Quantitative Profiling of Oxylipins in Acute Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT: Oxylipins are a series of bioactive lipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids that are involved in cerebral homeostasis and the development of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, comprehensive quantification of the oxylipin profile in ICH remains unknown. Therefore, an ICH mouse model was constructed and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was then performed to quantify the change in oxylipins in ICH. The expression of the oxylipin relative enzymes was also reanalyzed based on RNA-seq data from our constructed ICH dataset. A total of 58 oxylipins were quantifiable and the levels of 17 oxylipins increased while none decreased significantly in the first 3 days following ICH. The most commonly increased oxylipins in ICH were derived from AA (10/17) and EPA (4/17) followed by LA (2/17) and DHA (1/17). 18-HEPE from EPA was the only oxylipin that remained significantly increased from 0.5 to 3 days following ICH. Furthermore, 14 of the increased oxylipins reached a peak level on the first day of ICH, and soon decreased while five oxylipins (PGJ2, 15-oxo-ETE, 12-HEPE, 18-HEPE, and 5-oxo-ETE) had increased 3 days after ICH suggesting that the profile shifted with the progression of ICH. In our constructed RNA-seq dataset based on ICH rats, 90 oxylipin relative molecules were detected except for COX. Among these, Cyp4f18, Cyp1b1, Cyp2d3, Cyp2e1, Cyp1a1, ALOX5AP, and PLA2g4a were found up-regulated and Cyp26b1 was found to decrease in ICH. In addition, there was no significant change in sEH in ICH. This study provides fundamental data on the profile of oxylipins and their enzymes in ICH. We found that the profile shifted as the progression of ICH and the metabolism of arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid was highly affected in ICH, which will help further studies explore the functions of oxylipins in ICH.
Project description:5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) are major metabolites produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Effects of hydroxides on endothelial cells are unclear, although 5-LOX is known to increase at arteriosclerotic lesions. To investigate the effects of hydroxides on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the cells were treated with 50 ?M each of AA, EPA, 5-HETE, and 5-HEPE. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HETE and 5-HEPE, rather than with AA and EPA, increased the nuclear translocation of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and cystine/glutamate transporter regulated by Nrf2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was markedly elevated in HUVECs after treatment with 5-HETE and 5-HEPE, and the pretreatment with ?-tocopherol abrogated ROS levels similar to those in the vehicle control. However, ROS generation was independent of Nrf2 activation induced by 5-HETE and 5-HEPE. 5-HETE was converted to 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) in HUVECs, and 5-oxo-ETE increased Nrf2 activation. These results suggest that 5-HETE works as an Nrf2 activator through the metabolite 5-oxo-ETE in HUVECs. Similarly, 5-HEPE works in the same way, because 5-HEPE is metabolized to 5-oxo-eicosapentaenoic acid through the same pathway as that for 5-HETE.
Project description:The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo oil (5.0 g of corn/soy mixture). A total of 116 subjects (68% female, 20-59 years old) of African American ancestry enrolled, and 98 subjects completed the study. Neither ALOX5 protein nor arachidonic acid-derived LTB4, LTD4, and LTE4 varied by genotype, but 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate (5-HETE), 6-trans-LTB4, 5-oxo-ETE, 15-HETE, and 5,15-diHETE levels were higher in subjects homozygous for the ALOX5 promoter allele containing five Sp1 element tandem repeats ("55" genotype) than in subjects with one deletion (d) (three or four repeats) and one common ("d5" genotype) allele or with two deletion ("dd") alleles. The EPA-derived metabolites 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE and the DHA-derived metabolite 17-HDoHE had similar associations with genotype and increased with supplementation; 5-HEPE and 15-HEPE increased, and 5-oxo-ETE decreased to a greater degree in the 55 than in the other genotypes. This differential eicosanoid response is consistent with the previously observed interaction of these variants with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in predicting cardiovascular disease risk.
Project description:Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) such as EPA and DHA have been shown to possess beneficial health effects, and it is believed that many of their effects are mediated by their oxygenated products (oxylipins). Recently, we have shown that serum levels of several hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FAs are dependent on the individual status of the parent FAs in a cohort of normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects. So far, the effect of an increased dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake on hydroxy, epoxy, and dihydroxy FA levels has not been investigated in subjects with mild combined hyperlipidemia.In the present study, we compared oxylipin patterns of 10 hyperlipidemic (cholesterol >200mg/dl; triglyceride >150mg/ml) and 10 normolipidemic men in response to twelve weeks of LC n-3 PUFA intake (1.14g DHA and 1.56g EPA). Levels of 44 free hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy FAs were analyzed in serum by LC-MS. Additionally, oxylipin levels were compared with their parent PUFA levels in erythrocyte membranes; a biomarker for the individual PUFA status.Differences in the oxylipin pattern between normo- and hyperlipidemic subjects were minor before and after treatment. In all subjects, levels of EPA-derived oxylipins (170-4800pM) were considerably elevated after LC n-3 PUFA intake (150-1400%), the increase of DHA-derived oxylipins (360-3900pM) was less pronounced (30-130%). The relative change of EPA in erythrocyte membranes is strongly correlated (r?0.5; p<0.05) with the relative change of corresponding epoxy and dihydroxy FA serum levels. The effect on arachidonic acid (AA)-derived oxylipin levels (140-27,100pM) was inconsistent.The dietary LC PUFA composition has a direct influence on the endogenous oxylipin profile, including several highly biological active EPA- and DHA-derived lipid mediators. The shift in oxylipin pattern appears to be dependent on the initial LC PUFA status particularly for EPA. The finding that also levels of other oxylipins derived from ALA, LA or AA are modified by LC n-3 PUFA intake might suggest that at least some of the effects of EPA and DHA could be mediated by a shift in the entire oxylipin profile.
Project description:Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects.In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48h of fish oil (1008mg EPA and 672mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC-MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids.All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed.Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Conflicting findings in both interventional and observational studies have resulted in a lack of consensus on the benefits of ?3 fatty acids in reducing disease risk. This may be due to individual variability in response. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to investigate both the consistent and inconsistent responses of individuals comprehensively to a defined ?3 intervention.<h4>Methods</h4>The lipidomic profile including fatty acids, lipid classes, lipoprotein distribution, and oxylipins was examined multi- and uni-variately in 12 healthy subjects pre vs. post six weeks of ?3 fatty acids (1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]).<h4>Results</h4>Total lipidomic and oxylipin profiles were significantly different pre vs. post treatment across all subjects (p=0.00007 and p=0.00002 respectively). There was a strong correlation between oxylipin profiles and EPA and DHA incorporated into different lipid classes (r(2)=0.93). However, strikingly divergent responses among individuals were also observed. Both ?3 and ?6 fatty acid metabolites displayed a large degree of variation among the subjects. For example, in half of the subjects, two arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and a lipoxygenase product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) significantly decreased post intervention, whereas in the other half they either did not change or increased. The EPA lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE) varied among subjects from an 82% decrease to a 5,000% increase.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results show that certain defined responses to ?3 fatty acid intervention were consistent across all subjects. However, there was also a high degree of inter-individual variability in certain aspects of lipid metabolism. This lipidomic based phenotyping approach demonstrated that individual responsiveness to ?3 fatty acids is highly variable and measurable, and could be used as a means to assess the effectiveness of ?3 interventions in modifying disease risk and determining metabolic phenotype.
Project description:12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and phytoprostane A1 (PPA1) are cyclopentenone oxylipins that are formed via the enzymatic jasmonate pathway and a nonenzymatic, free radical–catalyzed pathway, respectively. Both types of cyclopentenone oxylipins induce the expression of genes related to detoxification, stress responses, and secondary metabolism, a profile clearly distinct from that of the cyclopentanone jasmonic acid. To investigate the role of TGA transcriction factors in oxylipin responses, the regulation of gene expression by OPDA and PPA1 defective in the expression of TGA2, TGA5, and TGA6 was analyzed using Affymetrix ATH1 chips. Keywords: Arabidopsis tga2-5-6 mutant, Oxylipin treatment, ATH1 Chip Overall design: 18 hybs total
Project description:The long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) have beneficial health effects, but the molecular mediators of these effects are not well characterized. Oxygenated n-3 FAs (oxylipins) may be an important class of mediators. Members of this chemical class include epoxides, alcohols, diols, and ketones, many of which have bioactivity in vitro. Neither the presence of n-3 oxylipins in human plasma nor the effect of n-3 FA ingestion on their levels has been documented. We measured plasma oxylipins derived from both the n-3 and n-6 FA classes in healthy volunteers (n = 10) before and after 4 weeks of treatment with prescription n-3 FA ethyl esters (4 g/day). At baseline, EPA and DHA oxylipins were detected in low (1-50 nM) range, with alcohols > epoxides >or= diols. Treatment increased n-3 oxylipin levels 2- to 5-fold and reduced selected n-6 oxylipins by approximately 20%. This is the first documentation that endogenous n-3 oxylipin levels can be modulated by n-3 FA treatment in humans. The extent to which the beneficial cardiovascular effects of n-3 FAs are mediated by increased n-3 and/or reduced n-6 oxylipin levels remains to be explored.
Project description:Oxylipins are potent lipid mediators demonstrated to initiate and regulate inflammation yet little is known regarding their involvement in the response to surgical trauma. As key modulators of the inflammatory response, oxylipins have the potential to provide novel insights into the physiological response to surgery and the pathophysiology of post-operative complications. We aimed to investigate the effects of major surgery on longitudinal oxylipin profile.Adults patients undergoing elective laparoscopic or open colorectal resections were included. Primary outcomes were serum oxylipin profile quantified by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, serum white cell count and C-reactive protein concentration. Serum samples were taken at three time-points: pre-operative (day zero), early post-operative (day one) and late post-operative (day four/five).Some 55 patients were included, of which 33 (60%) underwent surgery that was completed laparoscopically. Pre-operative oxylipin profiles were characterised by marked heterogeneity but surgery induced a common shift resulting in more homogeneity at the early post-operative time-point. By the late post-operative phase, oxylipin profiles were again highly variable. This evolution was driven by time-dependent changes in specific oxylipins. Notably, the levels of several oxylipins with anti-inflammatory properties (15-HETE and four regioisomers of DHET) were reduced at the early post-operative point before returning to baseline by the late post-operative period. In addition, levels of the pro-inflammatory 11-HETE rose in the early post-operative phase while levels of anti-thrombotic mediators (9-HODE and 13-HODE) fell; concentrations of all three oxylipins then remained fairly static from early to late post-operative phases. Compared to those undergoing laparoscopic surgery, patients undergoing open surgery had lower levels of some anti-inflammatory oxylipins (8,9-DHET and 17-HDoHE) in addition to reduced concentrations of anti-thrombotic mediators (9-HODE and 13-HODE) with increased concentration of their pro-thrombotic counterpart (TxB2).Serum oxylipin profile is modified by surgical intervention and may even be sensitive to the degree of surgical trauma and therefore represents a novel descriptor of the surgical systemic inflammatory response.
Project description:Oxylipins mediate inflammation, vascular tension, and more. Their presence in lipoproteins could explain why lipoproteins mediate nearly identical activities.To determine how oxylipins are distributed in the lipoproteins of hypertriglyceridemic subjects, and whether omega-3 fatty acids alter them in a manner consistent with improved cardiovascular health, we recruited 15 dyslipidemic subjects whose levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were at goal but who remained hypertriglyceridemic (200-499 mg/dL). They were treated them with the indicated dose of 4 g/d omega-3 acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) for 8 weeks. Measured oxylipins included mid-chain alcohols (HETEs, HEPEs and HDoHEs), ketones (KETEs), epoxides (as EpETrEs, EpETEs, and EpDPEs).At baseline, arachidonate-oxylipins (HETEs, KETEs, and EpETrEs) were most abundant in plasma with the greatest fraction of total abundance (mean |95% CI|) being carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL); 42% |31, 57| followed by very low density lipoproteins (VLDL); 27% |20, 36|; and LDL 21% |16, 28|. EPA- and DHA-derived oxylipins constituted less than 11% of total. HDL carried alcohols and epoxides but VLDL was also rich in ketones. Treatment decreased AA-derived oxylipins across lipoprotein classes (-23% |-33, -12|, p = 0.0003), and expanded EPA-(322% |241, 422|, p<0.0001) and DHA-derived oxylipins (123% |80, 176|, p<0.0001).Each lipoprotein class carries a unique oxylipin complement. P-OM3 treatment alters the oxylipin content of all classes, reducing pro-inflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory species, consistent with the improved inflammatory and vascular status associated with the treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00959842.
Project description:Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from mutations in the copper-transporting, P-type ATPase gene ATP7B gene, but influences of epigenetics, environment, age, and sex-related factors on the WD phenotype complicate diagnosis and clinical manifestations. Oxylipins, derivatives of omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are signaling mediators that are deeply involved in innate immunity responses; the regulation of inflammatory responses, including acute and chronic inflammation; and other disturbances related to any system diseases. Therefore, oxylipin profile tests are attractive for the diagnosis of WD. With UPLC-MS/MS lipidomics analysis, we detected 43 oxylipins in the plasma profiles of 39 patients with various clinical manifestations of WD compared with 16 healthy controls (HCs). Analyzing the similarity matrix of oxylipin profiles allowed us to cluster patients into three groups. Analysis of the data by VolcanoPlot and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed that eight oxylipins and lipids stand for the variance between WD and HCs: eicosapentaenoic acid EPA, oleoylethanolamide OEA, octadecadienoic acids 9-HODE, 9-KODE, 12-hydroxyheptadecatrenoic acid 12-HHT, prostaglandins PGD2, PGE2, and 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids 14,15-DHET. The compounds indicate the involvement of oxidative stress damage, inflammatory processes, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways in this disease. The data reveal novel possible therapeutic targets and intervention strategies for treating WD.