A New Model of Chronic Mycobacterium abscessus Lung Infection in Immunocompetent Mice.
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus (MA) have increased over recent decades, affecting individuals with underlying pathologies such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis and, especially, cystic fibrosis. The lack of a representative and standardized model of chronic infection in mice has limited steps forward in the field of MA pulmonary infection. To overcome this challenge, we refined the method of agar beads to establish MA chronic infection in immunocompetent mice. We evaluated bacterial count, lung pathology and markers of inflammation and we performed longitudinal studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) up to three months after MA infection. In this model, MA was able to establish a persistent lung infection for up to two months and with minimal systemic spread. Lung histopathological analysis revealed granulomatous inflammation around bronchi characterized by the presence of lymphocytes, aggregates of vacuolated histiocytes and a few neutrophils, mimicking the damage observed in humans. Furthermore, MA lung lesions were successfully monitored for the first time by MRI. The availability of this murine model and the introduction of the successfully longitudinal monitoring of the murine lung lesions with MRI pave the way for further investigations on the impact of MA pathogenesis and the efficacy of novel treatments.
Project description:Farber disease (FD) is a debilitating lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by a deficiency of acid ceramidase (ACDase) activity due to mutations in the gene ASAH1. Patients with ACDase deficiency may develop a spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Severe cases of FD are frequently associated with neurological involvement, failure to thrive, and respiratory complications. Mice homozygous ( Asah1P361R/P361R) for an orthologous patient mutation in Asah1 recapitulate human FD. In this study, we show significant impairment in lung function, including low compliance and increased airway resistance in a mouse model of ACDase deficiency. Impaired lung mechanics in Farber mice resulted in decreased blood oxygenation and increased red blood cell production. Inflammatory cells were recruited to both perivascular and peribronchial areas of the lung. We observed large vacuolated foamy histiocytes that were full of storage material. An increase in vascular permeability led to protein leakage, edema, and impacted surfactant homeostasis in the lungs of Asah1P361R/P361R mice. Bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) extraction and analysis revealed accumulation of a highly turbid lipoprotein-like substance that was composed in part of surfactants, phospholipids, and ceramides. The phospholipid composition of BALF from Asah1P361R/P361R mice was severely altered, with an increase in both phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SM). Ceramides were also found at significantly higher levels in both BALF and lung tissue from Asah1P361R/P361R mice when compared with levels from wild-type animals. We demonstrate that a deficiency in ACDase leads to sphingolipid and phospholipid imbalance, chronic lung injury caused by significant inflammation, and increased vascular permeability, leading to impaired lung function.
Project description:Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disorder characterised by granulomatous proliferation of CD1a-positive histiocytes forming granulomas within lung parenchyma, in strong association with tobacco smoking, and which may result in chronic respiratory failure. Smoking cessation is considered to be critical in management, but has variable effects on outcome. No drug therapy has been validated. Cladribine (chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CDA) down-regulates histiocyte proliferation and has been successful in curbing multi-system Langerhans cell histiocytosis and isolated PLCH.We retrospectively studied 5 patients (aged 37-55 years, 3 females) with PLCH who received 3 to 4 courses of cladribine therapy as a single agent (0.1 mg/kg per day for 5 consecutive days at monthly intervals). One patient was treated twice because of relapse at 1 year. Progressive pulmonary disease with obstructive ventilatory pattern despite smoking cessation and/or corticosteroid therapy were indications for treatment. Patients were administered oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and valaciclovir to prevent opportunistic infections. They gave written consent to receive off-label cladribine in the absence of validated treatment.Functional class dyspnea improved with cladribine therapy in 4 out of 5 cases, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) increased in all cases by a mean of 387 ml (100-920 ml), contrasting with a steady decline prior to treatment. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features improved with cladribine therapy in 4 patients. Hemodynamic improvement was observed in 1 patient with pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension. The results suggested a greater treatment effect in subjects with nodular lung lesions and/or thick-walled cysts on chest HRCT, with diffuse hypermetabolism of lung lesions on positron emission tomography (PET)-scan, and with progressive disease despite smoking cessation. Infectious pneumonia developed in 1 patient, with later grade 4 neutrocytopenia but without infection.Data interpretation was limited by the retrospective, uncontrolled study design and small sample size.Cladribine as a single agent may be effective therapy in patients with progressive PLCH.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is associated with pulmonary involvement that requires periodical assessment. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has become the method of choice to evaluate chronic lung disease, but entails exposure to ionizing radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a potential radiation-free technique in several chest disorders. Aim of our study is to evaluate whether high-field MRI is as effective as HRCT in identifying PCD pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the relationships between the severity and extension of lung disease, and functional data. METHODS: Thirteen PCD patients (8 children/5 adults; median age, 15.2 yrs) underwent chest HRCT and high-field 3T MRI, spirometry, and deep throat or sputum culture. Images were scored using a modified version of the Helbich system. RESULTS: HRCT and MRI total scores were 12 (range, 6-20) and 12 (range, 5-17), respectively. Agreement between HRCT and MRI scores was good or excellent (r > 0.8). HRCT and MRI total scores were significantly related to forced vital capacity (r = -0.5, p = 0.05; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively) and forced expiratory volume at 1 second (r = -0.6, p = 0.03; and r = -0.7, p = 0.009, respectively). CONCLUSION: Chest high-field 3T MRI appears to be as effective as HRCT in assessing the extent and severity of lung abnormalities in PCD. MRI scores might be used for longitudinal assessment and be an outcome surrogate in future studies.
Project description:The diagnostic strategy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is composed of two components required for a diagnosis of CTEPH: the presence of chronic pulmonary embolism and an elevated pulmonary artery pressure. The current guidelines require that ventilation-perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (VQ-SPECT) is used for the first step diagnosis of chronic pulmonary embolism. However, VQ-SPECT exposes patients to ionizing radiation in a radiation sensitive population. The prospective, multicenter, comparative phase III diagnostic trial CTEPH diagnosis Europe - MRI (CHANGE-MRI, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02791282) aims to demonstrate whether functional lung MRI can serve as an equal rights alternative to VQ-SPECT in a diagnostic strategy for patients with suspected CTEPH. Positive findings are verified with catheter pulmonary angiography or computed tomography pulmonary angiography (gold standard). For comparing the imaging methods, a co-primary endpoint is used. (i) the proportion of patients with positive MRI in the group of patients who have a positive SPECT and gold standard diagnosis for chronic pulmonary embolism and (ii) the proportion of patients with positive MRI in the group of patients with negative SPECT and gold standard. The CHANGE-MRI trial will also investigate the performance of functional lung MRI without i.v. contrast agent as an index test and identify cardiac, hemodynamic, and pulmonary MRI-derived parameters to estimate pulmonary artery pressures and predict 6-12 month survival. Ultimately, this study will provide the necessary evidence for the discussion about changes in the recommendations on the diagnostic approach to CTEPH.
Project description:Chronic active and slowly expanding lesions with smouldering inflammation are neuropathological correlates of progressive multiple sclerosis pathology. T1 hypointense volume and signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI reflect brain tissue damage that may develop within newly formed acute focal inflammatory lesions or in chronic pre-existing lesions without signs of acute inflammation. Using a recently developed method to identify slowly expanding/evolving lesions in vivo from longitudinal conventional T2- and T1-weighted brain MRI scans, we measured the relative amount of chronic lesion activity as measured by change in T1 volume and intensity within slowly expanding/evolving lesions and non-slowly expanding/evolving lesion areas of baseline pre-existing T2 lesions, and assessed the effect of ocrelizumab on this outcome in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis participating in the phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind ORATORIO study (n = 732, NCT01194570). We also assessed the predictive value of T1-weighted measures of chronic lesion activity for clinical multiple sclerosis progression as reflected by a composite disability measure including the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Timed 25-Foot Walk and 9-Hole Peg Test. We observed in this clinical trial population that most of total brain non-enhancing T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation was derived from chronic lesion activity within pre-existing T2 lesions rather than new T2 lesion formation. There was a larger decrease in mean normalized T1 signal intensity and greater relative accumulation of T1 hypointense volume in slowly expanding/evolving lesions compared with non-slowly expanding/evolving lesions. Chronic white matter lesion activity measured by longitudinal T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation in slowly expanding/evolving lesions and in non-slowly expanding/evolving lesion areas of pre-existing lesions predicted subsequent composite disability progression with consistent trends on all components of the composite. In contrast, whole brain volume loss and acute lesion activity measured by longitudinal T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation in new focal T2 lesions did not predict subsequent composite disability progression in this trial at the population level. Ocrelizumab reduced longitudinal measures of chronic lesion activity such as T1 hypointense lesion volume accumulation and mean normalized T1 signal intensity decrease both within regions of pre-existing T2 lesions identified as slowly expanding/evolving and in non-slowly expanding/evolving lesions. Using conventional brain MRI, T1-weighted intensity-based measures of chronic white matter lesion activity predict clinical progression in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and may qualify as a longitudinal in vivo neuroimaging correlate of smouldering demyelination and axonal loss in chronic active lesions due to CNS-resident inflammation and/or secondary neurodegeneration across the multiple sclerosis disease continuum.
Project description:A 40-year-old man with AIDS presented with symptoms of a chronic cough, subacute headache, generalised weakness with falls, urinary and faecal incontinence, and acute onset subcutaneous nodules. A chest CT scan showed multiple cavitary and nodular pulmonary infiltrates. MRI of his brain and spinal cord revealed innumerable ring-enhancing lesions. Pathological examination of the purulent material obtained from his subcutaneous lesions, as well as transbronchial tissue specimens obtained by biopsy, revealed beaded and branching Gram-positive rods, subsequently identified by 16S RNA sequencing to be Nocardia abscessus species. We observed an excellent therapeutic response to a combination antimicrobial therapy with resolution of the subcutaneous, pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) lesions. Infections caused by N. abscessus are rare and typically occur in immunocompromised patients. In this article, we will review the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of N. abscessus infection.
Project description:Gammaherpesviruses are tightly controlled by the host immune response, with gammaherpesvirus-associated malignancies prevalent in immune-suppressed individuals. Previously, infection of IFNgamma-unresponsive mice with gammaherpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68) showed that IFNgamma controlled chronic infection, limiting chronic diseases including arteritis and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we show that gammaHV68-infected IFNgamma receptor-deficient (IFNgammaR(-/-)) mice uniformly develop angiocentric inflammatory lesions in the lung. Prolonged infection revealed a range of outcomes, from spontaneous regression to pulmonary lymphoma. By 12 months of infection, 80% of mice had lymphoid hyperplasia or pulmonary lymphoma; 45% of infected mice developed frank tumors between 5 and 12 months postinfection, with some mice showing systemic involvement. Lymphomas were composed of B lymphocytes and contained latently infected cells. Although IFNgammaR(-/-) mice control chronic gammaHV68 infection poorly, both early and late pathologies were indistinguishable between wild-type and reactivation-defective virus infection, indicating that, in contrast with other previously described gammaHV68-associated pathologies, these chronic diseases were not dependent on the reactivation of latent infection. This distinct combination of latent infection and defined host defect led to a specific and consistent lymphoproliferative disease. Significantly, this mouse model of virus-associated pulmonary B-cell lymphoma closely mimics the full spectrum of human lymphomatoid granulomatosis, an EBV-associated malignancy with no effective treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aims of this study were to assess the sensitivity of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and to estimate the accuracy of MRI for the measurement of lesion size, as compared to computed tomography (CT). METHODS:Fifty patients with 113 pulmonary nodules diagnosed by CT underwent lung MRI and CT. MRI studies were performed on 1.5T scanner using the following sequences: T2-TSE, T2-SPIR, T2-STIR, T2-HASTE, T1-VIBE, and T1-out-of-phase. CT and MRI data were analyzed independently by two radiologists. RESULTS:The overall sensitivity of MRI for the detection of pulmonary nodules was 80.5% and according to nodule size: 57.1% for nodules ?4mm, 75% for nodules >4-6mm, 87.5% for nodules >6-8mm and 100% for nodules >8mm. MRI sequences yielded following sensitivities: 69% (T1-VIBE), 54.9% (T2-SPIR), 48.7% (T2-TSE), 48.7% (T1-out-of-phase), 45.1% (T2-STIR), 25.7% (T2-HASTE), respectively. There was very strong agreement between the maximum diameter of pulmonary nodules measured by CT and MRI (mean difference -0.02 mm; 95% CI -1.6-1.57 mm; Bland-Altman analysis). CONCLUSIONS:MRI yielded high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary nodules and enabled accurate assessment of their diameter. Therefore it may be considered an alternative to CT for follow-up of some lung lesions. However, due to significant number of false positive diagnoses, it is not ready to replace CT as a tool for lung nodule detection.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has been shown to be a promising technique for assessing lung lesions. However, DCE-MRI often suffers from motion artifacts and insufficient imaging speed. Therefore, highly accelerated free-breathing DCE-MRI is of clinical interest for lung exams. PURPOSE:To test the performance of rapid free-breathing DCE-MRI for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative assessment of pulmonary lesions using Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel (GRASP) imaging. STUDY TYPE:Prospective. POPULATION:Twenty-six patients (17 males, mean age?=?55.1?±?14.4) with known pulmonary lesions. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE:3T MR scanner; a prototype fat-saturated, T1 -weighted stack-of-stars golden-angle radial sequence for data acquisition and a Cartesian breath-hold volumetric-interpolated examination (BH-VIBE) sequence for comparison. ASSESSMENT:After a dual-mode GRASP reconstruction, one with 3-second temporal resolution (3s-GRASP) and the other with 15-second temporal resolution (15s-GRASP), all GRASP and BH-VIBE images were pooled together for blind assessment by two experienced radiologists, who independently scored the overall image quality, lesion delineation, overall artifact level, and diagnostic confidence of each case. Perfusion analysis was performed for the 3s-GRASP images using a Tofts model to generate the volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans ) and interstitial volume (Ve ). STATISTICAL TESTS:Nonparametric paired two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test; Cohen's kappa; unpaired Student's t-test. RESULTS:15s-GRASP achieved comparable image quality with conventional BH-VIBE (P?>?0.05), except for the higher overall artifact level in the precontrast phase (P?=?0.018). The Ktrans and Ve in inflammation were higher than those in malignant lesions (Ktrans : 0.78?±?0.52?min-1 vs. 0.37?±?0.22?min-1 , P?=?0.020; Ve : 0.36?±?0.16 vs. 0.26?±?0.1, P?=?0.177). Also, the Ktrans and Ve in malignant lesions were also higher than those in benign lesions (Ktrans : 0.37?±?0.22?min-1 vs. 0.04?±?0.04?min-1 , P?=?0.001; Ve : 0.26?±?0.12 vs. 0.10?±?0.00, P?=?0.063). DATA CONCLUSION:This feasibility study demonstrated the performance of high spatiotemporal resolution free-breathing DCE-MRI of the lung using GRASP for qualitative and quantitative assessment of pulmonary lesions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2018;48:459-468.
Project description:Smoking-related interstitial lung abnormalities are different from specific forms of fibrosing lung disease which might be associated with poor prognoses. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with comorbid interstitial lung abnormalities and that with pulmonary fibrosis are considered different diseases; however, they could share a common spectrum. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and comorbid interstitial lung abnormalities. In this prospective observational study, we analyzed data from the Ishinomaki COPD Network Registry. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with and without comorbid interstitial lung abnormalities by comparing the annualized rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations per patient during the observational period. Among 463 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 30 (6.5%) developed new interstitial lung abnormalities during the observational period. After 1-to-3 propensity score matching, we found that the annualized rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations per patient during the observational period was 0.06 and 0.23 per year in the interstitial lung abnormality and control groups, respectively (P = 0.043). Our findings indicate slow progression of interstitial lung abnormality lesions in patients with pre-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Further, interstitial lung abnormality development did not significantly influence on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. We speculate that post-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease interstitial lung abnormalities might involve smoking-related interstitial fibrosis, which is different from specific forms of fibrosing lung disease associated with poor prognoses.