Glutamic Acid-Assisted Phytomanagement of Chromium Contaminated Soil by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): Morphophysiological and Biochemical Alterations
ABSTRACT: Chelator-assisted phytoremediation is an economical, sustainable, and ecologically friendly method of extracting heavy metals and metalloids from the soil. Organic chelators are thought to enhance metal availability and mobility in contaminated media, thereby improving phytoextraction. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exogenous application of glutamic acid (GA) could improve chromium (Cr) phytoextraction by sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.). Seeds were planted in plastic pots filled with 5 kg of local agricultural soil spiked with increasing concentrations of Cr (1, 2, and 5 mg kg?1). Glutamic acid (5 mM) was applied to soil in solution according to a completely randomized experimental design, and the sunflower plants were harvested after 8 weeks. The results indicated that increasing Cr-induced stress signi?cantly inhibited plant growth, leading to reduced biomass, photosynthetic pigment content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and leaf area of the sunflower plants. However, exogenous addition of GA significantly reduced the Cr-associated toxic effects while also increasing the accumulation of Cr in the plants. Moreover, increasing concentrations of Cr in the soil increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for the altered antioxidant enzyme activities. The results revealed that GA application to the topsoil enhanced the Cr concentration and accumulation in the root, stem, and leaves by up to 254, 225, 355, and 47, 59, 150% respectively. Further the GA addition reduced the Cr-induced toxicity in plants and might be helpful for enhancing Cr phytoextraction by sunflower plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC) ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3-4.3 and 1.8-3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. CONCLUSIONS: Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.
Project description:Phytoextraction could be a potential management option for diffusely Cd-Zn-Pb-polluted agricultural land in Northeast Belgium. The use of high yielding crops with a sufficiently high metal accumulation is preferred as these are expected to both gradually decontaminate the soil while generating an income through biomass valorization. To find out which high biomass crop possessed the highest and most constant (in time) phytoextraction potential on these soils, different plant species and different mutants or clones of each species, were evaluated during consecutive years. Biomass production and metal accumulation of pre-selected tobacco somaclonal variants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and pre-selected sunflower mutants (Helianthus annuus L.) were investigated for two productivity years, while the phytoextraction potential of experimental poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) in short rotation coppice (SRC) was assessed at the end of the second cutting cycle (after two times four growing seasons). The tobacco clones and the sunflower mutants showed efficient extraction of, respectively, Cd and Zn, while the highest simultaneous extractions of Cd and Zn were gained with some SRC clones. Variation in biomass production and metal accumulation were high for all crops over the years. The highest biomass production was observed for the experimental poplar clone of the crossing type Populus deltoides (P. maximowiczii x P. trichocarpa) with 9.9 ton DW per ha per year. The remediation period to reach legal threshold values for the pseudo-total content of Cd in this specific soil was estimated to be at least 60 years. Combining estimated phytoextraction potential and economic and environmental aspects, the SRC option is proposed as the most suitable crop for implementing metal phytoextraction in the investigated area.
Project description:Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and ?-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.
Project description:Nitrogen fertilization could improve the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil and thus shorten the remediation time. However, limited information is available on the effect of N form on Cd phytoextraction and associated mechanisms in plants. This study examined the effect of N form on Cd accumulation, translocation, and speciation in Carpobrotus rossii and Solanum nigrum Plants were grown in nutrient solution with 5-15 ?M Cd in the presence of 1000 µM NH4 (+) or NO3 (-) Plant growth and Cd uptake were measured, and Cd speciation was analyzed using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Shoot Cd accumulation was 30% greater with NH4 (+) than NO3 (-) supply. Carpobrotus rossii accumulated three times more Cd than S. nigrum. However, Cd speciation in the plants was not influenced by N form, but it did vary with species and tissues. In C. rossii, up to 91% of Cd was bound to S-containing ligands in all tissues except the xylem sap where 87-95% were Cd-OH complexes. Furthermore, the proportion of Cd-S in shoots was substantially lower in S. nigrum (44-69%) than in C. rossii (60-91%). It is concluded that the application of NH4 (+) (instead of NO3 (-)) increased shoot Cd accumulation by increasing uptake and translocation, rather than changing Cd speciation, and is potentially an effective approach for increasing Cd phytoextraction.
Project description:Biomass production and metal accumulation in plant tissue (bioconcentration) are two critical factors limiting the phytoextraction rate. Metal translocation to aboveground organs should be accounted for as the third most important factor, as harvesting of the plant roots is usually economically disadvantageous. These three parameters could be potentially increased with the use of companion planting, a well-known agricultural technique, and inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). The aim of the study was to determine whether intercropping and inoculation with endophytic PGPB (Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJNT) can increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of Zn, Pb, and Cd. The study was conducted on Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. "Ma?opolska" grown in a monoculture or co-planted with Zea mays L. "Codimon" and Medicago sativa L. "Sanditi." Results show that companion planting and inoculation with rhizobacteria can increase the efficiency of metal phytoextraction, mainly by increasing the yield of dry biomass and the survival rate of plants grown on contaminated soil. We have shown that the simultaneous planting of B. juncea with M. sativa and inoculation with PGPB were the most efficient variants of assisted phytoextraction reaching a recovery of 95% Zn, 90% Cd, and on average about 160% Pb compared with control B. juncea plants grown in monoculture.
Project description:Root-adhering soil (RAS) forms the immediate environment where plants take up water and nutrients for their growth. We report the effect of an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing rhizobacterium (strain YAS34) on the physical properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) RAS, associated with plant growth promotion, under both water stress and normal water supply conditions. Strain YAS34 was isolated as a major EPS-producing bacterium from the rhizoplane of sunflowers grown in a French dystric cambisol. Strain YAS34 was assigned to the Rhizobium genus by 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Inoculation of sunflower seeds and soil with strain YAS34 caused a significant increase in RAS per root dry mass (dm) (up to 100%) and a significant increase in soil macropore volume (12 to 60 microm in diameter). The effect of inoculation on sunflower shoot dm (up to +50%) and root dm (up to +70%) was significant under both normal and water stress conditions. Inoculation with strain YAS34 modified soil structure around the root system, counteracting the negative effect of water deficit on growth. Using [(15)N]nitrate, we showed that inoculation made the use of fertilizer more effective by increasing nitrogen uptake by sunflower plantlets.
Project description:The Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis has been proposed as a promising technique for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils due to its beneficial activity in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, numerous studies have shown that excessive heavy metals reduce the efficiency of symbiotic nodulation with Rhizobium and inhibit plant growth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the synergistic effects of IAA-producing bacteria and Rhizobium on Medicago lupulina growth under Cu and Zn stress. Pot experiments showed that 400 mg kg-1 Cu2 + and Zn2 + greatly inhibited plant growth, but dual inoculation of Medicago lupulina with Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 significantly increased the number of nodules and plant biomass by enhancing antioxidant activities. Under double stress of 400 mg kg-1 Cu2 + and Zn2 +, the nodule number and nitrogenase activities of dual-inoculated plants were 48.5% and 154.4% higher, respectively, than those of plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti. The root and above-ground portion lengths of the dual-inoculated plants were 32.6% and 14.1% greater, respectively, than those of the control, while the root and above-ground portion dry weights were 34.3% and 32.2% greater, respectively, than those of the control. Compared with S. meliloti and A. tumefaciens single inoculation, coinoculation increased total Cu uptake by 39.1% and 47.5% and increased total Zn uptake by 35.4% and 44.2%, respectively, under double metal stress conditions. Therefore, coinoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti and Agrobacterium tumefaciens enhances metal phytoextraction by increasing plant growth and antioxidant activities under Cu/Zn stress, which provides a new approach for bioremediation in heavy metal-contaminated soil.
Project description:Soil contamination by chromium (Cr) has become an increasing problem worldwide as a result of extensive industrial activities. Chromium, especially hexavalent Cr, impairs the growth and productivity of plants. Although it has been proposed that plants could modify their metabolism to adapt to Cr stress by reprogramming the expression of genes, especially those related to the antioxidant system, damage response, and electron transport chain, evidence at the protein expression level is lacking. To better understand the precise mechanisms underlying Cr phytoxicity and the plant response to Cr exposure, the time-course of changes in the protein expression profile induced by short-term hexavalent Cr exposure (1, 6 and 24 h) were analyzed in maize leaves. Among the over 1200 protein spots detected reproducibly by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), 60 were found to be differentially accumulated during Cr stress treatment. Of the Cr-regulated proteins, 58 were identified using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The Cr-regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in ROS detoxification and defense responses (26%), photosynthesis and chloroplast organization (22%), post-transcriptional processing of mRNA and rRNA (12%), protein synthesis and folding (10%), the DNA damage response (5%), and the cytoskeleton (3%). The possible involvement of these Cr stress-responsive proteins in Cr phytoxicity and the plant response to Cr exposure in maize is discussed, taking into consideration the information available from other plant models. Our results provide preliminary evidence that will facilitate understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying Cr toxicity in maize.
Project description:The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 ?g/L (control) to 10,000 ?g/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions.
Project description:The remediation of metal-contaminated soils by phytoextraction depends on plant growth and plant metal accessibility. Soil microorganisms can affect the accumulation of metals by plants either by directly or indirectly stimulating plant growth and activity or by (im)mobilizing and/or complexing metals. Understanding the intricate interplay of metal-accumulating plants with their rhizosphere microbiome is an important step toward the application and optimization of phytoremediation. We compared the effects of a "native" and a strongly disturbed (gamma-irradiated) soil microbial communities on cadmium and zinc accumulation by the plant Arabidopsis halleri in soil microcosm experiments. A. halleri accumulated 100% more cadmium and 15% more zinc when grown on the untreated than on the gamma-irradiated soil. Gamma irradiation affected neither plant growth nor the 1 M HCl-extractable metal content of the soil. However, it strongly altered the soil microbial community composition and overall cell numbers. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of DNA extracted from rhizosphere samples of A. halleri identified microbial taxa (Lysobacter, Streptomyces, Agromyces, Nitrospira, "Candidatus Chloracidobacterium") of higher relative sequence abundance in the rhizospheres of A. halleri plants grown on untreated than on gamma-irradiated soil, leading to hypotheses on their potential effect on plant metal uptake. However, further experimental evidence is required, and wherefore we discuss different mechanisms of interaction of A. halleri with its rhizosphere microbiome that might have directly or indirectly affected plant metal accumulation. Deciphering the complex interactions between A. halleri and individual microbial taxa will help to further develop soil metal phytoextraction as an efficient and sustainable remediation strategy.