Aromatic Characterization of New White Wine Varieties Made from Monastrell Grapes Grown in South-Eastern Spain.
ABSTRACT: The aromatic profile of a wine is one of the main characteristics appreciated by consumers. Due to climate change, vineyards need to adapt to new conditions, and one of the strategies that might be followed is to develop new white varieties from Monastrell and other cultivars by means of intervarietal crosses, since white varieties are a minority in south-eastern Spain. Such crosses have already been obtained and have been seen to provide quality white wines of high acidity and with a good aromatic composition. To confirm this, a quantitative analysis was carried out during two vintages (2018 and 2019) in order to study and compare the volatile composition of Verdejo (V) wine with the aromatic composition of several wines made from different crosses between Cabernet Sauvignon (C), Syrah (S), Tempranillo (T), and Verdejo (V) with Monastrell (M), by means of headspace SPME-GC-MS analysis. Wine volatile compounds (alcohols, volatile acids, ethyl esters, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and two other compounds belonging to a miscellaneous group) were identified and quantified using a HS-SPME-GS-MS methodology. An additional sensory analysis was carried out by a qualified tasting panel in order to characterize the different wines. The results highlighted how the crosses MT103, MC69, and MC180 showed significant differences from and better quality than the Verdejo wine. These crosses produced higher concentrations of several aromatic families analyzed, which was supported by the views of the tasting panel, thus confirming their excellent aromatic potential as cultivars for producing grapes well adapted to this area for making white wines.
Project description:The conventional method for the sensory evaluation of wine is based on visual, olfactory and gustatory perceptions described by a domain-specific language. This is a complex task, requiring extensive training, which is not feasible from a consumer perspective. The objective of this study was to apply a wine tasting sheet, including sensory and emotional responses, to simplify the recognition of fine white wines by consumers. First, a panel of 15 semi-trained judges evaluated eight sensory attributes through Optimized Descriptive Profile (ODP) methodology. Then, a group of 104 consumers evaluated five white wines with different sensory characteristics using an improved emotional wine tasting sheet. The emotions and sensations most frequently associated with white wines were obtained through the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) approach. The eight sensory attributes were significant (p-value < 0.05) in the distinction of wines by the ODP. Likewise, the distinction of the wines also provided significant differences in all the emotional and sensory attributes (p-value < 0.05). The different wine styles could be distinguished by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using the semi-trained judges or the consumer responses. The highest score in the "global evaluation" was given to two young, fruity wines characterized by high aromatic "initial impression". The two fine wines, including a 2004 Burgundy Pouilly-Fuissé, were the lowest rated in "initial impression" and "global evaluation", although they were considered by the consumers among the most complex and persistent. These wines were also most frequently associated with unpleasant emotions by the CATA test. The recognition of these fine wine attributes and their incongruity with emotional responses can be used in a rapid way by professionals to explain the different wine styles to consumers.
Project description:The aroma profile is an important marker for wine quality. Various classes of compounds are responsible for the aroma of wine, and one such class is terpenoids. In the context of this work, a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the quantitation of terpenoids in red and white wine using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was established. Calibrations were performed in the respective base wine using both sample preparation methods. The linearity, precision and accuracy evaluated for the respective matrices were excellent for both sample preparations. However, the HS-SPME approach was more sensitive and more accurate. For both sample preparations, the quantification limits were lower than the odor thresholds in wine. The terpenoid concentrations (µg/L) were evaluated for 13 white wines using both sample preparation methods. Importantly, the online HS-SPME approach was more sensitive than the offline SPE method. The major terpenoids identified in the white wines evaluated were linalool (0.2-63 µg/L), geraniol (nd-66 µg/L) and ?-terpineol (nd-85 µg/L).
Project description:One of the main aspects that define wine quality is its aromatic profile. Nutritional deficiencies in musts can lead to olfactory defects and a decline in quality. Commercial activators and nutrients are usually added to the must in these cases. The natural composition of bee pollen can provide all the necessary nutrients for yeasts. This investigation aims to analyze the impact of pollen addition on the profile of volatile and sensory compounds in Tintilla de Rota warm climate red wines. Volatile compounds were measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Odorant Activity Values analysis to find out each compound's fragrant participation, and sensorial analysis was conducted for a qualified panel of wine-tasters. As a result of the chromatographic analysis, 80 volatile compounds of different chemical families were identified and quantified. Bee pollen increased mainly isoamyl alcohol, esters, and terpenes compounds families in wines. Odorant Activity Values analysis showed an increase in fruity odorant series mainly, followed by floral, for all wines with pollen addition. The sensory analysis showed that low pollen doses (0.1 g/L and 0.25 g/L) increased tasting notes of fruit and floral attributes and fruit and floral odorant series as well, highlighting an increase in red and black fruit notes mainly. On the other hand, high doses deviated the sensory profile towards fleshy stone fruit, and raisin fruit, mostly. In addition, high bee pollen doses produce an increase in the odorant category responsible for the chemical, fatty, and grassy aromas mainly, and high and intermediate dose (1 g/L) an increase in the earthy notes in the aromas. Therefore, low bee pollen doses (0.1 and 0.25 g/L) can improve both the aromatic compound profile, as well as the Odorant Activity Values levels and the sensory profile in Tintilla de Rota red wines.
Project description:A Burgundian Chardonnay wine was enriched with Gentiana lutea root powders originating from two French mountain sites (Massif Central and Jura) in order to prepare semi-dry gentian aromatized Chardonnay wine-based drinks. These novel alcoholic beverages were chemically and sensorially characterized for evaluating if the gentian geographic origin influenced bitter and elemental and volatile composition and sensory profiles in the final products. For that, the chemical fingerprint of gentian powders and wines were carried by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC), liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector (LC-DAD) and inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The mineral and volatile analysis show that the geographic distinction is more obvious in gentian powders compared to gentian macerated wines. Interestingly the maceration process in Chardonnay wine involves extraction processes revealing statistical distinctions in other chemical markers of gentian origin, like for amarogentin and loganic acid or some mineral elements such as barium and aluminum that affect undoubtedly bitterness perception and sensory properties in macerated wines compared to unmacerated wine. Additionally, the gentian volatile 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazine and the Chardonnay wine volatile ethyl-9-decenoate differentiated, respectively by extraction and powder adsorption mechanisms could be responsible of more subtle sensory differentiations between macerated wines from two distinct gentian origins.
Project description:The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day) and unfavourable (Root day) for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine's perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers' calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation.
Project description:The important sampling parameters of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) procedure such as the extraction temperature, extraction time, and sample volume were optimized to quantify 23 important impact odorants in reduced alcohol red and white wines. A three-factor design of Box-Behnken experiments was used to determine the optimized sampling conditions for each analyte, and a global optimized condition at every ethanol concentration of interest determined using a desirability function that accounts for a low signal response for compounds. Shiraz and Chardonnay wines were dealcoholized from 13.7 and 12.2% v/v ethanol respectively, to 8 and 5% v/v, using a commercially available membrane-based technology. A sample set of the reduced alcohol wines were also reconstituted to their natural ethanol level to evaluate the effect of the ethanol content reduction on volatile composition. The three-factor Box-Behnken experiment ensured an accurate determination of the headspace concentration of each compound at each ethanol concentration, allowing comparisons between wines at varying ethanol levels to be made. Overall, the results showed that the main effect of extraction temperature was considered the most critical factor when studying the equilibrium of reduced alcohol wine impact odorants. The impact of ethanol reduction upon the concentration of volatile compounds clearly resulted in losses of impact odorants from the wines. The concentration of most analytes decreased with dealcoholization compared to that of the natural samples. Significant differences were also found between the reconstituted volatile composition and 5% v/v reduced alcohol wines, revealing that the dealcoholization effect is the result of a combination between the type of dealcoholization treatment and reduction in wine ethanol content.
Project description:The ability to obtain different wines with a singular organoleptic profile is one of the main factors for the wine industry's growth, in order to appeal to a broad cross section of consumers. Due to this, white wines made from the novel grape genotypes Albillo Dorado and Montonera del Casar (Vitis vinifera L.) were studied and compared to the well-known Airén at two consecutive years. Wines were evaluated by physicochemical, spectrophotometric, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sensory analyses. The chromatic characteristics of the new wines were defined by more color purity than Airén, with greenish highlights. In general, the phenolic profile of the Albillo Dorado wines showed a higher flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid derivative content. Several volatile compounds were determined, and their odor activity values were calculated to determine their impact on wine aroma. A fruity series dominated the wine aromatic composition, but spicier and greener notes characterized the aroma profile of Airén wines. Albillo Dorado and Montonera del Casar were sensory evaluated as wines with a less fresh taste compared to Airén. Unique chemical and sensory profiles were determined for wines made from these novel grape genotypes, providing alternative monovarietal wines to encourage the wine market growth and extend the offer to consumers.
Project description:Aroma is a crucial attribute for wine quality, particularly in white wines. Traditionally, the consumption of young white wines is recommended over the year following grape harvest due to potential aroma losses that would worsen wine quality. This study aimed to investigate the evolution of volatile compounds, odor activity value-based aroma notes, and sensory perception in Treixadura (Vitis vinifera L.) dry white wines during a 24-month bottle-aging period. Volatile composition was determined by gas chromatography, and wine sensory evaluation was performed by experts. Wine samples had similar volatile compositions at the time of bottling. The volatile contents of the wines were respectively 322.9, 302.7, 323.0, and 280.9 mg L-1 after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of bottle storage. Most of the volatiles tended to maintain constant concentrations, or with slight increases in all families of volatiles except for acetates and carbonyl compounds, until two years after harvest (18 months of bottle storage) and, then, concentrations reduced sharply. After 24 months of storage in the bottle, the concentrations of terpenes, C6 compounds, higher alcohols, ethyl esters, fatty acids, acetates, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were reduced by 32%, 47%, 11%, 39%, 50%, 74%, 41%, and 54%, respectively. The 18-month bottle-aged wines showed the highest concentrations of volatiles, as well as the best performance in the sensory evaluation, suggesting that a good balance of the aroma attributes was achieved on this date. In conclusion, the current study suggests that Treixadura wines expressed their maximum aroma potential two years after grape harvest.
Project description:This study investigated the effects of vinification techniques and cultivars (Stevens, Pilgrim and Bergman) on cranberry wine quality. Three winemaking technologies were conducted to prepare cranberry musts before fermentation, including traditional red and white vinifications (Red and White), and thermovinification (Thermo). In wine products, proanthocyanins (PACs) and anthocyanins (ANCs) are dominant in phenolics, while esters and alcohols are prevalent in volatiles, with phenylethyl alcohol, ?-damascenone, benzyl alcohol, etc. as the main contributors to the aroma. The phenolic compositions of wines were in the same pattern with cultivars: the Stevens and Bergman wines contained the highest amount of ANCs and PACs, respectively, while the Pilgrim wines had the lowest total phenolic contents (TPC), and antioxidant capacities (AOC). Nevertheless, products from Pilgrim cultivar had a distinctive pattern of volatiles compared to Stevens and Bergman, especially for aromatic compounds. Considering vinification methods, Thermo demonstrated advantages on correlations with both phenolic and volatile (polymeric and monomeric) compositions.
Project description:Wine aroma is the result of complex interactions between volatile compounds and non-volatile ones and individual perception phenomenon. In this work, an aroma network approach, that links volatile composition (chromatographic data) with its corresponding aroma descriptors was used to explain the wine aroma properties. This concept was applied to six monovarietal wines from Bairrada Appellation (Portugal) and used as a case study. A comprehensive determination of the wines' volatile composition was done (71 variables, i.e., volatile components), establishing a workflow that combines extraction techniques and gas chromatographic analysis. Then, a bipartite network-based approach consisting of two different nodes was built, one with 19 aroma descriptors, and the other with the corresponding volatile compound(s). To construct the aroma networks, the odor active values were calculated for each determined compound and combined with the bipartite network. Finally, the aroma network of each wine was compared with sensory descriptive analysis. The analysis of the specific aroma network of each wine revealed that Sauvignon Blanc and Arinto white wines present higher fruity (esters) and sweet notes (esters and C13 norisoprenoids) than Bical wine. Sauvignon Blanc also exhibits higher toasted aromas (thiols) while Arinto and Bical wines exhibit higher flowery (C13 norisoprenoids) and herbaceous notes (thiols), respectively. For red wines, sweet fruit aromas are the most abundant, especially for Touriga Nacional. Castelão and Touriga Nacional wines also present toasted aromas (thiols). Baga and Castelão wines also exhibit fusel/alcohol notes (alcohols). The proposed approach establishes a chemical aroma fingerprint (aroma ID) for each type of wine, which may be further used to estimate wine aroma characteristics by projection of the volatile composition on the aroma network.