FAM64A: A Novel Oncogenic Target of Lung Adenocarcinoma Regulated by Both Strands of miR-99a (miR-99a-5p and miR-99a-3p).
ABSTRACT: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most aggressive cancer and the prognosis of these patients is unfavorable. We revealed that the expression levels of both strands of miR-99a (miR-99a-5p and miR-99a-3p) were significantly suppressed in several cancer tissues. Analyses of large The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets showed that reduced miR-99a-5p or miR-99a-3p expression is associated with worse prognoses in LUAD patients (disease-free survival (DFS): p = 0.1264 and 0.0316; overall survival (OS): p = 0.0176 and 0.0756, respectively). Ectopic expression of these miRNAs attenuated LUAD cell proliferation, suggesting their tumor-suppressive roles. Our in silico analysis revealed 23 putative target genes of pre-miR-99a in LUAD cells. Among these targets, high expressions of 19 genes were associated with worse prognoses in LUAD patients (OS: p < 0.05). Notably, FAM64A was regulated by both miR-99a-5p and miR-99a-3p in LUAD cells, and its aberrant expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in LUAD patients (OS: p = 0.0175; DFS: p = 0.0276). FAM64A knockdown using siRNAs suggested that elevated FAM64A expression contributes to cancer progression. Aberrant FAM64A expression was detected in LUAD tissues by immunostaining. Taken together, our miRNA-based analysis might be effective for identifying prognostic and therapeutic molecules in LUAD.
Project description:To identify novel oncogenic targets in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we have analyzed antitumor microRNAs (miRNAs) and their controlled molecular networks in HNSCC cells. Based on our miRNA signature in HNSCC, both strands of the miR-99a-duplex (miR-99a-5p: the guide strand, and miR-99a-3p: the passenger strand) are downregulated in cancer tissues. Moreover, low expression of miR-99a-5p and miR-99a-3p significantly predicts poor prognosis in HNSCC, and these miRNAs regulate cancer cell migration and invasion. We previously showed that passenger strands of miRNAs have antitumor functions. Here, we screened miR-99a-3p-controlled oncogenes involved in HNSCC pathogenesis. Thirty-two genes were identified as miR-99a-3p-regulated genes, and 10 genes (STAMBP, TIMP4, TMEM14C, CANX, SUV420H1, HSP90B1, PDIA3, MTHFD2, BCAT1, and SLC22A15) significantly predicted 5-year overall survival. Notably, among these genes, STAMBP, TIMP4, TMEM14C, CANX, and SUV420H1 were independent prognostic markers of HNSCC by multivariate analyses. We further investigated the oncogenic function of STAMBP in HNSCC cells using knockdown assays. Our data demonstrated that the aggressiveness of phenotypes in HNSCC cells was attenuated by siSTAMBP transfection. Moreover, aberrant STAMBP expression was detected in HNSCC clinical specimens by immunohistochemistry. This strategy may contribute to the clarification of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in numerous biological and pathological processes including colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of miRNA expression patterns to predict chemotherapy response in a cohort of 78 patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). METHODS: We examined expression levels of 667 miRNAs in the training cohort and evaluated their potential association with relevant clinical endpoints. We identified a miRNA profile that was analysed by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. For a set of selected miRNAs, bioinformatic target predictions and pathway analysis were also performed. RESULTS: Eight miRNAs (let-7 g*, miR-107, miR-299-5p, miR-337-5p, miR-370, miR-505*, miR-889 and miR-99a-3p) were significant predictors of response to chemotherapy in the training cohort. In addition, overexpression of miR-107, miR-337-5p and miR-99a-3p, and underexpression of miR-889, were also significantly associated with improved progression-free and/or overall survival. MicroRNA-107 and miR-99a-3p were further validated in an independent cohort as predictive markers for chemotherapy response. In addition, an inverse correlation was confirmed in our study population between miR-107 levels and mRNA expression of several potential target genes (CCND1, DICER1, DROSHA and NFKB1). CONCLUSIONS: MiR-107 and miR-99a-3p were validated as predictors of response to standard fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy in patients with mCRC.
Project description:Noncoding RNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs), have been reported to play important roles during skeletal muscle development and regeneration. Our previous sequencing data revealed that miR-99a-5p is one of the most abundant miRNAs in chicken breast muscle. The purpose of this study was to reveal the regulatory mechanism of miR-99a-5p in the proliferation and differentiation of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs). Through the investigation of cell proliferation activity, cell cycle progression, and 5-ethynyl-29-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, we found that miR-99a-5p can significantly promote the proliferation of SMSCs. Moreover, we found that miR-99a-5p can inhibit myotube formation by decreasing the expression of muscle cell differentiation marker genes. After miR-99a-5p target gene scanning, we confirmed that miR-99a-5p directly targets the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3) and regulates its expression level during chicken SMSC proliferation and differentiation. We also explored the role of MTMR3 in muscle development and found that its knockdown significantly facilitates the proliferation but represses the differentiation of SMSCs, which is opposite to the effects of miR-99a-5p. Overall, we demonstrated that miR-99a-5p regulates the proliferation and differentiation of SMSCs by targeting MTMR3.
Project description:Introduction:miR-99a-5p, known to play an important role in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulation, is downregulated in human bladder cancer. The study aimed to investigate the anticancer activity of miR-99a-5p and the possible mechanism associated with mTOR in bladder cancer cells. Materials and methods:Vectors expressing miR-99a-5p were transfected into human urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (5637 and T24) cells. The level of miR-99a-5p was monitored by microRNA (miRNA) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the direct binding of miR-99a-5p to mTOR transcripts. The mTOR transcripts and protein levels were measured by QPCR and Western blot, respectively. Cell viability of miR-99a-5p-transfected cells was detected by tetrazolium salt (WST-1). Inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling was detected by the phosphorylation of mTOR and AKT using Western blot. The ability of miR-99a-5p to enhance RAD001-induced apoptosis was determined as the expression of cleaved caspase 3 and levels of DNA fragmentation. Results:Transfection of miR-99a-5p-expressing vector elevated the expression level of miR-99a-5p up to sixfold compared to vector-only controls. The results from luciferase assay verified that miR-99a-5p directly binds to the predicted sequence in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of mTOR. The levels of mTOR RNA and protein were decreased in miR-99a-5p-transfected cells. Dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 by miR-99a-5p was confirmed by the decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (at Ser2448 and Ser2481), phospho-rpS6 and phospho-4EBP1. The phosphorylation of AKT was significantly inhibited in miR-99a-5p-transfected cells upon RAD001 treatment. Enforced expression of miR-99a-5p potentiated RAD001-induced apoptosis in these cells. Conclusion:This is the first study showing that miR-99a-5p markedly inhibits the growth of bladder cancer cells via dual inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Our data demonstrated that forced expression of miR-99a-5p inhibits the feedback of AKT survival pathway and enhances the induction of apoptosis in RAD001-treated bladder cancer cells.
Project description:Effective treatments for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have not yet been established. Novel approaches for identification of putative therapeutic targets for CRPC are needed. Analyses of RNA sequencing of microRNA (miRNA) expression revealed that miR-99a-3p (passenger strand) is significantly downregulated in several types of cancers. Here, we aimed to identify novel miR-99a-3p regulatory networks and therapeutic targets for CRPC. Ectopic expression of miR-99a-3p significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in PCa cells. Non-SMC condensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) was a direct target of miR-99a-3p in PCa cells. Overexpression of NCAPG was detected in CRPC clinical specimens and was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival and advanced clinical stage. Knockdown of NCAPG inhibited cancer cell aggressiveness. The passenger strand miR-99a-3p acted as an antitumor miRNA in naïve PCa and CRPC. NCAPG was regulated by miR-99a-3p, and its overexpression was involved in CRPC pathogenesis. Involvement of passenger strand of miRNA in cancer pathogenesis is novel concept, and identification of antitumor miRNA regulatory networks in CRPC might be provided novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for this disease.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are confirmed to be tumor promoters or suppressors in multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). miR-99a-5p has been demonstrated to be downregulated in cancerous tissues, but its functional role in head and neck SCC (HNSCC) and its mechanism of action have not been fully elucidated. Here, we studied the expression of miR-99a-5p in HNSCC and performed a clinical value assessment and then extracted mature expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and microarrays from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Furthermore, biological analysis was constructed via online prediction tools. The results revealed that miR-99a-5p expression was markedly lower in HNSCC tissues than in normal tissues, which also showed significance in the prognosis of HNSCC. However, its diagnostic value could not be verified due to the lack of body fluid samples. Additionally, miR-99a-5p was expressed at higher levels in patients with low histological grade neoplasms than those with high histological grade neoplasms. The age of the patient might also be a possible clinical parameter affecting miR-99a-5p expression. Furthermore, miR-99a-5p significantly influenced HNSCC progression by regulating the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, in which the key target genes were upregulated in 519 HNSCC tissues compared to 44 normal tissues, as determined by the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). In conclusion, our study may provide insights into the expression and mechanism of miR-99a-5p in HNSCC. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of miR-99a-5p and its potential clinical applications for HNSCC.
Project description:Based on our miRNA expression signatures, we focused on miR-150-5p (the guide strand) and miR-150-3p (the passenger strand) to investigate their functional significance in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Downregulation of miR-150 duplex was confirmed in LUAD clinical specimens. In vitro assays revealed that ectopic expression of miR-150-5p and miR-150-3p inhibited cancer cell malignancy. We performed genome-wide gene expression analyses and in silico database searches to identify their oncogenic targets in LUAD cells. A total of 41 and 26 genes were identified as miR-150-5p and miR-150-3p targets, respectively, and they were closely involved in LUAD pathogenesis. Among the targets, we investigated the oncogenic roles of tensin 4 (TNS4) because high expression of TNS4 was strongly related to poorer prognosis of LUAD patients (disease-free survival: p = 0.0213 and overall survival: p = 0.0003). Expression of TNS4 was directly regulated by miR-150-3p in LUAD cells. Aberrant expression of TNS4 was detected in LUAD clinical specimens and its aberrant expression increased the aggressiveness of LUAD cells. Furthermore, we identified genes downstream from TNS4 that were associated with critical regulators of genomic stability. Our approach (discovery of anti-tumor miRNAs and their target RNAs for LUAD) will contribute to the elucidation of molecular networks involved in the malignant transformation of LUAD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>microRNAs (miRNAs) stably exist in circulating blood and are encapsulated in extracellular vesicles such as exosomes. The aims of this study were to identify which exosomal miRNAs are highly produced from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells, to analyze whether serum miRNA can be used to discriminate patients with EOC from healthy volunteers, and to investigate the functional role of exosomal miRNAs in ovarian cancer progression.<h4>Methods</h4>Exosomes were collected from the culture media of serous ovarian cancer cell lines, namely TYK-nu and HeyA8 cells. An exosomal miRNA microarray revealed that several miRNAs including miR-99a-5p were specifically elevated in EOC-derived exosomes. Expression levels of serum miR-99a-5p in 62 patients with EOC, 26 patients with benign ovarian tumors, and 20 healthy volunteers were determined by miRNA quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the role of exosomal miR-99a-5p in peritoneal dissemination, neighboring human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were treated with EOC-derived exosomes and then expression levels of miR-99a-5p were examined. Furthermore, mimics of miR-99a-5p were transfected into HPMCs and the effect of miR-99a-5p on cancer invasion was analyzed using a 3D culture model. Proteomic analysis with the tandem mass tag method was performed on HPMCs transfected with miR-99a-5p and then potential target genes of miR-99a-5p were examined.<h4>Results</h4>The serum miR-99a-5p levels were significantly increased in patients with EOC, compared with those in benign tumor patients and healthy volunteers (1.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed with a cut-off of 1.41 showed sensitivity and specificity of 0.85 and 0.75, respectively, for detecting EOC (area under the curve?=?0.88). Serum miR-99a-5p expression levels were significantly decreased after EOC surgeries (1.8 to 1.3, p?=?0.002), indicating that miR-99a-5p reflects tumor burden. Treatment with EOC-derived exosomes significantly increased miR-99a-5p expression in HPMCs. HPMCs transfected with miR-99a-5p promoted ovarian cancer invasion and exhibited increased expression levels of fibronectin and vitronectin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Serum miR-99a-5p is significantly elevated in ovarian cancer patients. Exosomal miR-99a-5p from EOC cells promotes cell invasion by affecting HPMCs through fibronectin and vitronectin upregulation and may serve as a target for inhibiting ovarian cancer progression.
Project description:Background Cisplatin (CDDP) is the first-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer (GC). The poor prognosis of GC patients is partially due to the development of CDDP resistance. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a subclass of noncoding RNAs that function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges. The role of circRNAs in CDDP resistance in GC has not been evaluated. Methods RNA sequencing was used to identify the differentially expressed circRNAs between CDDP-resistant and CDDP-sensitive GC cells. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of circMCTP2 in GC tissues. The effects of circMCTP2 on CDDP resistance were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Pull-down assays and luciferase reporter assays were performed to confirm the interactions among circMCTP2, miR-99a-5p, and myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3). The protein expression levels of MTMR3 were detected by western blotting. Autophagy was evaluated by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results CircMCTP2 was downregulated in CDDP-resistant GC cells and tissues compared to CDDP-sensitive GC cells and tissues. A high level of circMCTP2 was found to be a favorable factor for the prognosis of patients with GC. CircMCTP2 inhibited proliferation while promoting apoptosis of CDDP-resistant GC cells in response to CDDP treatment. CircMCTP2 was also found to reduce autophagy in CDDP-resistant GC cells. MiR-99a-5p was verified to be sponged by circMCTP2. Inhibition of miR-99a-5p could sensitize GC cells to CDDP. MTMR3 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-99a-5p. Knockdown of MTMR3 reversed the effects of circMCTP2 on the proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy of CDDP-resistant GC cells. CircMCTP2 was also confirmed to inhibit CDDP resistance in vivo in a nude mouse xenograft model. Conclusions CircMCTP2 sensitizes GC to CDDP through the upregulation of MTMR3 by sponging miR-99a-5p. Overexpression of CircMCTP2 could be a new therapeutic strategy for counteracting CDDP resistance in GC. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13046-020-01758-w.
Project description:BACKGROUND microRNAs (miRNAs) have a role as biomarkers in human cancer. The aim of this study was to use bioinformatics data, and review of cases identified from the literature, to investigate the role of microRNA-99a-3p (miR-99a-3p) in prostate cancer, including the identification of its target genes and signaling pathways. MATERIAL AND METHODS Meta-analysis from a literature review included 965 cases of prostate cancer. Bioinformatics databases interrogated for miR-99a-3p in prostate cancer included The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and ArrayExpress. Twelve computational predictive algorithms were developed to integrate miR-99a-3p target gene prediction data. Bioinformatics analysis data from Gene Ontology (GO), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were used investigate the possible pathways and target genes for miR-99a-3p in prostate cancer. RESULTS TCGA data showed that miR-99a was down-regulated in prostate cancer when compared with normal prostate tissue. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve area under the curve (AUC) for miR-99a-3p was 0.660 (95% CI, 0.587-0.732) or a moderate level of discriminations. Pathway analysis showed that miR-99a-3p was associated with the Wnt and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways. The PPP3CA and HYOU1 genes, selected from the PPI network, were highly expressed in prostate cancer tissue compared with normal prostate tissue, and negatively correlated with the expression of miR-99a-3p. CONCLUSIONS In prostate cancer, miR-99a-3p expression was associated with the Wnt and VEGF signaling pathways, which might inhibit the expression of PPP3CA or HYOU1.