Glycosphingolipids and neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway and the formation of neuronal inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Chronic neuroinflammation, another hallmark of the disease, is thought to play an important role in the neurodegenerative process. Glycosphingolipids are a well-defined subclass of lipids that regulate crucial aspects of the brain function and recently emerged as potent regulators of the inflammatory process. Deregulation in glycosphingolipid metabolism has been reported in Parkinson's disease. However, the interrelationship between glycosphingolipids and neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease is not well known. This review provides a thorough overview of the links between glycosphingolipid metabolism and immune-mediated mechanisms involved in neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease. After a brief presentation of the metabolism and function of glycosphingolipids in the brain, it summarizes the evidences supporting that glycosphingolipids (i.e. glucosylceramides or specific gangliosides) are deregulated in Parkinson's disease. Then, the implications of these deregulations for neuroinflammation, based on data from human inherited lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders and gene-engineered animal studies are outlined. Finally, the key molecular mechanisms by which glycosphingolipids could control neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease are highlighted. These include inflammasome activation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered calcium homeostasis, changes in the blood-brain barrier permeability, recruitment of peripheral immune cells or production of autoantibodies.
Project description:Recent genetic evidence suggests that aberrant glycosphingolipid metabolism plays an important role in several neuromuscular diseases including hereditary spastic paraplegia, hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1, and non-5q spinal muscular atrophy. Here, we investigated whether altered glycosphingolipid metabolism is a modulator of disease course in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Levels of ceramide, glucosylceramide, galactocerebroside, lactosylceramide, globotriaosylceramide, and the gangliosides GM3 and GM1 were significantly elevated in spinal cords of ALS patients. Moreover, enzyme activities (glucocerebrosidase-1, glucocerebrosidase-2, hexosaminidase, galactosylceramidase, ?-galactosidase, and ?-galactosidase) mediating glycosphingolipid hydrolysis were also elevated up to threefold. Increased ceramide, glucosylceramide, GM3, and hexosaminidase activity were also found in SOD1(G93A) mice, a familial model of ALS. Inhibition of glucosylceramide synthesis accelerated disease course in SOD1(G93A) mice, whereas infusion of exogenous GM3 significantly slowed the onset of paralysis and increased survival. Our results suggest that glycosphingolipids are likely important participants in pathogenesis of ALS and merit further analysis as potential drug targets.
Project description:Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the major nonepithelial neoplasms of the human gastrointestinal tract with a worldwide incidence between 11 and 15 per million cases annually. In this study the acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids of three GISTs were characterized using a combination of thin-layer chromatography, chemical staining, binding of carbohydrate recognizing ligands, and mass spectrometry. In the non-acid glycosphingolipid fractions of the tumors globotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, and glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A, B, H, Lex, Lea, Ley and Leb determinants were found. The relative amounts of these non-acid compounds were different in the three tumour samples. The acid glycosphingolipid fractions had sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GM1, Neu5Ac?3neolactotetraosylceramide, GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b. In summary, we have characterized the glycosphingolipids of GISTs and found that the pattern differs in tumours from different individuals. This detailed characterization of glycosphingolipid composition of GISTs could contribute to recognition of new molecular targets for GIST treatment and sub-classification.
Project description:The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAc?3Gal?4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Gal?3Gal?3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.
Project description:The glycosphingolipids of normal human lymphocytes from individual donors were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In addition, purified T- and B-lymphocytes were examined separately. Lactosylceramide was shown to be the major neutral glycosphingolipid in human lymphocytes, and monohexosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, globoside and paragloboside were all detected in smaller amounts. Analysis of purified B- and T-cell fractions revealed that each of these populations contained a similar qualitative profile for neutral glycosphingolipids, but that quantitatively, B-cells contained several times more of each glycosphingolipid per cell than did T-cells.
Project description:Chicken egg yolk was found to contain a unique glycosphingolipid pattern not seen in other types of tissue or cell. These glycosphingolipids were isolated in pure form and their structures established by sequential enzymic hydrolysis and permethylation analysis. The major gangliosides in chicken egg yolk are N-acetylneuraminosylgalactosylceramide, N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide and di-N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide. The only neutral glycosphingolipid found in chicken egg yolk is galactosylceramide.
Project description:Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are a specialized class of membrane lipids composed of a ceramide backbone and a carbohydrate-rich head group. GSLs populate lipid rafts of the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells, and serve important cellular functions including control of cell-cell signaling, signal transduction and cell recognition. Of the hundreds of unique GSL structures, anionic gangliosides are the most heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) such as Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease. Each LSD is characterized by the accumulation of GSLs in the lysosomes of neurons, which negatively interact with other intracellular molecules to culminate in cell death. In this review, we summarize the biosynthesis and degradation pathways of GSLs, discuss how aberrant GSL metabolism contributes to key features of LSD pathophysiology, draw parallels between LSDs and neurodegenerative proteinopathies such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and lastly, discuss possible therapies for patients.
Project description:A concise, prototypical, and stereoselective strategy for the synthesis of therapeutically and immunologically significant glycosphingolipids has been developed. This strategy provides a universal platform for glycosphingolipid synthesis by block coupling of enzymatically prepared free oligosaccharideglycans to lipids using glycosyl N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates as efficient activated intermediates. As demonstrated here, two different types of glycosphingolipids were obtained in excellent yields using the method.
Project description:In recent years, obesity has been considered a pathological stage of early lifestyle-related diseases, and adipose tissue and adipocyte research has been active. Glycosphingolipids are involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes induced by insulin resistance, but the details of the glycosphingolipid molecular species composition of adipocytes have yet to be elucidated. We used 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the 1,2-dichloroethane-wash method to remove triacylglycerols, which are abundant in adipocytes, and analyzed the structures of glycosphingolipids, particularly neutral glycosphingolipids, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen associated with hospital-acquired infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and wound infections. Recognition of host cell surface carbohydrates plays a crucial role in adhesion and enables microbes to colonize different host niches. Here the potential glycosphingolipid receptors of A. baumannii were examined by binding of 35S-labeled bacteria to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. Thereby a selective interaction with two non-acid glycosphingolipids of human and rabbit small intestine was found. The binding-active glycosphingolipids were isolated and, on the basis of mass spectrometry, identified as neolactotetraosylceramide (Gal?4GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) and lactotetraosylceramide (Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer). Further binding assays using reference glycosphingolipids showed that A. baumannii also bound to lactotriaosylceramide (GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) demonstrating that GlcNAc was the basic element recognized. In addition, the bacteria occasionally bound to galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide with phytosphingosine and/or hydroxy fatty acids, isoglobotriaosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, and gangliotetraosylceramide, in analogy with binding patterns that previously have been described for other bacteria classified as "lactosylceramide-binding". Finally, by isolation and characterization of glycosphingolipids from human skin, the presence of neolactotetraosylceramide was demonstrated in this A. baumannii target tissue.
Project description:?-Synuclein aggregation has been linked to Gaucher's disease (GD) and Krabbe's disease (KD), lysosomal conditions affecting glycosphingolipid metabolism. ?-Synuclein pathology has been directly attributed to the dysregulation of glycosphingolipids in both conditions, specifically to increased galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) content in the context of KD. Furthermore, the gene (GALC) coding for the psychosine degrading enzyme galactosylceramidase (GALC), has recently been identified as a risk loci for Parkinson's disease. However, it is unknown if changes in psychosine metabolism and GALC activity in the context of the aging human brain correlate with Parkinson's disease. We investigated psychosine accumulation and GALC activity in the aging brain using fresh frozen post-mortem tissue from Parkinson's (PD, n = 10), Alzheimer's (AD, n = 10), and healthy control patients (n = 9), along with tissue from neuropsychiatric patients (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, n = 15 each). An expanded mutational analysis of PD (n = 20), AD (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 30) examined if PD was correlated with carriers for severe GALC mutations. Psychosine content within the cerebral cortex of PD patients was elevated above control patients. Within all patients, psychosine displayed a significant (p<0.05) and robust regional distribution in the brain with higher levels in the white matter and substantia nigra. A mutational analysis revealed an increase in the incidence of severe GALC mutations within the PD patient population compared to the cohorts of Alzheimer's patients and healthy controls tested. In addition to ?-synuclein pathology identified in the KD brain, control patients identified as GALC mutational carriers or possessing a GALC pathogenic variant had evidence of ?-synuclein pathology, indicating a possible correlation between ?-synuclein pathology and dysregulation of psychosine metabolism in the adult brain. Carrier status for GALC mutations and prolonged exposure to increased psychosine could contribute to ?-synuclein pathology, supporting psychosine metabolism by galactosylceramidase as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease.