Glucose-Mediated Protein Arginine Phosphorylation/Dephosphorylation Regulates ylxR Encoding Nucleoid-Associated Protein and Cell Growth in Bacillus subtilis.
ABSTRACT: Glucose is the most favorable carbon source for many bacteria, and these bacteria have several glucose-responsive networks. We proposed new glucose responsive system, which includes protein acetylation and probable translation control through TsaEBD, which is a tRNA modification enzyme required for the synthesis of threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A)-tRNA. The system also includes nucleoid-associated protein YlxR, regulating more than 400 genes including many metabolic genes and the ylxR-containing operon driven by the PylxS promoter is induced by glucose. Thus, transposon mutagenesis was performed for searching regulatory factors for PylxS expression. As a result, ywlE was identified. The McsB kinase phosphorylates arginine (Arg) residues of proteins and the YwlE phosphatase counteracts against McsB through Arg-dephosphorylation. Phosphorylated Arg has been known to function as a tag for ClpCP-dependent protein degradation. The previous analysis identified TsaD as an Arg-phosphorylated protein. Our results showed that the McsB/YwlE system regulates PylxS expression through ClpCP-mediated protein degradation of TsaD. In addition, we observed that glucose induced ywlE expression and repressed mcsB expression. It was concluded that these phenomena would cause glucose induction (GI) of PylxS, based on the Western blot analyses of TsaD-FLAG. These observations and the previous those that many glycolytic enzymes are Arg-phosphorylated suggested that the McsB/YwlE system might be involved in cell growth in glucose-containing medium. We observed that the disruption of mcsB and ywlE resulted in an increase of cell mass and delayed growth, respectively, in semi-synthetic medium. These results provide us broader insights to the physiological roles of the McsB/YwlE system and protein Arg-phosphorylation.
Project description:Controlled protein degradation is an important cellular reaction for the fast and efficient adaptation of bacteria to ever-changing environmental conditions. In the low-GC, Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis, the AAA+ protein ClpC requires specific adaptor proteins not only for substrate recognition but also for chaperone activity. The McsB adaptor is activated particularly during heat stress, allowing the controlled degradation of the CtsR repressor by the ClpCP protease. Here we report how the McsB adaptor becomes activated by autophosphorylation on specific arginine residues during heat stress. In nonstressed cells McsB activity is inhibited by ClpC as well as YwlE.
Project description:In Bacillus subtilis, the Spx transcription factor controls a large regulon in response to disulfide, heat, and cell wall stresses. The regulatory mechanisms that activate the Spx regulon are remarkably complex and involve changes in transcription, proteolysis, and posttranslational modifications. To identify genes involved in Spx regulation, we performed a transposon screen for mutations affecting expression of trxB, an Spx-dependent gene. Inactivation of ctsR, encoding the regulator of the Clp proteases, reduced trxB expression and lowered Spx levels. This effect required ClpP, but involved ClpC rather than the ClpX unfoldase. Moreover, cells lacking McsB, a dual function arginine kinase and ClpCP adaptor, largely reverted the ctsR phenotype and increased trxB expression. The role of McsB appears to involve its kinase activity, since loss of the YwlE phosphoarginine phosphatase also led to reduced trxB expression. Finally, we show that Spx is itself a regulator of the ctsR operon. Altogether, this work provides evidence for a role of CtsR regulon members ClpC, ClpP, and McsB in Spx regulation and identifies a new feedback pathway associated with Spx activity in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE In Bacillus subtilis, the Spx transcription factor is proteolytically unstable, and protein stabilization figures prominently in the induction of the Spx regulon in response to oxidative and cell envelope stresses. ClpXP is largely, but not entirely, responsible for Spx instability. Here, we identify ClpCP as the protease that degrades Spx under conditions that antagonize the ClpXP pathway. Spx itself contributes to activation of the ctsR operon, which encodes ClpC as well as the McsB arginine kinase and protease adaptor, thereby providing a negative feedback mechanism. Genetic studies reveal that dysregulation of the CtsR regulon or inactivation of the YwlE phosphoarginine phosphatase decreases Spx activity through mechanisms involving both protein degradation and posttranslational modification.
Project description:Bacterial spores can remain dormant for years but possess the remarkable ability to germinate, within minutes, once nutrients become available. However, it still remains elusive how such instant awakening of cellular machineries is achieved. Utilizing <i>Bacillus subtilis</i> as a model, we show that YwlE arginine (Arg) phosphatase is crucial for spore germination. Accordingly, the absence of the Arg kinase McsB accelerated the process. Arg phosphoproteome of dormant spores uncovered a unique set of Arg-phosphorylated proteins involved in key biological functions, including translation and transcription. Consequently, we demonstrate that during germination, YwlE dephosphorylates an Arg site on the ribosome-associated chaperone Tig, enabling its association with the ribosome to reestablish translation. Moreover, we show that Arg dephosphorylation of the housekeeping ? factor A (SigA), mediated by YwlE, facilitates germination by activating the transcriptional machinery. Subsequently, we reveal that transcription is reinitiated at the onset of germination and its recommencement precedes that of translation. Thus, Arg dephosphorylation elicits the most critical stages of spore molecular resumption, placing this unusual post-translational modification as a major regulator of a developmental process in bacteria.
Project description:Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response.
Project description:Glucose is the most favorable carbon source for many bacteria, which have several glucose-responsive gene networks. Recently, we found that in Bacillus subtilis glucose induces the expression of the extracellular sigma factor genes sigX and sigM through the acetylation of CshA (RNA helicase), which associates with RNA polymerase (RNAP). We performed a transposon mutagenesis screen for mutants with no glucose induction (GI) of sigX-lacZ. While screening for such mutants, we recently found that the GI of sigX/M involves YlxR, a nucleoid-associated protein (NAP) that regulates nearly 400 genes, including metabolic genes. It has been shown that acetylated CshA positively regulates expression of ylxR-containing operon. Here, we report additional mutations in yqfO or tsaD required for the GI of sigX. YqfO contains a universally conserved domain with unknown function. YqfO and YlxR were found to regulate expression of the tsaEBD-containing operon. Mutational analysis using lacZ fusions revealed the adenine-rich cis-element for YlxR. TsaD is a component of the TsaEBD enzyme required for the synthesis of threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A). The t6A modification of tRNA is universal across the three domains of life. Western blot analysis showed that the tsaD mutation in the presence of glucose reduced levels of soluble PdhA, PdhB, and PdhD, which are subunits of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc). This resulted in severely defective PDHc function and thus reduced concentrations of cellular acetyl-CoA, a reaction product of PDHc and plausible source for CshA acetylation. Thus, we discuss a suggested glucose-responsive system (GRS) involving self-reinforcing CshA acetylation. This self-reinforcing pathway may contribute to the maintenance of the acetyl-CoA pool for protein acetylation.
Project description:Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging post-translational protein modification implicated in the bacterial stress response. Although early reports suggested that arginine phosphorylation also occurs in higher eukaryotes, its overall prevalence was never studied using modern mass spectrometry methods, owing to technical difficulties arising from the acid lability of phosphoarginine. As shown recently, the McsB and YwlE proteins from Bacillus subtilis function as a highly specific protein arginine kinase and phosphatase couple, shaping the phosphoarginine proteome. Using a B. subtilis ?ywlE strain as a source for arginine-phosphorylated proteins, we were able to adapt mass spectrometry (MS) protocols to the special chemical properties of the arginine modification. Despite this progress, the analysis of protein arginine phosphorylation in eukaryotes is still challenging, given the great abundance of serine/threonine phosphorylations that would compete with phosphoarginine during the phosphopeptide enrichment procedure, as well as during data-dependent MS acquisition. We thus set out to establish a method for the selective enrichment of arginine-phosphorylated proteins as an initial step in the phosphoproteomic analysis. For this purpose, we developed a substrate-trapping mutant of the YwlE phosphatase that retains binding affinity toward arginine-phosphorylated proteins but cannot hydrolyze the captured substrates. By testing a number of active site substitutions, we identified a YwlE mutant (C9A) that stably binds to arginine-phosphorylated proteins. We further improved the substrate-trapping efficiency by impeding the oligomerization of the phosphatase mutant. The engineered YwlE trap efficiently captured arginine-phosphorylated proteins from complex B. subtilis ?ywlE cell extracts, thus facilitating identification of phosphoarginine sites in the large pool of cellular protein modifications. In conclusion, we present a novel tool for the selective enrichment and subsequent MS analysis of arginine phosphorylation, which is a largely overlooked protein modification that might be important for eukaryotic cell signaling.
Project description:Cells of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis have to adapt to fast environmental changes in their natural habitat. Here, we characterized a novel system in which cells respond to heat shock by regulatory proteolysis of a transcriptional repressor CtsR. In B. subtilis, CtsR controls the synthesis of itself, the tyrosine kinase McsB, its activator McsA and the Hsp100/Clp proteins ClpC, ClpE and their cognate peptidase ClpP. The AAA+ protein family members ClpC and ClpE can form an ATP-dependent protease complex with ClpP and are part of the B. subtilis protein quality control system. The regulatory response is mediated by a proteolytic switch, which is formed by these proteins under heat-shock conditions, where the tyrosine kinase McsB acts as a regulated adaptor protein, which in its phosphorylated form activates the Hsp100/Clp protein ClpC and targets the repressor CtsR for degradation by the general protease ClpCP.
Project description:<i>Bacillus subtilis</i> possesses two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases with opposite roles, the glycolytic NAD-dependent GapA and the NADP-dependent GapB enzyme, which is exclusively required during gluconeogenesis but not active under conditions promoting glycolysis. We propose that proteins that are no longer needed will be recognized and proteolyzed by Clp proteases and thereby recycled. To test this postulation, we analyzed the stability of the glycolytic enzyme GapA and the gluconeogenetic enzyme GapB in the presence and absence of glucose. It turned out that GapA remained rather stable under both glycolytic and gluconeogenetic conditions. In contrast, the gluconeogenetic enzyme GapB was degraded after a shift from malate to glucose (i.e., from gluconeogenesis to glycolysis), displaying an estimated half-life of approximately 3 h. Comparative <i>in vivo</i> pulse-chase labeling and immunoprecipitation experiments of the wild-type strain and isogenic mutants identified the ATP-dependent ClpCP protease as the enzyme responsible for the degradation of GapB. However, arginine protein phosphorylation, which was recently described as a general tagging mechanism for protein degradation, did not seem to play a role in GapB proteolysis, because GapB was also degraded in a <i>mcsB</i> mutant, lacking arginine kinase, in the same manner as in the wild type.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> GapB, the NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphosphate dehydrogenase, is essential for <i>B. subtilis</i> under gluconeogenetic conditions. However, after a shift to glycolytic conditions, GapB loses its physiological function within the cell and becomes susceptible to degradation, in contrast to GapA, the glycolytic NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which remains stable under glycolytic and gluconeogenetic conditions. Subsequently, GapB is proteolyzed in a ClpCP-dependent manner. According to our data, the arginine kinase McsB is not involved as adaptor protein in this process. ClpCP appears to be in charge in the removal of inoperable enzymes in <i>B. subtilis</i>, which is a strictly regulated process in which the precise recognition mechanism(s) remains to be identified.
Project description:Protein arginine phosphorylation is a recently discovered modification that affects multiple cellular pathways in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the phosphorylation of arginine residues by McsB is critical for regulating the cellular stress response. Given that the highly efficient protein arginine phosphatase YwlE prevents arginine phosphorylation under non-stress conditions, we hypothesized that this enzyme negatively regulates arginine phosphorylation and acts as a sensor of cell stress. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed the first suite of highly potent and specific SO3-amidine-based YwlE inhibitors. With these protein arginine phosphatase-specific probes, we demonstrated that YwlE activity is suppressed by oxidative stress, which consequently increases arginine phosphorylation, thereby inducing the expression of stress-response genes, which is critical for bacterial virulence. Overall, we predict that these novel chemical tools will be widely used to study the regulation of protein arginine phosphorylation in multiple organisms.
Project description:Protein quality networks are required for the maintenance of proper protein homeostasis and essential for viability and growth of all living organisms. Hence, regulation and coordination of these networks are critical for survival during stress as well as for virulence of pathogenic species. In low GC, Gram-positive bacteria central protein quality networks are under the control of the global repressor CtsR. Here, we provide evidence that CtsR activity during heat stress is mediated by intrinsic heat sensing through a glycine-rich loop, probably in all Gram-positive species. Moreover, a function for the recently identified arginine kinase McsB is confirmed, however, not for initial inactivation and dissociation of CtsR from the DNA, but for heat-dependent auto-activation of McsB as an adaptor for ClpCP-mediated degradation of CtsR.