Incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events reported in the tofacitinib rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis development programmes and from real-world data.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ulcerative colitis, and has been investigated in psoriasis (PsO). Routine pharmacovigilance of an ongoing, open-label, blinded-endpoint, tofacitinib RA trial (Study A3921133; NCT02092467) in patients aged ?50 years and with ?1 cardiovascular risk factor identified a higher frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) and all-cause mortality for patients receiving tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily versus those receiving tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and resulted in identification of a safety signal for tofacitinib. Here, we report the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), PE, venous thromboembolism (VTE; DVT or PE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE) from the tofacitinib RA (excluding Study A3921133), PsA and PsO development programmes and observational studies. Data from an ad hoc safety analysis of Study A3921133 are reported separately within. METHODS:This post-hoc analysis used data from separate tofacitinib RA, PsO and PsA programmes. Incidence rates (IRs; patients with events per 100 patient-years' exposure) were calculated for DVT, PE, VTE and ATE, including for populations stratified by defined baseline cardiovascular or VTE risk factors. Observational data from the US Corrona registries (including cardiovascular risk factor stratification), IBM MarketScan research database and the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database were analysed. RESULTS:12 410 tofacitinib-treated patients from the development programmes (RA: n=7964; PsO: n=3663; PsA: n=783) were included. IRs (95% CI) of thromboembolic events among the all tofacitinib cohorts' average tofacitinib 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily treated patients for RA, respectively, were: DVT (0.17 (0.09-0.27) and 0.15 (0.09-0.22)); PE (0.12 (0.06-0.22) and 0.13 (0.08-0.21)); ATE (0.32 (0.22-0.46) and 0.38 (0.28-0.49)). Among PsO patients, IRs were: DVT (0.06 (0.00-0.36) and 0.06 (0.02-0.15)); PE (0.13 (0.02-0.47) and 0.09 (0.04-0.19)); ATE (0.52 (0.22-1.02) and 0.22 (0.13-0.35)). Among PsA patients, IRs were: DVT (0.00 (0.00-0.28) and 0.13 (0.00-0.70)); PE (0.08 (0.00-0.43) and 0.00 (0.00-0.46)); ATE (0.31 (0.08-0.79) and 0.38 (0.08-1.11)). IRs were similar between tofacitinib doses and generally higher in patients with baseline cardiovascular or VTE risk factors. IRs from the overall Corrona populations and in Corrona RA patients (including tofacitinib-naïve/biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-treated and tofacitinib-treated) with baseline cardiovascular risk factors were similar to IRs observed among the corresponding patients in the tofacitinib development programme. No signals of disproportionate reporting of DVT, PE or ATE with tofacitinib were identified in the FAERS database. CONCLUSIONS:DVT, PE and ATE IRs in the tofacitinib RA, PsO and PsA programmes were similar across tofacitinib doses, and generally consistent with observational data and published IRs of other treatments. As expected, IRs of thromboembolic events were elevated in patients with versus without baseline cardiovascular or VTE risk factors, and were broadly consistent with those observed in the Study A3921133 ad hoc safety analysis data, although the IR (95% CI) for PE was greater in patients treated with tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily in Study A3921133 (0.54 (0.32-0.87)), versus patients with baseline cardiovascular risk factors treated with tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily in the RA programme (0.24 (0.13-0.41)).
Project description:Aims:To determine the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) defined as the combined endpoint of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) among patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with population controls. Methods and results:A cohort study was conducted in a primary care medical record database in the UK with data from 1994-2014 among patients with PsA, RA, or psoriasis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative hazards for DVT, PE, and VTE. An interaction with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) was hypothesized a priori and was significant. Patients with PsA (n = 12 084), RA (n = 51 762), psoriasis (n = 194 288) and controls (n = 1 225 571) matched on general practice and start date were identified. Patients with RA (with and without a DMARD prescription) and patients with mild psoriasis had significantly elevated risks of VTE (HR 1.35, 1.29, and 1.07, respectively) after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Severe psoriasis and PsA prescribed a DMARD had an elevated but not statistically significant risk for VTE. Findings were similar for DVT. The age-and-sex-adjusted risk of PE was elevated in RA, severe psoriasis and PsA patients prescribed a DMARD. Conclusion:While systemic inflammation is a risk factor for VTE, the risk of VTE compared with controls is different among patients with three different inflammatory disorders: RA, PsA, and psoriasis.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about its association with another form of vascular disorder, venous thromboembolism (VTE).A retrospective cohort study was conducted using US insurance claims. RA and non-RA patients were matched on age, sex, and index date. Incidence rates (IRs) and rate ratios (RRs) of VTE, defined as the composite of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), were calculated. Cox proportional hazards models compared VTE risks between RA and non-RA patients, adjusting for VTE risk factors such as CVD, surgery, hospitalization, medications, and acute-phase reactants.Over the mean followup of 2 years, the IR for VTE among RA patients was 6.1 per 1,000 person-years, 2.4 times higher (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.1-2.8) than the rate of non-RA patients. The IRs for both DVT (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.9-2.6) and PE (RR 2.7, 95% CI 2.2-3.5) were higher in RA patients compared with non-RA patients. After adjusting for risk factors of VTE, the VTE risk remained elevated in RA patients (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) compared to non-RA patients. The result was similar after further adjustment for elevated acute-phase reactants (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.3-6.5). One-third of patients who developed VTE had at least 1 major VTE risk factor 90 days before and after the VTE event.Our results showed an increased risk of developing VTE for RA patients compared with non-RA patients. The risk was attenuated but remained elevated even after adjusting for various risk factors for VTE.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the frequency of cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events in clinical studies of baricitinib, an oral, selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor approved in more than 50 countries for the treatment of moderately-to-severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS:Data were pooled from 9 RA studies. Placebo comparison up to 24 weeks included data from 6 studies. Randomized dose comparison between baricitinib doses of 2 mg and 4 mg used data from 4 studies and from the associated long-term extension study. The data analysis set designated "All-bari-RA" included all baricitinib exposures at any dose. RESULTS:Overall, 3,492 RA patients received baricitinib (7,860 patient-years of exposure). No imbalance compared to the placebo group was seen in the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (incidence rates [IRs] of 0.5 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 0.8 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib), arterial thrombotic events (ATE) (IRs of 0.5 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 0.5 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib), or congestive heart failure (CHF) broad term (IRs of 4.3 per 100 patient-years for placebo and 2.4 per 100 patient-years for 4 mg baricitinib). Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE) were reported in 0 of 1,070 patients treated with placebo and 6 of 997 patients treated with 4 mg baricitinib during the placebo-controlled period; these events were serious in 2 of 6 patients, while all 6 had risk factors and 1 patient developed DVT/PE after discontinuation of the study drug. In the 2 mg-4 mg-extended data analysis set, IRs of DVT/PE were comparable between the doses across event types (IRs of 0.5 per 100 patient-years in those receiving 2 mg baricitinib and 0.6 per 100 patient-years in those receiving 4 mg baricitinib). In the All-bari-RA data analysis set, the rates were stable over time, with an IR of DVT/PE of 0.5 per 100 patient-years. CONCLUSION:In RA clinical trials, no association was found between baricitinib treatment and the incidence of MACE, ATE, or CHF. With regard to incidence of DVT/PE, 6 events occurred in patients treated with 4 mg baricitinib, but no cases of DVT/PE were reported in the placebo group. During longer-term evaluation, the incidence of DVT/PE was similar between the baricitinib dose groups, with consistent IR values over time, and this was similar to the rates previously reported in patients with RA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule JAK inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM:To report incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in the tofacitinib UC programme. METHODS:DVT and PE were evaluated from one phase 2 and two phase 3 induction studies, one phase 3 maintenance study and an ongoing, open-label, long-term extension (OLE) study (September 2018 datacut). Data were analysed in induction, maintenance and overall (patients receiving ? 1 dose of tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg b.d. in any phase 2, 3 or OLE study) cohorts. RESULTS:1157 patients (2404 patient-years' exposure; ? 6.1 years' tofacitinib treatment) were evaluated in the overall cohort. In induction, one placebo-treated patient had DVT and one had PE; no tofacitinib-treated patients had DVT/PE. In maintenance, one placebo-treated patient had DVT and one had PE; no tofacitinib-treated patients had DVT/PE. In the overall cohort, one patient had DVT (incidence rate [patients with events/100 patient-years; 95% CI]: 0.04 [0.00-0.23]); four had PE (0.16 [0.04-0.41]); all received predominant dose tofacitinib 10 mg b.d.; all had venous thromboembolism risk factors alongside UC. CONCLUSIONS:In this post hoc analysis of patients with UC, during tofacitinib exposure, one patient had DVT and four had PE, all during the OLE study, on predominant dose 10 mg b.d. (83% of overall cohort patients received predominant dose 10 mg b.d.) with venous thromboembolism risk factors. This analysis is limited by small sample size and limited drug exposure; further studies are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00787202, NCT01465763, NCT01458951, NCT01458574, NCT01470612.
Project description:This meta-analysis was designed to compare the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). All studies directly comparing the post-TKA incidence of DVT and/or VTE in patients with RA and OA were included. For all comparisons, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for binary outcomes. Six studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that the combined rates of asymptomatic and symptomatic DVT did not differ significantly in the RA and OA groups (1065/222,714 [0.5%] vs. 35,983/6,959,157 [0.5%]; OR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.57 to 1.02; P = 0.07). The combined rates of asymptomatic and symptomatic DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE) after TKA were significantly lower in the RA than in the OA group (1831/225,406 [0.8%] vs. 63,953/7,018,721 [0.9%]; OR 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.93; P = 0.008). Conclusiviely, the DVT rates after primary TKA were similar in RA and OA patients. In contrast, the incidence of VTE (DVT plus PE) after primary TKA was lower in RA than in OA patients, despite patients with RA being at theoretically higher risk of thrombi due to chronic inflammation.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). In this article, we present a case of a patient with an acute DVT who was treated with a therapeutic heparin drip, then developed syncope while in the hospital and found to have massive bilateral PEs. This case aims to arouse the medical staff's awareness of the VTE diagnosis even if the patient is fully anticoagulated. We review the indications for DVT hospitalization, heparin infusion monitoring, risk factors for developing PE from DVT, mechanisms of developing PE from DVT while on therapeutic anticoagulation, and signs and treatment of massive PE.
Project description:Background:Distal deep vein thrombosis (infrapopliteal DVT without proximal DVT or pulmonary embolism [PE]) generally shares the same triggering risks factors as proximal DVT. In women of childbearing age, a frequent triggering risk factor is the use of combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills. However, data on the epidemiology and long-term outcomes of COC-associated distal DVT are lacking. Objectives:To assess the epidemiology and long-term outcomes of COC-associated distal DVT. Methods:Using data from the OPTIMEV (Optimisation de l'Interrogatoire dans l'évaluation du risque thrombo-Embolique Veineux [Optimization of Interrogation in the Assessment of Thromboembolic Venous Risk]) multicenter cohort study of patients with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE) enrolled between 2004 and 2006, we assessed in nonpregnant or postpartum women aged ? 50 years without cancer or history of VTE (i) proportion of COC-associated distal DVTs among women with distal DVTs and among women with COC-associated VTEs (distal DVT, proximal DVT, or PE) and (ii) 3-year incidence of death, bleeding, and VTE recurrence. Results:COC-associated distal DVTs (n = 54) represented 43.9% of all distal DVTs and 51.9% of COC-associated VTEs. All but one woman with a COC-associated distal DVT received therapeutic anticoagulation for a median of 3 months. At 3-year follow-up, all women with COC-associated distal DVTs were alive, and none had bled during anticoagulant treatment or had experienced a DVT or PE recurrence after stopping anticoagulants. Similar results were found in patients with COC-associated proximal DVT and PE: The VTE recurrence rate was 1.7% per patient-year (PY) and 0% PY, respectively, and there were no deaths or major bleeds in either group. Conclusions:Distal DVT was the most frequent clinical presentation of COC-associated VTE and had similarly favorable long-term outcomes as other COC-associated VTE.
Project description:Relatively little is known about the risk for incident liver disease in psoriasis (PsO), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We performed a cohort study among patients with PsO, PsA, or RA and matched controls in The Health Improvement Network from 1994 to 2014. Outcomes of interest were any liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis (any etiology). Among patients with PsO (N = 197,130), PsA (N = 12,308), RA (N = 54,251), and matched controls (N = 1,279,754), the adjusted hazard ratios for any liver disease were elevated among patients with PsO (without systemic therapy [ST] 1.37; with ST 1.97), PsA (without ST 1.38; with ST 1.67), and RA without an ST (1.49) but not elevated in patients with RA prescribed an ST (0.96). Incident nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was highest in patients with PsO prescribed an ST (2.23) and PsA with an ST (2.11). The risk of cirrhosis was highest among patients with PsO with an ST (2.62) and PsA without an ST (3.15). Additionally, the prevalence of liver disease and cirrhosis increased in a stepwise fashion with increasing body surface area affected by PsO (P for trend <0.001). More so than RA, PsO and PsA are associated with liver disease, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cirrhosis, and this was true even among patients without ST exposure.
Project description:Patient awareness of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thromboprophylaxis is essential for their safety. In this study, we evaluated patients' awareness of VTE and their perceptions of thromboprophylaxis.We administered a cross-sectional survey to patients hospitalized at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Of 190 patients approached, 174 completed the survey, constituting a response rate of 95%. Most participants (72%) were receiving thromboprophylaxis. However, only 32 and 15% reported knowledge of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), respectively. Fifty-five percent of participants with knowledge of DVT identified swelling of the leg as a symptom. Risk factors for blood clot development were correctly identified by about half of participants, although most agreed that blood clots can cause death (77%). The level of awareness of DVT or PE did not significantly differ by respondents' demographics. However, awareness of DVT or PE was significantly higher among those with a personal or family history of VTE. Participants had positive perceptions of thromboprophylaxis and were satisfied with treatment (> 69%), but perceived its adverse effects less favorably and reported lower satisfaction with the information provided about DVT and PE (46%).This study demonstrates the lack of awareness of VTE, DVT, and PE among hospitalized patients. More attention must be paid to patient education to ensure safe and high-quality patient care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Limited data exist about the clinical presentation, ideal therapy and outcomes of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) who develop venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS:We used the data in the RIETE Registry to assess the clinical characteristics, therapeutic approaches and clinical outcomes during the course of anticoagulant therapy in patients with HHT according to initial presentation as pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep venous thrombosis (DVT). RESULTS:Of 51,375 patients with acute VTE enrolled in RIETE from February 2009 to January 2019, 23 (0.04%) had HHT: 14 (61%) initially presented with PE and 9 (39%) with DVT alone. Almost half (47.8%) of the patients with VTE had a risk factor for VTE. Most PE and DVT patients received low-molecular-weight heparin for initial (71 and 100%, respectively) and long-term therapy (54 and 67%, respectively). During anticoagulation for VTE, the rate of bleeding events (major 2, non-major 6) far outweighed the rate of VTE recurrences (recurrent DVT 1): 50.1 bleeds per 100 patient-years (95%CI: 21.6-98.7) vs. 6.26 recurrences (95%CI: 0.31-30.9; p = 0.020). One major and three non-major bleeding were epistaxis. No patient died of bleeding. One patient died shortly after being diagnosed with acute PE. CONCLUSIONS:During anticoagulation for VTE in HHT patients, there were more bleeding events than VTE recurrences. Most bleeding episodes were non-major epistaxis.