Convergent and distinctive functions of transcription factors VdYap1, VdAtf1, and VdSkn7 in the regulation of nitrosative stress resistance, microsclerotia formation, and virulence in Verticillium dahliae.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) play a fundamental role in plant-fungal interactions. How pathogenic fungi manipulate plant-derived ROS/RNS is of importance to the outcomes of these interactions. In this study, we explored the individual and combined contributions of three transcription factors, VdAtf1, VdYap1, and VdSkn7, in the response to ROS/RNS, microsclerotia formation, and virulence in the plant wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. We showed that VdYap1 is essential for ROS response. Additionally, mutants lacking any combination of the three genes shared significant hypersensitivity to nitro-oxidative stress like sodium nitroprusside dehydrate and double deletions lacking VdYap1 and VdAtf1 resulted in further increased sensitivity to ROS. Double deletion of VdAtf1 and VdSkn7 reduced melanin production and virulence while simultaneous lack of VdSkn7 and VdYap1 disrupted nitrogen metabolism and ROS resistance. Finally, comparison of transcriptional profiles of the respective single or double mutants in response to nitro-oxidative stress revealed that the three transcription factors are involved in denitrification of nitrated alkanes and lipids to protect against nitro-oxidative stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate convergent and distinctive functions of VdYap1, VdAtf1, and VdSkn7 in V. dahliae, and provide new data on their roles in response to ROS/RNS in fungi.
Project description:Verticillium dahliae, a ubiquitous phytopathogenic fungus, forms resting structures, known as microsclerotia that play crucial roles in Verticillium wilt diseases. VdHog1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), controls microsclerotia formation, virulence, and stress response in V. dahliae. In this study, we present detailed evidence that the conserved upstream component of VdHog1, VdPbs2, is a key regulator of microsclerotia formation, oxidative stress and fungicide response and plant virulence in V. dahliae. We identified VdPbs2, homologous to the yeast MAPK kinase Pbs2. Similar to the VdHog1 deletion mutant, VdPbs2 deletion strains exhibited delayed melanin synthesis and reduced formation of microsclerotia. When exposed to stresses, VdPbs2 mutants were more sensitive than the wild type to osmotic agents and peroxide, but more resistant to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis and some fungicides. Finally, VdPbs2 deletion mutants exhibited reduced virulence on smoke tree and tobacco seedlings. When taken together, we implicate that VdPbs2 and VdHog1 function in a cascade that regulates microsclerotia formation and virulence, but not all VdHog1 dependent functions are VdPbs2 regulated. This study thus provides novel insights into the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate microsclerotia formation and pathogenesis in this fungus.
Project description:MAIN CONCLUSION:Nitro/oxidative modifications of proteins and RNA nitration resulted from altered peroxynitrite generation are elements of the indirect mode of action of canavanine and meta-tyrosine in plants Environmental conditions and stresses, including supplementation with toxic compounds, are known to impair reactive oxygen (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) homeostasis, leading to modification in production of oxidized and nitrated derivatives. The role of nitrated and/or oxidized biotargets differs depending on the stress factors and developmental stage of plants. Canavanine (CAN) and meta-tyrosine (m-Tyr) are non-proteinogenic amino acids (NPAAs). CAN, the structural analog of arginine, is found mostly in seeds of Fabaceae species, as a storage form of nitrogen. In mammalian cells, CAN is used as an anticancer agent due to its inhibitory action on nitric oxide synthesis. m-Tyr is a structural analogue of phenylalanine and an allelochemical found in root exudates of fescues. In animals, m-Tyr is recognized as a marker of oxidative stress. Supplementation of plants with CAN or m-Tyr modify ROS and RNS metabolism. Over the last few years of our research, we have collected the complex data on ROS and RNS metabolism in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants exposed to CAN or m-Tyr. In addition, we have shown the level of nitrated RNA (8-Nitro-guanine) in roots of seedlings, stressed by the tested NPAAs. In this review, we describe the model of CAN and m-Tyr mode of action in plants based on modifications of signaling pathways induced by ROS/RNS with a special focus on peroxynitrite induced RNA and protein modifications.
Project description:Nitric oxide and NO-derived species (RNS) are defense molecules with broad antimicrobial activity. Micro-organisms have developed strategies to sense RNS and counteract their damaging effects. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae, harbouring a deletion of YHB1 that encodes the main NO scavenger enzyme, to study consequences of RNS exposure on whole genome transcriptional response. The expression of >700 genes was altered on RNS treatment. No major role for ROS-scavenging enzymes was found, and the respiratory chain, the main site of ROS production, had only minor involvement in the RNS-induced stress. The changes were generally transient and also found after treatment with the respiratory inhibitor myxothiazol. 117 genes however showed a persistent response which was not observed after myxothiazol treatment. Of these, genes of the glutathione and DNA repair systems, iron homeostasis and transport were found up-regulated. Severe repression of genes of respiratory chain enzymes was observed. Many of these genes are known to be regulated by the transcription factor Hap1p suggesting that RNS might interfere with Hap1p activity. We showed also that Msn2/4p and Yap1p, key regulators of the response to, respectively, general stress and oxidative stress, played a role in mediating the RNS-induced response.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are created in normal hepatocytes and are critical for normal physiologic processes, including oxidative respiration, growth, regeneration, apoptosis, and microsomal defense. When the levels of oxidation products exceed the capacity of normal antioxidant systems, oxidative stress occurs. This type of stress, in the form of ROS and RNS, can be damaging to all liver cells, including hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, stellate cells, and endothelial cells, through induction of inflammation, ischemia, fibrosis, necrosis, apoptosis, or through malignant transformation by damaging lipids, proteins, and/or DNA. In Part I of this review, we will discuss basic redox biology in the liver, including a review of ROS, RNS, and antioxidants, with a focus on nitric oxide as a common source of RNS. We will then review the evidence for oxidative stress as a mechanism of liver injury in hepatitis (alcoholic, viral, nonalcoholic). In Part II of this review, we will review oxidative stress in common pathophysiologic conditions, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, iron overload, Wilson's disease, sepsis, and acetaminophen overdose. Finally, biomarkers, proteomic, and antioxidant therapies will be discussed as areas for future therapeutic interventions.
Project description:S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) exerts crucial roles in the homeostasis of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in plant cells through indirect control of S-nitrosation, an important protein post-translational modification in signaling pathways of NO. Using cultivated and wild tomato species, we studied GSNOR function in interactions of key enzymes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism with RNS mediated by protein S-nitrosation during tomato root growth and responses to salinity and cadmium. Application of a GSNOR inhibitor N6022 increased both NO and S-nitrosothiol levels and stimulated root growth in both genotypes. Moreover, N6022 treatment, as well as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) application, caused intensive S-nitrosation of important enzymes of ROS metabolism, NADPH oxidase (NADPHox) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Under abiotic stress, activities of APX and NADPHox were modulated by S-nitrosation. Increased production of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and subsequent oxidative stress were observed in wild <i>S</i><i>olanum</i> <i>habrochaites</i>, together with increased GSNOR activity and reduced S-nitrosothiols. An opposite effect occurred in cultivated <i>S. lycopersicum</i>, where reduced GSNOR activity and intensive S-nitrosation resulted in reduced ROS levels by abiotic stress. These data suggest stress-triggered disruption of ROS homeostasis, mediated by modulation of RNS and S-nitrosation of NADPHox and APX, underlies tomato root growth inhibition by salinity and cadmium stress.
Project description:Mycobacteria have developed a number of pathways that provide partial protection against both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). We recently identified a locus in Mycobacterium marinum, mel2, that plays a role during infection of macrophages. The molecular mechanism of mel2 action is not well understood.To better understand the role of the M. marinum mel2 locus, we examined these genes for conserved motifs in silico. Striking similarities were observed between the mel2 locus and loci that encode bioluminescence in other bacterial species. Since bioluminescence systems can play a role in resistance to oxidative stress, we postulated that the mel2 locus might be important for mycobacterial resistance to ROS and RNS. We found that an M. marinum mutant in the first gene in this putative operon, melF, confers increased susceptibility to both ROS and RNS. This mutant is more susceptible to ROS and RNS together than either reactive species alone.These observations support a role for the M. marinum mel2 locus in resistance to oxidative stress and provide additional evidence that bioluminescence systems may have evolved from oxidative defense mechanisms.
Project description:We hypothesized that cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced cystitis results in oxidative stress and contributes to urinary bladder dysfunction. We determined (1) the expression of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inflammatory modulators, neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (Sub P), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that contribute to the inflammatory process in the urinary tract and (2) the functional role of oxidative stress in urinary bladder dysfunction with an antioxidant, Tempol, (1 mM in drinking water) combined with conscious cystometry. In CYP-treated (4 hr or 48 hr; 150 mg/kg, i.p.) rats, ROS/RNS and 3-NT significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased in urinary bladder. CYP treatment increased ATP, Sub P, and CGRP expression in the urinary bladder and cystometric fluid. In CYP-treated rats, Tempol significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased bladder capacity and reduced voiding frequency compared to CYP-treated rats without Tempol. Tempol significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced ATP expression, 3-NT, and ROS/RNS expression in the urinary tract of CYP-treated rats. These studies demonstrate that reducing oxidative stress in CYP-induced cystitis improves urinary bladder function and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Project description:Verticillium dahliae, a notorious phytopathogenic fungus, causes vascular wilt diseases in many plant species resulting in devastating yield losses worldwide. Due to its ability to colonize plant xylem and form microsclerotia, V. dahliae is highly persistent and difficult to control. In this study, we show that the MADS-box transcription factor VdMcm1 is a key regulator of conidiation, microsclerotia formation, virulence, and secondary metabolism of V. dahliae. In addition, our findings suggest that VdMcm1 is involved in cell wall integrity. Finally, comparative RNA-Seq analysis reveals 823 significantly downregulated genes in the VdMcm1 deletion mutant, with diverse biological functions in transcriptional regulation, plant infection, cell adhesion, secondary metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and cell secretion. When taken together, these data suggest that VdMcm1 performs pleiotropic functions in V. dahliae.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a common stress encountered by living organisms and is due to an imbalance between intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS) and cellular antioxidant defence. To defend themselves against ROS/RNS, bacteria possess a subsystem of detoxification enzymes, which are classified with regard to their substrates. To identify such enzymes in prokaryotic genomes, different approaches based on similarity, enzyme profiles or patterns exist. Unfortunately, several problems persist in the annotation, classification and naming of these enzymes due mainly to some erroneous entries in databases, mistake propagation, absence of updating and disparity in function description. DESCRIPTION: In order to improve the current annotation of oxidative stress subsystems, an innovative platform named OxyGene has been developed. It integrates an original database called OxyDB, holding thoroughly tested anchor-based signatures associated to subfamilies of oxidative stress enzymes, and a new anchor-driven annotator, for ab initio detection of ROS/RNS response genes. All complete Bacterial and Archaeal genomes have been re-annotated, and the results stored in the OxyGene repository can be interrogated via a Graphical User Interface. CONCLUSION: OxyGene enables the exploration and comparative analysis of enzymes belonging to 37 detoxification subclasses in 664 microbial genomes. It proposes a new classification that improves both the ontology and the annotation of the detoxification subsystems in prokaryotic whole genomes, while discovering new ORFs and attributing precise function to hypothetical annotated proteins. OxyGene is freely available at: http://www.umr6026.univ-rennes1.fr/english/home/research/basic/software.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is one of the earliest responses when plants percept pathogens and acts as antimicrobials to block pathogen entry. However, whether and how pathogens tolerate ROS stress remains elusive. Here, we report the chromatin remodeling in Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilts of a wide range of plants, facilitates the DNA damage repair in response to plant ROS stress. We identified VdDpb4, encoding a histone-fold protein of the ISW2 chromatin remodeling complex in V. dahliae, is a virulence gene. The reduced virulence in wild type Arabidopsis plants arising from VdDpb4 deletion was impaired in the rbohd mutant plants that did not produce ROS. Further characterization of VdDpb4 and its interacting protein, VdIsw2, an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor, we show that while the depletion of VdIsw2 led to the decondensing of chromatin, the depletion of VdDpb4 resulted in a more compact chromatin structure and affected the VdIsw2-dependent transcriptional effect on gene expression, including genes involved in DNA damage repair. A knockout mutant of either VdDpb4 or VdIsw2 reduced the efficiency of DNA repair in the presence of DNA-damaging agents and virulence during plant infection. Together, our data demonstrate that VdDpb4 and VdIsw2 play roles in maintaining chromatin structure for positioning nucleosomes and transcription regulation, including genes involved in DNA repair in response to ROS stress during development and plant infection.