Analysis of an Integrated Solar Combined Cycle with Recuperative Gas Turbine and Double Recuperative and Double Expansion Propane Cycle
ABSTRACT: The main objective of this paper is to present and analyze an innovative configuration of integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC). As novelties, the plant includes a recuperative gas turbine and the conventional bottoming Rankine cycle is replaced by a recently developed double recuperative double expansion (DRDE) cycle. The configuration results in a fuel saving in the combustion chamber at the expense of a decreased exhaust gas temperature, which is just adequate to feed the DRDE cycle that uses propane as the working fluid. The solar contribution comes from a solar field of parabolic trough collectors, with oil as the heat transfer fluid. The optimum integration point for the solar contribution is addressed. The performance of the proposed ISCC-R-DRDE design conditions and off-design operation was assessed (daily and yearly) at two different locations. All results were compared to those obtained under the same conditions by a conventional ISCC, as well as similar configurations without solar integration. The proposed configuration obtains a lower heat rate on a yearly basis in the studied locations and lower levelized cost of energy (LCOE) than that of the ISCC, which indicates that such a configuration could become a promising technology.
Project description:To develop the organic Rankine-vapor compression ice maker driven by solar energy, a thermodynamic model was developed and the effects of generation temperature, condensation temperature, and working fluid types on the system performance were analyzed. The results show that the cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day depend largely on generation temperature and condensation temperature and they increase firstly and then decrease with increasing generation temperature. For every working fluid there is an optimal generation temperature at which organic Rankine efficiency achieves the maximum value. The cooling power per square meter collector and ice production per square meter collector per day are, respectively, 126.44 W m(-2) and 7.61 kg m(-2) day(-1) at the generation temperature of 140 °C for working fluid of R245fa, which demonstrates the feasibility of organic Rankine cycle powered vapor compression ice maker.
Project description:This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article "A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources" (Scardigno et al., 2015) . The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.
Project description:Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising candidates for the next generation of solar cells because they are easy to fabricate and have high power conversion efficiencies. However, there has been no detailed analysis of the cost of PSC modules. We selected two representative examples of PSCs and performed a cost analysis of their productions: one was a moderate-efficiency module produced from cheap materials, and the other was a high-efficiency module produced from expensive materials. The costs of both modules were found to be lower than those of other photovoltaic technologies. We used the calculated module costs to estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of PSCs. The LCOE was calculated to be 3.5-4.9 US cents/kWh with an efficiency and lifetime of greater than 12% and 15 years respectively, below the cost of traditional energy sources.
Project description:The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev-Ohl (even-odd) Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/lrsp-2015-4.
Project description:Magnetic clouds (MCs) are transient magnetic structures giving the strongest southward magnetic field (Bz south) in the solar wind. The sheath regions of MCs may also carry a southward magnetic field. The southward magnetic field is responsible for space-weather disturbances. We report a comprehensive analysis of MCs and Bz components in their sheath regions for 1995 to 2017. 85% of 303 MCs contain a south Bz up to 50 nT. Sheath Bz during the 23 years may reach as high as 40 nT. MCs of the strongest magnetic magnitude and Bz south occur in the declining phase of the solar cycle. Bipolar MCs depend on the solar cycle in their polarity, but not in the occurrence frequency. Unipolar MCs show solar-cycle dependence in their occurrence frequency, but not in their polarity. MCs with the highest speeds, the largest total- B magnitudes, and sheath Bz south originate from source regions closer to the solar disk center. About 80% of large Dst storms are caused by MC events. Combinations of a south Bz in the sheath and south-first MCs in close succession have caused the largest storms. The solar-cycle dependence of bipolar MCs is extended to 2017 and now spans 42 years. We find that the bipolar MC Bz polarity solar-cycle dependence is given by MCs that originated from quiescent filaments in decayed active regions and a group of weak MCs of unclear sources, while the polarity of bipolar MCs with active-region flares always has a mixed Bz polarity without solar-cycle dependence and is therefore the least predictable for Bz forecasting.<h4>Electronic supplementary material</h4>The online version of this article (10.1007/s11207-018-1356-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:We propose the use of whispering gallery mode coupling in a novel configuration based on implementing a thin film cell on the backside of an array of parallel fibers. We performed numerical calculations using the parameters of a thin film organic cell which demonstrate that light coupling becomes more effective as the angle for the incident light relative to the fiber array normal increases up to an optimal angle close to 55?deg. At this angle the power conversion efficiency of the fiber array solar cell we propose becomes 30% times larger than the one from an equivalent planar cell configuration. We demonstrate that the micro fiber array solar cell we propose may perform an effective partial tracking of the sun movement for over 100?degrees without any mechanical help. In addition, in the event that such fiber array cell would be installed with the adequate orientation on a vertical façade, an optimal photon-to-charge conversion would be reached for sunlight incident at 55?deg with respect to the horizon line, very close to the yearly average position for the sun at Latitude of 40?deg.
Project description:We report the use of a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging platform to identify and quantify pressure-dependent aqueous outflow system (AOS) tissue relationships and to infer mechanical stiffness through examination of tissue properties in ex vivo human eyes. Five enucleated human eyes are included in this study, with each eye prepared with four equal-sized quadrants, each encompassing 90 degrees of the limbal circumference. In radial limbal segments perfusion pressure within Schlemm's canal (SC) is controlled by means of a perfusion cannula inserted into the canal lumen, while the other end of the cannula leads to a reservoir at a height that can control the pressure in the cannula. The OCT system images the sample with a spatial resolution of about 5 ?m from the trabecular meshwork (TM) surface. Geometric parameters are quantified from the 2D OCT images acquired from the sample subjected to controlled changes in perfusion pressures; parameters include area and height of the lumen of SC, collector channel entrances (CCE) and intrascleral collector channels (ISCC). We show that 3D OCT imaging permits the identification of 3-D relationships of the SC, CCE and ISCC lumen dimensions. Collagen flaps or leaflets are found at CCE that are attached or hinged at only one end, whilst the flaps are connected to the TM by cylindrical structures spanning SC. Increasing static SC pressures resulted in SC lumen enlargement with corresponding enlargement of the CCE and ISCC lumen. Pressure-dependent SC lumen area and height changes are significant at the 0.01 levels for ANOVA, and at the 0.05 for both polynomial curves and Tukey paired comparisons. Dynamic measurements demonstrate a synchronous increase in SC, CCE and ISCC lumen height in response to pressure changes from 0 to 10, 30 or 50 mm Hg, respectively, and the response time is within the 50-millisecond range. From the measured SC volume and corresponding IOP values, we demonstrate that an elastance curve can be developed to infer the mechanical stiffness of the TM by means of quantifying pressure-dependent SC volume changes over a 2 mm radial region of SC. Our study finds pressure-dependent motion of the TM that corresponds to collagen leaflet configuration motion at CCE; the synchronous tissue motion also corresponds with synchrony of SC and CCE lumen dimension changes.
Project description:This data show the combination of parabolic through solar system with CH<sub>4</sub> cycle and power tower solar system with Cu-Cl cycle for hydrogen production capacity in the city of Gharadaia which is located in the south of Algeria. A proper measurement of meteorological factors such as temperature, humidity, and solar irradiation has been done in the city of Ghardaia due to the solar concentration in this city. In the meantime thermo-chemical systems (Cu-Cl, CH4 cycles) have been integrated with the thermal solar systems through.
Project description:Extreme cosmic radiation events occurred in the years 774/5 and 993/4 CE, as revealed by anomalies in the concentration of radiocarbon in known-age tree-rings. Most hypotheses point towards intense solar storms as the cause for these events, although little direct experimental support for this claim has thus far come to light. In this study, we perform very high-precision accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements on dendrochronological tree-rings spanning the years of the events of interest, as well as the Carrington Event of 1859 CE, which is recognized as an extreme solar storm even though it did not generate an anomalous radiocarbon signature. Our data, comprising 169 new and previously published measurements, appear to delineate the modulation of radiocarbon production due to the Schwabe (11-year) solar cycle. Moreover, they suggest that all three events occurred around the maximum of the solar cycle, adding experimental support for a common solar origin.
Project description:Preinvasive squamous cell cancer (PSCC) are local transformations of bronchial epithelia that are frequently observed in current or former smokers. Their different grades and sizes suggest a continuum of dysplastic change with increasing severity, which may culminate in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC). As a consequence of the difficulty in isolating cancerous cells from biopsies, the molecular pathology that underlies their histological variability remains largely unknown.To address this issue, we have employed microdissection to isolate normal bronchial epithelia and cancerous cells from low- and high-grade PSCC and ISCC, from paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies and determined gene expression using Affymetric Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Tests for differential gene expression were performed using the Bioconductor package limma followed by functional analyses of differentially expressed genes in IPA.Examination of differential gene expression showed small differences between low- and high-grade PSCC but substantial changes between PSCC and ISCC samples (184 vs 1200 p-value <0.05, fc ±1.75). However, the majority of the differentially expressed PSCC genes (142 genes: 77%) were shared with those in ISCC samples. Pathway analysis showed that these shared genes are associated with DNA damage response, DNA/RNA metabolism and inflammation as major biological themes. Cluster analysis identified 12 distinct patterns of gene expression including progressive up or down-regulation across PSCC and ISCC. Pathway analysis of incrementally up-regulated genes revealed again significant enrichment of terms related to DNA damage response, DNA/RNA metabolism, inflammation, survival and proliferation. Altered expression of selected genes was confirmed using RT-PCR, as well as immunohistochemistry in an independent set of 45 ISCCs.Gene expression profiles in PSCC and ISCC differ greatly in terms of numbers of genes with altered transcriptional activity. However, altered gene expression in PSCC affects canonical pathways and cellular and biological processes, such as inflammation and DNA damage response, which are highly consistent with hallmarks of cancer.