Whey protein isolate inhibits hepatic FGF21 production, which precedes weight gain, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in mice fed a high-fat diet.
ABSTRACT: Insufficient expression of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and stromal cell-derived factor 2 like 1 (Sdf2l1) reportedly leads to insulin resistance and hepatosteatosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes. On the other hand, increased expression of hepatic serotonin receptor 2a (htr2a) in diet-induced obesity contributes to hepatosteatosis. Here we show that increases in circulating FGF21 levels and expression of hepatic FGF21 preceded weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia in C57BLJ6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Expression of hepatic htr2a and Sdf2l1 increased in insulin-resistant mice fed a high-fat diet. Intake of whey protein isolate decreased plasma FGF21 levels and expression of hepatic FGF21 in mice fed either a high-fat diet or a chow diet, whereas it only suppressed the overexpression of hepatic Sdf2 and htr2a in insulin-resistant mice fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, intake of whey protein isolate decreased plasma serotonin levels in mice fed either a high-fat diet or a chow diet. Genetic inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 decreased hepatic FGF21 expression and plasma FGF21 levels in mice. These findings suggest that increased hepatic FGF21 production precedes diet-induced weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia, and that intake of whey protein isolate could inhibit hepatic FGF21 production by suppressing peripheral serotonin synthesis.
Project description:Purpose: While various functions of peripheral serotonin are known, the direct role of serotonin in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism in vivo is not well understood. We studied whether serotonin directly acts on liver to regulate lipid metabolism. Methods: Methods: 12 weeks aged liver-specific Htr2a KO (Albumin-Cre+/-; Htr2aflox/flox, herein named Htr2a LKO) mice and wildtype (WT) littermates were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat calories) for 8 weeks. Results: Hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, NAFLD activity score, and hepatic triglyceride levels were dramatically reduced in HFD-fed Htr2a LKO mice compared to WT littermates. Conclusions: Gut-derived serotonin is a direct regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism via a gut TPH1-liver HTR2A endocrine axis. And shows promise as a novel drug target to ameliorate NAFLD with minimal systemic metabolic effects. Overall design: Liver mRNA profiles of wild type (WT) and Htr2a LKO mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina Hiseq.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing in worldwide prevalence, closely tracking the obesity epidemic, but specific pharmaceutical treatments for NAFLD are lacking. Defining the key molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD is essential for developing new drugs. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of gut-derived serotonin synthesis ameliorates hepatic steatosis through a reduction in liver serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) signaling. Local serotonin concentrations in the portal blood, which can directly travel to and affect the liver, are selectively increased by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice. Both gut-specific Tph1 knockout mice and liver-specific Htr2a knockout mice are resistant to HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, without affecting systemic energy homeostasis. Moreover, selective HTR2A antagonist treatment prevents HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Thus, the gut TPH1-liver HTR2A axis shows promise as a drug target to ameliorate NAFLD with minimal systemic metabolic effects.
Project description:Insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis are the most common complications of obesity. Pitaya is an important source of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, flavonoid and vitamin C which are related to its antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of white pitaya juice (WPJ) on obesity-related metabolic disorders (e.g. insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis) in high-fat diet-fed mice. Forty-eight male C57BL/6J mice were assigned into four groups and fed low-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ, or fed high-fat diet with free access to water or WPJ for 14 weeks. Our results showed that administration of WPJ improved high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and adipose hypertrophy, but it exerted no influence on body weight gain in mice. Hepatic gene expression analysis indicated that WPJ supplement not only changed the expression profile of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism (Srebp1, HMGCoR, Cpt1b, HL, Insig1 and Insig2) but also significantly increased the expression levels of FGF21-related genes (Klb, FGFR2, Egr1 and cFos). In conclusion, WPJ protected from diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, which was associated with the improved FGF21 resistance and lipid metabolism.
Project description:The role of posttranscriptional metabolic gene regulatory programs in diabetes is not well understood. Here, we show that the RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) is reduced in the livers of diabetic mice and humans and is transcriptionally induced in response to insulin treatment in murine livers in vitro and in vivo. Liver-specific Ttp-KO (lsTtp-KO) mice challenged with high-fat diet (HFD) have improved glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity compared with littermate controls. Analysis of secreted hepatic factors demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is posttranscriptionally repressed by TTP. Consistent with increased FGF21, lsTtp-KO mice fed HFD have increased brown fat activation, peripheral tissue glucose uptake, and adiponectin production compared with littermate controls. Downregulation of hepatic Fgf21 via an adeno-associated virus-driven shRNA in mice fed HFD reverses the insulin-sensitizing effects of hepatic Ttp deletion. Thus, hepatic TTP posttranscriptionally regulates systemic insulin sensitivity in diabetes through liver-derived FGF21.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity is defined as excessive fat mass and is a major cause of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Increasing energy expenditure and regulating adipose tissue metabolism are important targets for the treatment of obesity. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptophan [5-HT]) is a monoamine metabolite of the essential amino acid tryptophan. Here, we demonstrated that 5-HT in mature adipocytes regulated energy expenditure and lipid metabolism. METHODS:Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) is the rate-limiting enzyme during 5-HT synthesis in non-neural peripheral tissues. We generated adipose tissue-specific Tph1 knockout (Tph1 FKO) mice and adipose tissue-specific serotonin receptor 2A KO (Htr2a FKO) mice and analyzed their phenotypes during high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. RESULTS:Tph1 FKO mice fed HFD exhibited reduced lipid accumulation, increased thermogenesis, and resistance to obesity. In addition, Htr2a FKO mice fed HFD showed reduced lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue and resistance to obesity. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that the inhibition of serotonin signaling might be an effective strategy in obesity.
Project description:We sought to evaluate the effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon, BM) extract on insulin sensitivity, NAFLD, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling in mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57/B6 mice were randomly divided into HFD and HFD supplementation with BM for 12 week. Body weight, plasma glucose, FGF21 and insulin levels, hepatic FGF21 and AMPK signaling proteins were measured. The results showed that plasma FGF21 and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased and hepatic FGF21 content was significantly down-regulated, while FGF receptors 1, 3 and 4 (FGFR1, FGFR3 and FGFR4) were greatly up-regulated in BM group compared to the HFD group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). BM also significantly increased hepatic AMPK p, AMPK ?1 AMPK ?2 and Sirt1 content compared to the HFD mice. We, for the first time, demonstrated that BM extract attenuated hepatic steatosis in mice by enhancing hepatic FGF21 and AMPK/Sirt1 signaling.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important beneficial regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis but its levels are also abnormally increased in insulin-resistant states in rodents and humans. The synthetic retinoid Fenretinide inhibits obesity and improves glucose homeostasis in mice and has pleotropic effects on cellular pathways. To identify Fenretinide target genes, we performed unbiased RNA-seq analysis in liver from mice fed high-fat diet?±?Fenretinide. Strikingly, Fgf21 was the most downregulated hepatic gene. Fenretinide normalised elevated levels of FGF21 in both high-fat diet-induced obese mice and in genetically obese-diabetic Leprdbmice. Moreover, Fenretinide-mediated suppression of FGF21 was independent of body weight loss or improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and importantly does not induce unhealthy metabolic complications. In mice which have substantially decreased endogenous retinoic acid biosynthesis, Fgf21 expression was increased, whereas acute pharmacological retinoid treatment decreased FGF21 levels. The repression of FGF21 levels by Fenretinide occurs by reduced binding of RAR? and Pol-II at the Fgf21 promoter. We therefore establish Fgf21 as a novel gene target of Fenretinide signalling via a retinoid-dependent mechanism. These results may be of nutritional and therapeutic importance for the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes.
Project description:The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling pathway is implicated in metabolic syndrome, including dysregulated blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a target of the hepatic JNK-signaling pathway and may contribute to the regulation of glycemia. To test the role of FGF21, we established mice with selective ablation of the Fgf21 gene in hepatocytes. FGF21 deficiency in the liver caused marked loss of FGF21 protein circulating in the blood. Moreover, the protective effects of hepatic JNK deficiency to suppress metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice were not observed in mice with hepatocyte-specific FGF21 deficiency, including reduced blood glucose concentration and reduced intolerance to glucose and insulin. Furthermore, we show that JNK contributes to the regulation of hepatic FGF21 expression during fasting/feeding cycles. These data demonstrate that the hepatokine FGF21 is a key mediator of JNK-regulated metabolic syndrome.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Methionine restriction (MR) decreases inflammation and improves markers of metabolic disease in rodents. MR also increases hepatic and circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Emerging evidence has suggested that FGF21 exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of FGF21 in mediating the MR-induced reduction in inflammation.<h4>Methods</h4>Wild-type and Fgf21<sup>-/-</sup> mice were fed a high-fat (HF) control or HF-MR diet for 8 weeks. In a separate experiment, mice were fed a HF diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. Vehicle or recombinant FGF21 (13.6 µg/d) was administered via osmotic minipump for an additional 2 weeks. Inflammation and metabolic parameters were measured.<h4>Results</h4>Fgf21<sup>-/-</sup> mice were more susceptible to HFD-induced inflammation, and MR reduced inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver of Fgf21<sup>-/-</sup> mice. MR downregulated activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in WAT of both genotypes. FGF21 administration reduced hepatic lipids and blood glucose concentrations. However, there was little effect of FGF21 on inflammatory gene expression in liver or adipose tissue or circulating cytokines.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MR reduces inflammation independent of FGF21 action. Endogenous FGF21 is important to protect against the development of HFD-induced inflammation in liver and WAT, yet administration of low-dose FGF21 has little effect on markers of inflammation.
Project description:Adipose tissue lipolysis produces glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) that serve as energy sources during nutrient scarcity. Adipose tissue lipolysis is tightly regulated and excessive lipolysis causes hepatic steatosis, as NEFA released from adipose tissue constitutes a major source of TG in the liver of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Here we show that the liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is activated by TG accumulation and induces FGF21, which suppresses adipose tissue lipolysis, ameliorating hepatic steatosis. CREBH-deficient mice developed severe hepatic steatosis due to increased adipose tissue lipolysis, when fasted or fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. FGF21 production was impaired in CREBH-deficient mice, and adenoviral overexpression of FGF21 suppressed adipose tissue lipolysis and improved hepatic steatosis in these mice. Thus, our results uncover a negative feedback loop in which CREBH regulates NEFA flux from adipose tissue to the liver via FGF21.