Establishing A High Sensitivity Detection Method for SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG and Developing a Clinical Application of this Method.
ABSTRACT: COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and was initially discovered in Wuhan. This outbreak quickly spread all over China and then to more than 20 other countries. SARS-CoV-2 fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strips were prepared by the combination of time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay with a lateral flow assay. The analytical performance and clinical evaluation of this testing method was done and the clinical significance of the testing method was verified. The LLOD of SARS-CoV-2 antibody IgG and IgM was 0.121U/L and 0.366U/L. The specificity of IgM and IgG strips in healthy people and in patients with non-COVID-19 disease was 94%, 96.72% and 95.50%, 99.49%, respectively; and sensitivity of IgM and IgG strips for patients during treatment and follow-up was 63.02%, 37.61% and 87.28%, 90.17%, respectively. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody test strip can provide rapid, flexible and accurate testing, and is able to meet the clinical requirement for rapid on-site testing of virus. The ability to detect IgM and IgG provided a significant benefit for the detection and prediction of clinical course with COVID-19 patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Besides SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing, serological testing is emerging as additional option in COVID-19 diagnostics. Aim of this study was to evaluate novel immunoassays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human plasma. METHODS:Using EDITM Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs), we measured SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies in 64 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients with serial blood samples (n = 104) collected at different time points from symptom onset. Blood samples from 200 healthy blood donors and 256 intensive care unit (ICU) patients collected before the COVID-19 outbreak were also used. RESULTS:The positivity rates in the COVID-19 patients were 5.9% for IgM and 2.9% for IgG ? 5 days after symptom onset; Between day 5 and day 10 the positivity rates were 37.1% for IgM and 37.1% for IgG and rose to 76.4% for IgM and 82.4% for IgG after > 10-15 days. After 15-22 days the "true" positivity rates were 94.4% for IgM and 100% for IgG. The "false" positivity rates were 0.5% for IgM and 1.0% for IgG in the healthy blood donors, 1.6% for IgM and 1.2% for IgG in ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows high "true" vs. low "false" positivity rates for the EDITM SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG ELISAs.
Project description:PCR methods are presently the standard for the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but additional methodologies are needed to complement PCR methods, which have some limitations. Here, we validated and investigated the usefulness of measuring serum antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using the iFlash3000 CLIA analyzer. We measured IgM and IgG titers against SARS-CoV-2 in sera collected from 26 PCR-positive COVID-19 patients, 53 COVID-19-suspected but PCR-negative patients, and 20 and 100 randomly selected non-COVID-19 patients who visited our hospital in 2020 and 2017, respectively. The repeatability and within-laboratory precision were obviously good in validations, following to the CLSI document EP15-A3. Linearity was also considered good between 0.6 AU/mL and 112.7 AU/mL for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and between 3.2 AU/mL and 55.3 AU/mL for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, while the linearity curves plateaued above the upper measurement range. We also confirmed that the seroconversion and no-antibody titers were over the cutoff values in all 100 serum samples collected in 2017. These results indicate that this measurement system successfully detects SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG. We observed four false-positive cases in the IgM assay and no false-positive cases in the IgG assay when 111 serum samples known to contain autoantibodies were evaluated. The concordance rates of the antibody test with the PCR test were 98.1% for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and 100% for IgG among PCR-negative cases and 30.8% for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and 73.1% for SARS-CoV-2 IgG among PCR-positive cases. In conclusion, the performance of this new automated method for detecting antibody against both N and S proteins of SARS-CoV-2 is sufficient for use in laboratory testing.
Project description:According to anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroresponse in patients with COVID-19 from Croatia, we emphasised the issue of different serological tests and need for combining diagnostic methods for COVID-19 diagnosis. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG ELISA and IgM/IgG immunochromatographic assay (ICA) were used for testing 60 sera from 21 patients (6 with severe, 10 moderate, and 5 with mild disease). The main clinical, demographic, and haemato-biochemical data were analysed. The most common symptoms were cough (95.2%), fever (90.5%), and fatigue and shortness of breath (42.9%). Pulmonary opacities showed 76.2% of patients. Within the first 7 days of illness, seropositivity for ELISA IgA and IgG was 42.9% and 7.1%, and for ICA IgM and IgG 25% and 10.7%, respectively. From day 8 after onset, ELISA IgA and IgG seropositivity was 90.6% and 68.8%, and for ICA IgM and IgG 84.4% and 75%, respectively. In general, sensitivity for ELISA IgA and IgG was 68.3% and 40%, and for ICA IgM and IgG 56.7% and 45.0%, respectively. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody distributions by each method were statistically different (ICA IgM vs. IgG, p?=?0.016; ELISA IgG vs. IgA, p?<?0.001). Antibody response in COVID-19 varies and depends on the time the serum is taken, on the severity of disease, and on the type of test used. IgM and IgA antibodies as early-stage disease markers are comparable, although they cannot replace each other. Simultaneous IgM/IgG/IgA anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing followed by the confirmation of positive findings with another test in a two-tier testing is recommended.
Project description:Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic areas complicates the diagnosis of both infections. COVID-19 cases may be misdiagnosed as dengue, particularly when relying on DENV IgM, which can remain positive months after infection. To estimate the extent of this problem, we evaluated sera from 42 confirmed COVID-19 patients for evidence of DENV infection. No cases of SARS-CoV-2 and DENV coinfection were identified. However, recent DENV infection, indicated by the presence of DENV IgM and/or high level of IgG antibodies, was found in seven patients. Dengue virus IgM and/or high IgG titer should not exclude COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is appropriate when dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) or RT-PCR is negative. Given the possibility of coinfection, testing for both DENV and SARS-CoV-2 is merited in the setting of the current pandemic.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To explore the clinical value of serum IgM and IgG to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19.<h4>Methods</h4>105 COVID-19 patients were enrolled as the disease group. 197 non-COVID-19 patients served as the control group. Magnetic chemiluminescent immunoassay (MCLIA) was used to detect the IgM and IgG.<h4>Results</h4>The peak of positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 IgM was about 1 week earlier than that of IgG. It reached to peak within 15-21 days and then began a slowly decline. The positive rates of IgG were increased with the disease course and reached the peak between 22 and 39 days. The differences in sensitivity of the three detection modes (IgM, IgG, and IgM + IgG) were statistically significant. The largest group of test cases (illness onset 15-21 days) showed that the positive rate of IgG was higher than IgM. Also, the sensitivity of IgM combined with IgG was higher than IgM or IgG. IgM and IgG were monitored dynamically for 16 patients with COVID-19, the results showed that serological transformation of IgM was carried out simultaneously with IgG in seven patients, which was earlier than IgG in four patients and later than IgG in five patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG is very important to determine the course of COVID-19. Nucleic acid detection combined with serum antibody of SARS-CoV-2 may be the best laboratory indicator for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the phrase and predication for prognosis of COVID-19.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Antibody testing has recently emerged as an option to assist with determining exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Elucidation of the kinetics and duration of the humoral response is important for clinical management and interpreting results from serological surveys.<br><br><b>Objectives: </b>Here we evaluated the clinical performance of Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG assays, as well as the longitudinal dynamics of the antibody response in symptomatic COVID-19 patients.<br><br><b>Study design and results: </b>The diagnostic specificity was 100 % for IgM and 99.67 % for IgG using 300 pre-COVID-19 serum specimens. Using 1349 sequential serum samples collected up to 168 days post symptom onset from 427 PCR-confirmed individuals, clinical test sensitivity of the SARS-CoV-2 IgM assay was 24.6 % at ?7 days, 75.3 % at 8-14 days, 95.0 % at 15-21 days, and 96.0 % at 4-5 weeks (peak test sensitivity). The median duration of time for IgM seroconversion was 10 days. IgM levels declined steadily 4-5 weeks after symptom onset, and the positive rate dropped to 30.8 % at >3 months. The diagnostic sensitivity for the SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay post symptom onset was 23.2 % at ?7 days, 69.5 % at 8-14 days, 93.6 % at 15-21 days, and 99.6 % at 4-5 weeks (peak test sensitivity). The median duration of time for IgG seroconversion was 11.5 days. During the convalescent phase of the infection, a decline in the IgG level was observed in patients who were followed for >100 days. Despite that decline, 92.3 % of the patient cohort remained IgG positive 3-6 months following symptom onset.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>This study demonstrates the Abbott IgM assay against SARS-CoV-2 is detected slightly earlier compared to IgG, with both tests exhibiting excellent overall sensitivity and specificity. In symptomatic patients who test negative by PCR for a SARS-CoV-2 infection, assessing IgM and IgG antibodies can aid in supporting a diagnosis of COVID-19.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging threat worldwide. This study aims to assess the serologic profiles and time kinetics of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with COVID-19 using two immunoassays.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 97 samples serially collected from 17 patients with COVID-19 and 137 negative control samples were analyzed for IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 using the AFIAS COVID-19 Ab (Boditech Med Inc., Chuncheon, Republic of Korea) and the EDI™ Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 ELISA Kit (Epitope Diagnostics, Inc., San Diego, CA).<h4>Results</h4>With both assays, IgM and IgG rapidly increased after 7 days post symptom onset (PSO). IgM antibody levels reached a peak at 15-35 d PSO and gradually decreased. IgG levels gradually increased and remained at similar levels after 22-35 d. The diagnostic sensitivities of IgM/IgG for ?14d PSO were 21.4%/35.7~57.1% and increased to 41.2~52.9%/88.2~94.1% at >14 d PSO with specificities of 98.5%/94.2% for AFIAS COVID-19 Ab and 100.0%/96.4% for EDI™ Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 ELISA Kit. Among 137 negative controls, 12 samples (8.8%) showed positive or indeterminate results.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The antibody kinetics against SARS-CoV-2 are similar to common findings of acute viral infectious diseases. Antibody testing is useful for ruling out SARS-CoV-2 infection after 14 d PSO, detecting past infection, and epidemiologic surveys.
Project description:The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic of the respiratory disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Antibody testing is essential to identify persons exposed to the virus and potentially in predicting disease immunity. 183 COVID-19 patients (68 of whom required mechanical ventilation) and 41 controls were tested for plasma IgG, IgA and IgM against the SARS-CoV-2 S1, S2, receptor binding domain (RBD) and N proteins using the MILLIPLEX <sup>®</sup> SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Panel. Plasma cytokines were concurrently measured using the MILLIPLEX® MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine/Growth Factor Panel A. As expected the 183 COVID-19 positive patients had high levels of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies against each of the viral proteins. Sensitivity of anti-S1 IgG increased from 60% to 93% one week after symptom onset. S1-IgG and S1-IgA had specificities of 98% compared to the 41 COVID-19 negative patients. The 68 ventilated COVID-19 positive patients had higher antibody levels than the 115 COVID-19 positive patients who were not ventilated. IgG antibody levels against S1 protein had the strongest positive correlation to days from symptom onset. There were no statistically significant differences in IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against S1 based on age. We found that patients with the highest levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies had the lowest viral load in the nasopharynx. Finally there was a correlation of high plasma IL-10 with low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, as measured by a novel antigen panel, increased within days after symptom onset, achieving > 90% sensitivity and specificity within one week, and were highest in patients who required mechanical ventilation. Antibody levels were inversely associated with viral load but did not differ as a function of age. The correlation of high IL-10 with low antibody response suggests a potentially suppressive role of this cytokine in the humoral immune response in COVID-19.
Project description:The emerging COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection poses severe challenges to global public health. Serum antibody testing is becoming one of the critical methods for the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients. We investigated IgM and IgG responses against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) protein after symptom onset in the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients. 130 blood samples from 38 COVID-19 patients were collected. The levels of IgM and IgG specific to N and S protein were detected by ELISA. A series of blood samples were collected along the disease course from the same patient, including 11 ICU patients and 27 non-ICU patients for longitudinal analysis. N and S specific IgM and IgG (N-IgM, N-IgG, S-IgM, S-IgG) in non-ICU patients increased after symptom onset. N-IgM and S-IgM in some non-ICU patients reached a peak in the second week, while N-IgG and S-IgG continued to increase in the third week. The combined detection of N and S specific IgM and IgG could identify up to 75% of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in the first week. S-IgG was significantly higher in non-ICU patients than in ICU patients in the third week. In contrast, N-IgG was significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients. The increase of S-IgG positively correlated with the decrease of C-reactive protein (CRP) in non-ICU patients. N and S specific IgM and IgG increased gradually after symptom onset and can be used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Analysis of the dynamics of S-IgG may help to predict prognosis.
Project description:The rapidly spreading outbreak of COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. As of June 17, 2020, this virus has infected over 8.2 million people but ranges in symptom severity, making it difficult to assess its overall infection rate. There is a need for rapid and accurate diagnostics to better monitor and prevent the spread of COVID-19. In this review, we present and evaluate two main types of diagnostics with FDA-EUA status for COVID-19: nucleic acid testing for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and serological assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgM patient antibodies, along with the necessary sample preparation for accurate diagnoses. In particular, we cover and compare tests such as the CDC 2019-nCoV RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel, Cellex's qSARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test, and point-of-care tests such as Abbott's ID NOW COVID-19 Test. Antibody testing is especially important in understanding the prevalence of the virus in the community and to identify those who have gained immunity. We conclude by highlighting the future of COVID-19 diagnostics, which include the need for quantitative testing and the development of emerging biosensors as point-of-care tests.