Chitosan-Coated Titanium Dioxide-Embedded Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Enhance Anti-Tumor Efficacy Against Osteosarcoma.
ABSTRACT: Objective:Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) nanoparticles have been widely explored in the prevention of cancer risk. Due to the difficult solubility of TiO2 nanoparticles, it is essential to synthesize new surfactants to increase its bioavailability and anti-tumor activity and reduce its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, oxidative and inflammation are closely associated with the osteosarcoma risk. Chitosan has biocompatibility, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of chitosan-coated TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles on an osteosarcoma model were explored. Methods:An osteosarcoma model was established and chitosan-coated TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles were prepared using a freeze-drying strategy. The morphological characteristics of nanoparticles were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physicochemical properties of nanoparticle were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity was tested by using human osteoblast cells hFob1.19 and osteosarcoma cells 143B. Osteosarcoma mice were treated with PBS buffer, paclitaxel, TiO2-embedded paclitaxel and chitosan-coated TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles. The biomarkers of oxidative-inflammatory status, anti-tumor activities and survival rates of the model were measured. Results:XRD analysis showed that the peaks of chitosan/TiO2 (anatase) were consistent with those of crystalline TiO2 and broad phase of chitosan. The FTIR spectrum indicated the relevant functional groups in TiO2. Chitosan-coated TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles had good biocompatibility and improve antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the osteosarcoma model. Chitosan-coated TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles was less toxic to the cells hFob1.19 and more toxic to the cells 143B than TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles. Chitosan-coated TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles showed significant antitumor activity and increased the survival rate of the osteosarcoma model (P < 0.05). Conclusions:Chitosan improved anti-tumor potential of TiO2-embedded paclitaxel nanoparticles in the prevention of osteosarcoma.
Project description:Seven human osteosarcoma cell lines (U2OS, U2OS/MTX300, HOS, MG63, 143B, ZOS, ZOSM) and the human osteoblast hFOB1.19 were included in the study. Microarray based circRNA expression profiles were acquired using the Arraystar Human circRNA Array (8x15K, Arraystar). We identified circRNAs differentially expressed in human osteosarcoma cell lines compared to human osteoblast hFOB1.19 (control). Overall design: In the study presented here, the circRNA expression in human osteosarcoma cell lines was compared to circRNA expression in human osteoblast hFOB1.19 (control).
Project description:Current treatment options for debilitating bone diseases such as osteosarcoma, osteoporosis, and bone metastatic cancer are suboptimal and have low efficacy. New treatment options for these pathologies require targeted therapy that maximizes exposure to the diseased tissue and minimizes off-target side effects. This work investigates an approach for generating functional and targeted drug carriers specifically for treating primary osteosarcoma, a disease in which recurrence is common and the cure rate has remained around 20%. This approach utilizes the modularity of Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly to generate tissue-specific drug carriers for systemic administration. This is accomplished via surface modification of drug-loaded nanoparticles with an aqueous polyelectrolyte, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), side-chain functionalized with alendronate, a potent clinically used bisphosphonate. Nanoparticles coated with PAA-alendronate are observed to bind and internalize rapidly in human osteosarcoma 143B cells. Encapsulation of doxorubicin, a front-line chemotherapeutic, in an LbL-targeted liposome demonstrates potent toxicity in vitro. Active targeting of 143B xenografts in NCR nude mice with the LbL-targeted doxorubicin liposomes promotes enhanced, prolonged tumor accumulation and significantly improved efficacy. This report represents a tunable approach towards the synthesis of drug carriers, in which LbL enables surface modification of nanoparticles for tissue-specific targeting and treatment.
Project description:Background:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common and most aggressive primary solid malignant bone tumor in children and young adults and has high rates of recurrence and metastasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is important in regulating the chemo-responsiveness of cancer. However, the role of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in regulating the response of OS to chemotherapy has never been explored. Methods:In this study, two OS cell lines, MG63 and 143B cells, were used to evaluate the mechanism by which GRP94 modulates the response of osteosarcoma to chemotherapy. GRP94-knockdown (GRP94-KD) OS cells were generated using short hairpin RNAs, and the response to chemotherapy was assessed using an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Cell apoptosis was quantified with propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. Results:Silencing of GRP94 in MG63 and 143B cells did not influence the growth and migration of the cells, but reduced the colony formation. GRP94-KD OS cells were more resistant to paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and epirubicin treatments than cells transfected with the scrambled control, and more cells transfected with the scrambled control underwent apoptosis after paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and epirubicin treatments than GRP94-KD cells. Conclusions:Therefore, GRP94 silencing may increase the resistance of MG63 and 143B cells to paclitaxel, gemcitabine, and epirubicin treatments by inhibiting the induction of apoptosis. Thus, GRP94 may be a key biomarker for the chemotherapeutic response of OS.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor during childhood and adolescence. Several reports have presented data on serum biomarkers for osteosarcoma, but few reports have analyzed circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we used next generation miRNA sequencing to examine miRNAs isolated from microvesicle-depleted extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from six different human osteosarcoma or osteoblastic cell lines with different degrees of metastatic potential (i.e., SAOS2, MG63, HOS, 143B, U2OS and hFOB1.19). EVs from each cell line contain on average ~300 miRNAs, and ~70 of these miRNAs are present at very high levels (i.e., >1000 reads per million). The most prominent miRNAs are miR-21-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p and 181a-5p, which are enriched between 3 and 100 fold and relatively abundant in EVs derived from metastatic SAOS2 cells compared to non-metastatic MG63 cells. Gene ontology analysis of predicted targets reveals that miRNAs present in EVs may regulate the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cell lines by potentially inhibiting a network of genes (e.g., MAPK1, NRAS, FRS2, PRCKE, BCL2 and QKI) involved in apoptosis and/or cell adhesion. Our data indicate that osteosarcoma cell lines may selectively package miRNAs as molecular cargo of EVs that could function as paracrine agents to modulate the tumor micro-environment.
Project description:A new generation of nanocarriers, logic-embedded vectors (LEVs), is endowed with the ability to localize components at multiple intracellular sites, thus creating an opportunity for synergistic control of redundant or dual-hit pathways. LEV encoding elements include size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry. In this study, LEVs consist of porous silicon nanocarriers, programmed for cellular uptake and trafficking along the endosomal pathway, and surface-tailored iron oxide nanoparticles, programmed for endosomal sorting and partitioning of particles into unique cellular locations. In the presence of persistent endosomal localization of silicon nanocarriers, amine-functionalized nanoparticles are sorted into multiple vesicular bodies that form novel membrane-bound compartments compatible with cellular secretion, while chitosan-coated nanoparticles escape from endosomes and enter the cytosol. Encapsulation within the porous silicon matrix protects these nanoparticle surface-tailored properties, and enhances endosomal escape of chitosan-coated nanoparticles. Thus, LEVs provide a mechanism for shielded transport of nanoparticles to the lesion, cellular manipulation at multiple levels, and a means for targeting both within and between cells.
Project description:More effective treatment of metastasizing osteosarcoma with a current mean 5-year survival rate of less than 20% requires more detailed knowledge on mechanisms and key regulatory molecules of the complex metastatic process. CXCR4, the receptor of the chemokine CXCL12, has been reported to promote tumor progression and metastasis in osteosarcoma. CXCR7 is a recently deorphanized CXCL12-scavenging receptor with so far not well-defined functions in tumor biology. The present study focused on a potential malignancy enhancing function of CXCR7 in interaction with CXCR4 in osteosarcoma, which was investigated in an intratibial osteosarcoma model in SCID mice, making use of the human 143B osteosarcoma cell line that spontaneously metastasizes to the lung and expresses endogenous CXCR4. 143B osteosarcoma cells stably expressing LacZ (143B-LacZ cells) were retrovirally transduced with a gene encoding HA-tagged CXCR7 (143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells). 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells co-expressing CXCR7 and CXCR4 exhibited CXCL12 scavenging and enhanced adhesion to IL-1?-activated HUVEC cells compared to 143B-LacZ cells expressing CXCR4 alone. SCID mice intratibially injected with 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells had significantly (p<0.05) smaller primary tumors, but significantly (p<0.05) higher numbers of lung metastases than mice injected with 143B-LacZ cells. Unexpectedly, 143B-LacZ-X7-HA cells, unlike 143B-LacZ cells, also metastasized with high incidence to the auriculum cordis. In conclusion, expression of the CXCL12 scavenging receptor CXCR7 in the CXCR4-expressing human 143B osteosarcoma cell line enhances its metastatic activity in intratibial primary tumors in SCID mice that predominantly metastasize to the lung and thereby closely mimic the human disease. These findings point to CXCR7 as a target, complementary to previously proposed CXCR4, for more effective metastasis-suppressive treatment in osteosarcoma.
Project description:Lung metastasis constitutes the leading cause of the death in patients with osteosarcoma. We have previously reported that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates the invasion and lung metastasis of osteosarcoma cells in a mouse model and as well as in clinical samples. In the present study, we examined the anti-metastatic effect of SK-216, a small compound PAI-1 inhibitor, in human 143B osteosarcoma cells. An in vitro study showed that SK-216 treatment suppressed invasion activity by inhibiting PAI-1 expression in 143B cells, but had no influence on their proliferation or migration. 143B cells treated with SK-216 exhibited reduced matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of SK-216 into mouse models resulted in downregulation of PAI-1 expression levels in the primary tumors and showed suppression of lung metastases without influencing the proliferative activity of the tumor cells in the primary lesions. These results indicate that SK-216, a PAI-1 inhibitor, may serve as a novel drug to prevent lung metastasis in human osteosarcoma.
Project description:Nanomedicine, which is the application of nanotechnology in medicine to make medical diagnosis and treatment more accurate, has great potential for precision medicine. Despite some improvements in nanomedicine, the lack of efficient and low-toxic vectors remains a major obstacle.The aim of this study was to prepare an efficient and low-toxic vector which could deliver astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) small interfering RNA (siRNA; siAEG-1) into osteosarcoma cells effectively and silence the targeted gene both in vitro and in vivo.We prepared a novel polysaccharide derivative by click conjugation of azidized chitosan with propargyl focal point poly (L-lysine) dendrons (PLLD) and subsequent coupling with folic acid (FA; Cs-g-PLLD-FA). We confirmed the complexation of siAEG-1and Cs-g-PLLD or Cs-g-PLLD-FA by gel retardation assay. We examined the cell cytotoxicity, cell uptake, cell proliferation and invasion abilities of Cs-g-PLLD-FA/siAEG-1 in osteosarcoma cells. In osteosarcoma 143B cells tumor-bearing mice models, we established the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Cs-g-PLLD-FA/siAEG-1.Cs-g-PLLD-FA could completely encapsulate siAEG-1 and showed low cytotoxicity in osteosarcoma cells and tumour-bearing mice. The Cs-g-PLLD-FA/siAEG-1 nanocomplexes were capable of transferring siAEG-1 into osteosarcoma cells efficiently, and the knockdown of AEG-1 resulted in the inhibition of tumour cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, caudal vein injecting of Cs-g-PLLD-FA/siAEG-1 complexes inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in tumor-bearing mice by silencing AEG-1 and regulating MMP-2/9.In summary, Cs-g-PLLD-FA nanoparticles are a promising system for the effective delivery of AEG-1 siRNA for treating osteosarcoma.
Project description:Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), a phytochemical derived from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been shown to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. The association of its inhibitory effect on the primary malignant bone tumor, osteosarcoma, with mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effects of Tan IIA on human osteosarcoma 143B cells both in vitro and in vivo. Administration of Tan IIA to NOD-SCID mice implanted with 143B cells led to significant inhibition of tumor development. The inhibition of proliferation, migration, and invasion was observed in 143B cells treated with Tan IIA. The tumor proliferation markers, Ki67 and PCNA, were suppressed and apoptosis by TUNEL assay was activated respectively. Apoptosis in the Tan IIA-treated 143B cells and xerograft mice was associated with the activation of caspase cascade via the modulation of Bcl-2 family. The CD31 was inhibited in Tan IIA-treated xenografts to indicate anti-neovasculization. Tan IIA administration resulted in a significant decrease in the mitochondrial fusion proteins, Mfn1/2 and Opa1, as well as an increase in the fission protein Drp1. We concluded that mitochondrial dysfunction associated with dynamic change was involved in apoptosis and anti-angiogenesis elicited by Tan IIA.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex molecules produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter in anthropogenic activities. Novel composites with enhanced physicochemical properties aim to overcome limitations such as adsorption capacity, affinity, and stability for PAHs adsorption. Composites based on chitosan are promising due to the good biocompatibility and adsorption properties. This study focuses on the facile preparation of chitosan beads modified with iron oxide (FeO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles via ionic cross-linking (Ch-FeO/TiO2). FeO and TiO2 were synthesized performing co-precipitation and green chemistry methods, respectively. The characterization evidenced the formation of Ch-FeO/TiO2 with good crystallinity, excellent thermal stability, and superparamagnetic response, attributed to the presence of FeO and TiO2 nanoparticles. High thermal stability up to 270 °C was related to the cross-linked chitosan network. The enhanced adsorption mechanism of Ch-FeO/TiO2 was determined by removing naphthalene from water and seawater samples. The Ch-FeO/TiO2 showed a higher adsorption capacity of 33.1 mg/g compared to 29.8 mg/g of the unmodified chitosan (un-Ch) beads. This is due to the higher functional surface area of 27.13 m2/g, compared to that of 0.708 m2/g for un-Ch. We found a rapid adsorption rate of 240 min and the maximum adsorption capacity of 149.3 mg/g for Ch-FeO/TiO2. A large number of actives sites allows for increasing the naphthalene molecules interaction. Adsorption in seawater samples from Cartagena Bay (Colombia) exhibits an outstanding efficiency of up to 90%. These results suggest a promising, cheap, and environmentally friendly composite for remediation of water sources contaminated with complex compounds.