Discovery of a Novel Induced Polymorphism in SD1 Gene Governing Semi-Dwarfism in Rice and Development of a Functional Marker for Marker-Assisted Selection.
ABSTRACT: The semi-dwarfing allele, sd1-d, has been widely utilized in developing high-yielding rice cultivars across the world. Originally identified from the rice cultivar Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen (DGWG), sd1-d, derived from a spontaneous mutation, has a 383-bp deletion in the SD1 gene. To date, as many as seven alleles of the SD1 gene have been identified and used in rice improvement, either with a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), with insertion-deletions (InDels), or both. Here, we report discovery of a novel SNP in the SD1 gene from the rice genotype, Pusa 1652. Genetic analysis revealed that the inheritance of the semi-dwarfism in Pusa 1652 is monogenic and recessive, but it did not carry the sd1-d allele. However, response to exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) application and the subsequent bulked segregant and linkage analyses confirmed that the SD1 gene is involved in the plant height reduction in Pusa 1652. Sequencing of the SD1 gene from Pusa 1652 revealed a novel transition in exon 3 (T/A) causing a nonsense mutation at the 300th codon. The stop codon leads to premature termination, resulting in a truncated protein of OsGA20ox2 obstructing the GA3 biosynthesis pathway. This novel recessive allele, named sd1-bm, is derived from Bindli Mutant 34 (BM34), a ?-ray induced mutant of a short-grain aromatic landrace, Bindli. BM34 is the parent of an aromatic semi-dwarf cultivar, Pusa 1176, from which Pusa 1652 is derived. The semi-dwarfing allele, sd1-bm, was further validated by developing a derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) marker, AKS-sd1. This allele provides an alternative to the most widely used sd1-d in rice improvement programs and the functional dCAPS marker will facilitate marker-assisted introgression of the semi-dwarf trait into tall genotypes.
Project description:The widespread introduction of semi-dwarf1 (sd1), also known as the 'Green Revolution' gene, has dramatically increased rice yield. However, the extensive use of limited sources of dwarf genes may cause 'bottleneck' effects in breeding new rice varieties. Alternative dwarf germplasms are quite urgent for rice breeding. Here, we characterized a new allele of the rice Slr1-d mutant, Slr1-d6, which reduced plant height by 37%, a much milder allele for dwarfism. Slr-d6 was still responsive to gibberellin (GA) to a reduced extent. The mutation site in Slr1-d6 was less conserved in the TVHYNP domain, leading to the specific semi-dominant dwarf phenotype. Expression of SLR1 and five key GA biosynthetic genes was disturbed in Slr1-d6, and the interaction between Slr1-d6 and GID1 was decreased. In the genetic background of cultivar 9311 with sd1 eliminated, Slr1-d6 homozygous plants were ~70 cm tall. Moreover, Slr1-d6 heterozygous plants were equivalent in height to the standard sd1 semi-dwarf 9311, but with a 25% yield increase, showing its potential application in hybrid rice breeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The exploitation of novel alleles from wild rice that were lost during rice cultivation could be very important for rice breeding and evolutionary studies. Plant height (PH) was a target of artificial selection during rice domestication and is still a target of modern breeding. The "green revolution" gene semi-dwarf 1 (SD1) were well documented and used in the past decades, allele from wild rice could provide new insights into the functions and evolution of this gene. RESULTS:We identified a PH-related quantitative trait locus, qCL1.2,from wild riceusing a set of chromosome segment substitution lines. qCL1.2encodesa novel allele of SD1 gene. The wild allele of SD1 is a dominant locus that can significantly promote rice internode length by regulating the expression levels of genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction. Nucleotide diversity and haplotype network analyses of the SD1 gene were performed using 2822 rice landraces. Two previously reported functional nucleotide polymorphisms clearly differentiated japonica and indica rice; however, they were not associated with PH selection. Other new functional nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding, but not promoter, regions were involved in PH selection during rice domestication. Our study increasesunderstanding of the rice SD1 gene and provides additional evidence of this gene's selection during rice domestication. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings provide evidence thatSD1 gene from wild rice enhances plant height and new functional nucleotide polymorphisms of this gene were artificially selected during cultivated rice differentiation.
Project description:Green Revolution (GR) rice varieties are high yielding but typically drought sensitive. This is partly due to the tight linkage between the loci governing plant height and drought tolerance. This linkage is illustrated here through characterization of qDTY1.1, a QTL for grain yield under drought that co-segregates with the GR gene sd1 for semi-dwarf plant height. We report that the loss of the qDTY1.1 allele during the GR was due to its tight linkage in repulsion with the sd1 allele. Other drought-yield QTLs (qDTY) also showed tight linkage with traits rejected in GR varieties. Genetic diversity analysis for 11 different qDTY regions grouped GR varieties separately from traditional drought-tolerant varieties, and showed lower frequency of drought tolerance alleles. The increased understanding and breaking of the linkage between drought tolerance and undesirable traits has led to the development of high-yielding drought-tolerant dwarf lines with positive qDTY alleles and provides new hope for extending the benefits of the GR to drought-prone rice-growing regions.
Project description:The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH) population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.
Project description:The applications of semi-dwarf genes such as sd1 and Rht1 in rice and wheat resulted in the first "green revolution" in the 1960s. However, such semi-dwarf genes that can efficiently reduce plant stature and have few negative yield traits have not yet been identified in maize. In this study, a new allele of Brachytic2 gene (qpa1) encoding P-glycoprotein was rapidly fine-mapped using a modified method. The qpa1, containing a 241-bp deletion in the last exon, had no negative effect on yield, but greatly modified the plant architecture including significantly reduced plant height and ear height, increased stalk diameter and erected leaf. A common variant similar to maize qpa1 was also present in the sorghum orthologous dw3 locus. Comparative RNA-seq analysis next showed 99 differentially co-expressed genes affected by Br2 in maize and dw3 in sorghum, including four plant height genes D3, BAK1, Actin7 and Csld1, which are involved in gibberellin and brassinosteroid biosynthesis, auxin transport and cellulose synthesis. The qpa1 can be applied to efficiently modify plant stature in maize and in combination with D3, BAK1, Actin7, Csld1 and the other 95 differentially co-expressed genes, can be edited using new genomic editing tools for further applications and studies.
Project description:Intragenic recombination is one of the most important sources of genetic variability. In our previous study, RI92 a tall line (160 cm of plant height) was observed in the cross progeny between two semi-dwarf indica cultivars Zhenshan 97 and Minghui 63. Genome-wide genotyping and sequencing indicated that the genome constitution of RI92 was completely from both parents. Bulk segregant analysis in a BC3F2 population revealed that "green revolution gene" semi-dwarf 1 (sd1) was most likely the gene controlling the tall plant height in RI92. Sequencing analysis of SD1 revealed that an intragenic recombination occurred between two parental non-functional sd1 alleles and generated a functional SD1 in RI92. Four-fold high recombination rate in SD1 located bins to the genome-wide average was observed in two RIL populations, indicating recombination hotspot in the SD1 region. Intragenic recombination creates new alleles in the progeny distinct from parental alleles and diversifies natural variation.
Project description:Semi-dwarf traits have been widely introgressed into cereal crops to improve lodging resistance. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), four major unlinked dwarfing genes, Dw1-Dw4, have been introduced to reduce plant height, and among them, Dw3 and Dw1 have been cloned. Dw3 encodes a gene involved in auxin transport, whereas, Dw1 was recently isolated and identified as a gene encoding a protein of unknown function. In this study, we show that DW1 is a novel component of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Sorghum possessing the mutated allele of Dw1 (dw1), showed similar phenotypes to rice BR-deficient mutants, such as reduced lamina joint bending, attenuated skotomorphogenesis, and insensitivity against feedback regulation of BR-related genes. Furthermore, DW1 interacted with a negative regulator of BR signaling, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2), and inhibited its nuclear localization, indicating that DW1 positively regulates BR signaling by inhibiting the function of BIN2. In contrast to rice and wheat breeding which used gibberellin (GA) deficiency to reduce plant height, sorghum breeding modified auxin and BR signaling. This difference may result from GA deficiency in rice and wheat does not cause deleterious side effects on plant morphology, whereas in sorghum it leads to abnormal culm bending.
Project description:Even as the study of plant genomics rapidly develops through the use of high-throughput sequencing techniques, traditional plant phenotyping lags far behind. Here we develop a high-throughput rice phenotyping facility (HRPF) to monitor 13 traditional agronomic traits and 2 newly defined traits during the rice growth period. Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the 15 traits, we identify 141 associated loci, 25 of which contain known genes such as the Green Revolution semi-dwarf gene, SD1. Based on a performance evaluation of the HRPF and GWAS results, we demonstrate that high-throughput phenotyping has the potential to replace traditional phenotyping techniques and can provide valuable gene identification information. The combination of the multifunctional phenotyping tools HRPF and GWAS provides deep insights into the genetic architecture of important traits.
Project description:During the Green Revolution, substantial increases in wheat (Triticum aestivum) yields were realized, at least in part, through the introduction of the Reduced height (Rht)-B1b and Rht-D1b semi-dwarfing alleles. In contrast to Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, the Rht-B1c allele is characterized by extreme dwarfism and exceptionally strong dormancy. Recently, 35 intragenic Rht-B1c suppressor alleles were created in the spring wheat cultivar Maringá, and termed overgrowth (ovg) alleles. Here, 14 ovg alleles with agronomically relevant plant heights were reproducibly classified into nine tall and five semi-dwarf alleles. These alleles differentially affected grain dormancy, internode elongation rate, and coleoptile and leaf lengths. The stability of these ovg effects was demonstrated for three ovg alleles in different genetic backgrounds and environments. Importantly, two semi-dwarf ovg alleles increased dormancy, which correlated with improved pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance. Since no negative effects on grain yield or quality were observed, these semi-dwarf ovg alleles are valuable for breeding to achieve adequate height reduction and protection of grain quality in regions prone to PHS. Furthermore, this research highlights a unique role for the first 70 amino acids of the DELLA protein, encoded by the Rht-1 genes, in grain dormancy.
Project description:Rice, the first crop to be fully sequenced and annotated in the mid-2000s, is an excellent model species for crop research due mainly to its relatively small genome and rich genetic diversity. The 130-million-year-old cereal came into the limelight in the 1960s when the semi-dwarfing gene sd-1, better known as the "green revolution" gene, resulted in the establishment of a high-yielding semi-dwarf variety IR8. Deemed as the miracle rice, IR8 saved millions of lives and revolutionized irrigated rice farming particularly in the tropics. The technology, however, spurred some unintended negative consequences, especially in prompting ubiquitous monoculture systems that increase agricultural vulnerability to extreme weather events and climate variability. One feasible way to incorporate resilience in modern rice varieties with narrow genetic backgrounds is by introgressing alleles from the germplasm of its weedy and wild relatives, or perhaps from the suitable underutilized species that harbor novel genes responsive to various biotic and abiotic stresses. This review reminisces the fascinating half-century journey of rice research and highlights the potential utilization of weedy rice and underutilized grains in modern breeding programs. Other possible alternatives to improve the sustainability of crop production systems in a changing climate are also discussed.