implications include a need for increased awareness of the role of school factors in attendance problems, focus on promoting positive peer and pupil-teacher relationships, and collaborative working between young people, families and schools.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bullying is an emerging risk factor for poor mental health outcomes adversely affecting children and adolescents. However, it has rarely caught the attention of the health and education sector due to lack of evidence in many countries including Nepal. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescent students in Nepal. METHODS:We used nationally representative data from the Nepal Global School-Based Student Health Survey that involved two-stage cluster sampling design with the use of a standard set of self-administered questionnaires. Complex sample analysis was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of bullying among 6529 students of 68 schools studying in grade 7 to 11 using descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of bullying among Nepalese school adolescents was 51% (55.67% in male and 46.17% in female). Bullied adolescents more commonly reported mental health problems with higher risk of loneliness (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), anxiety (aOR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 2.52), suicide attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.81), school absenteeism due to fear (aOR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.21) and school truancy (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87). A significant association was seen between bullying victimization and negative health behaviors like involvement in physical fights (aOR 3.64, 95% CI: 2.94, 4.51) and tobacco use (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.65). CONCLUSION:School bullying is significantly associated with mental health factors like loneliness, anxiety, suicide attempt, school absenteeism and risky behavioral factors like smokeless tobacco use and involvement in physical fight. The insights provided by these findings have important implications for planning anti-bullying strategies in school settings in the Nepalese context.
Project description:Adolescence, which is the transition from childhood to adulthood, is marked by emotional sensitivity and inconsistency and may be affected by mental health problems. In order to fill the gap related to the risky behaviors in students in Brazil, our cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship between risky behaviors and indicators of mental health of Brazilian students. We used the data from the National School Health Survey to analyze the relationship between risk behaviors and three symptoms of mental health issues: feeling of being alone, number of close friends, and trouble sleeping due to worries. The sample consisted of 102,072 students in Brazil (48.3% boys and 51.7% girls), aged between 11 to 19 years. The risk behaviors evaluated were substance use, sedentary lifestyle, sexual behavior, and suffering violence and bullying. We have performed a multivariate analysis based on the Poisson regression model, and the measure of effect used was the prevalence ratio (PR) with confidence intervals (CI) of 95%. Our results showed that students with symptoms of mental health issues were involved in risky behaviors, including drug use and unsafe sex. Thus, mental illness outcomes may be associated with risky behaviors, or mental health may be impaired by them. Given these findings, in-school programs focused on improving mental health outcomes should be developed.
Project description:Unhappiness at school is one of the main reasons for truancy among adolescents. In order to assess this problem more thoroughly in the context of Japanese adolescents, the present study examined the associations between feelings of unhappiness at school and lifestyle habits, school life realities, and mental health status.This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We calculated the percentages of both junior and senior high school students who felt unhappy at school based on factors related to school life, lifestyle habits, and mental health status. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed in order to examine the associations between those factors and students' feelings of unhappiness at school.A total of 98,867 valid responses were analysed, 7.9% (Boys: 8.4%, Girls: 7.4%) of which came from students who responded that they felt unhappy at school. For both junior and senior high school students, the percentages of those who felt unhappy at school were significantly higher among those who had not yet decided on their future life course, who did not participate in extracurricular activities, did not eat breakfast every day, went to bed late, had used tobacco or alcohol in the previous 30 days, and had poor mental health compared with others. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the adjusted odds ratios for feeling unhappy at school with regard to the above-mentioned factors were significantly high for both junior and senior high school students.The present results suggest that school employees and administrators must provide health guidance to students, considering that irregular lifestyle habits, lower school engagement, smoking, drinking alcohol, and poor mental health status are all associated with maladaptation to school among adolescents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We explored the relationship between family members and healthcare professionals (HCPs), specifically how family members can influence the course and outcome of patient care for youth. Exploring this under-researched area provided an opportunity to understand the tripartite relationship between the family, the youth experiencing mental health problems or substance use concerns and their HCP. METHODS:A qualitative research design was used to gain a full understanding of how family members experience relationships with HCPs. We interviewed 21 family members using semi-structure questions to explore the type of relationships formed between HCPs and family members throughout a patient's course of care, the family member's perceived role in the care of their youth accessing mental health or addiction services and the family member's awareness of formalized structures (i.e., hospital rules, policies) and resources that support family involvement. RESULTS:Within a relationship-centred framework, four themes, with various sub-themes emerged from the interviews: 1) The family member-HCP relationship regarding creating a positive impression, being an extension of the patient and the discovery of "pink flags"; 2) The family member-youth-HCP relationship regarding the receptivity of youth to family involvement and a youth's individual right to privacy; 3)The family member's relationship to self with regard to the situation being a family illness; and 4) The family member's relationship with friends, family and peers regarding the feelings of loneliness, stigma and shame and the lack of understanding about mental health problems and substance use. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provided in-depth information about the importance of family involvement in the care and health outcomes of youth who are accessing mental health and addiction services. Family members experienced and conceptualized their relationships with HCPs, their youth, themselves and their friends and peers as active interactions that influenced the course and outcomes of care. Future studies are needed to collect the multiple perspectives of youth and HCPs alongside with the family perspectives.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to investigate changes in the mental health status of South Korean adolescents at a school level and identify school-related factors affecting these changes. DESIGN:A retrospective data analysis, population study. SETTING:South Korean high schools from 2013 to 2016. PARTICIPANTS:Randomly sampled 827 schools (316?834 boys and 299?304 girls) PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean scores of the Adolescent Mental Health and Problem Behavior Questionnaire-II (AMPQ-II), a school-based mental health screening test, were used to explore changes in youth mental health. Data regarding the school environment and school counselling were gathered from the 'School info' website. A multilevel growth model was used to determine relationships between students' mental health and school-related factors. RESULTS:Students' mental health statuses in South Korea gradually improved over time (coefficient=-1.46?to -1.70, p<0.001). School mobility rates (coefficient=0.93?to 1.00, p<0.05), school dropout rates (coefficient=0.38?to 0.40, p<0.001), school budgets per student (coefficient=-0.05?to -0.06, p<0.01) and number of school counselling sessions (coefficient=0.14, p<0.01) were significantly associated with baseline AMPQ-II scores. The rate of change in AMPQ-II score increased when the number of school counselling sessions was higher (coefficient=-0.03, p<0.05) or the school budget was lower (coefficient=0.02, p<0.001). School environment explained 21.6% of the AMPQ-II baseline score variance and 9.3% of the rate of change variance. School counselling further explained 2.0% of the variance in baseline AMPQ-II scores and 2.3% of the rate of change variance. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that school environment stability and active provision of school-based mental health services have a positive impact on youth mental health.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study examined whether increasing availability of mental health services at school-based health centers in Oregon public schools would be associated with a decrease in the likelihood of depressive episodes and suicide risk among adolescents. METHODS:The study included 168 Oregon public schools that participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens Survey in 2013 and 2015. Twenty-five schools had a school-based health center, and 14 of those schools increased the availability of mental health services from 2013 to 2015. The Oregon Healthy Teens Survey included questions about having a depressive episode, suicidal ideation, and attempting suicide in the past year. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted in 2017 to examine associations between increasing mental health services and the likelihood of past year depressive episodes, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Analyses also compared student subgroups defined by demographic characteristics (e.g., gender). RESULTS:Students at school-based health center schools that increased availability of mental health services were less likely to report depressive episodes (OR=0.88, p<0.01), suicidal ideation (OR=0.84, p<0.01), and suicide attempts (OR=0.82, p<0.01) from 2013 to 2015 compared with all other schools. Significant risk reductions in past year depressive episodes and suicidal ideation were also observed in school-based health center schools that increased availability of mental health services relative to other schools with school-based health centers. No significant differences were observed for student demographic subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that increasing availability of school-based mental health services can help to reduce depressive episodes and suicide risk among adolescents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is likely to exacerbate the symptoms of poor mental health in family caregivers. AIMS:To investigate whether rates of depressive symptomatology increased in caregivers during COVID-19 and whether the unintended consequences of health protective measures, i.e., social isolation, exacerbated this risk. Another aim was to see if caregivers accessed any online/phone psychological support during COVID. METHOD:Data (1349 caregivers; 6178 non-caregivers) was extracted from Understanding Society, a UK population-level data-set. The General Health Questionnaire cut-off scores identified those who are likely to have depression. RESULTS:After adjustment for confounding caregivers had a higher risk of having depressive symptoms compared with non-caregivers, odds ratio (OR) = 1.22 (95% CI 1.05-1.40, P = 0.008) evidenced by higher levels of depression pre-COVID-19 (16.7% caregivers v. 12.1% non-caregivers) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (21.6% caregivers v. 17.9% non-caregivers), respectively. Further, higher levels of loneliness increased the risk of depression symptoms almost four-fold in caregivers, OR = 3.85 (95% 95% CI 3.08-4.85, P < 0.001), whereas accessing therapy attenuated the risk of depression (43%). A total of 60% of caregivers with depression symptoms reported not accessing any therapeutic support (for example online or face to face) during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS:COVID-19 has had a negative impact on family caregivers' mental health with loneliness a significant contributor to depressive symptomatology. However, despite these detriments in mental health, the majority of caregivers do not access any online or phone psychiatric support. Finally, psychiatric services and healthcare professionals should aim to focus on reducing feelings of loneliness to support at-risk caregivers.