Dual lateral flow optical/chemiluminescence immunosensors for the rapid detection of salivary and serum IgA in patients with COVID-19 disease.
ABSTRACT: To accurately diagnose COVID-19 infection and its time-dependent progression, the rapid, sensitive, and noninvasive determination of immunoglobulins A specific to SARS-CoV-2 (IgA) in saliva and serum is needed to complement tests that detect immunoglobulins G and M. We have developed a dual optical/chemiluminescence format of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) immunosensor for IgA in serum and saliva. A recombinant nucleocapsid antigen specifically captures SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patient specimens. A labelled anti-human IgA reveals the bound IgA fraction. A dual colorimetric and chemiluminescence detection enables the affordable and ultrasensitive determination of IgA to SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, a simple smartphone-camera-based device measures the colour signal provided by nanogold-labelled anti-human IgA. For the ultrasensitive chemiluminescence transduction, we used a contact imaging portable device based on cooled CCD, and measured the light signal resulting from the reaction of the HRP-labelled anti-human IgA with a H2O2/luminol/enhancers substrate. A total of 25 serum and 9 saliva samples from infected and/or recovered individuals were analysed by the colorimetric LFIA, which was sensitive and reproducible enough for the semi-quantification of IgA in subjects with a strong serological response and in the early stage of COVID-19 infection. Switching to CL detection, the same immunosensor exhibited higher detection capability, revealing the presence of salivary IgA in infected individuals. For the patients included in the study (n = 4), the level of salivary IgA correlated with the time elapsed from diagnosis and with the severity of the disease. This IgA-LFIA immunosensor could be useful for noninvasively monitoring early immune responses to COVID-19 and for investigating the diagnostic/prognostic utility of salivary IgA in the context of large-scale screening to assess the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
Project description:AIM:This study aims to verify whether standardized saliva collection is suitable for SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection and IgA measurement. METHODS:43 COVID-19 inpatients and 326 screening subjects underwent naso-pharyngeal (NP)-swab and saliva collection (Salivette). Inpatients also underwent repeated blood collections to evaluate inflammation and organs involvement. In all patients and subjects, SARS-CoV-2 (gene E) rRT-PCR was undertaken in saliva and NP-swabs. Salivary IgA and serum IgA, IgG, IgM were measured on inpatients' samples. RESULTS:NP-swabs and saliva were both SARS-CoV-2 positive in 7 (16%) or both negative in 35 (82%) out of 43 patients successfully included in the study. NP-swabs and saliva results did not perfectly match in one patient (saliva positive, NP-swab negative). Positive molecular results were significantly associated with disease duration (p=0.0049). 326/326 screening subjects were SARS-CoV-2 negative on both NP-swabs and saliva. Among the 27 saliva samples tested for IgA, 18 were IgA positive. Salivary IgA positivity was associated with pneumonia (p=0.002) and CRP values (p=0.0183), not with other clinical and molecular data, or with serum immunoglubulins. CONCLUSIONS:A standardized saliva collection can be adopted to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in alternative to NP-swabs. Preliminary data on salivary IgA support the use of saliva also for patient monitoring.
Project description:Non-invasive SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is urgently needed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at the general population level. Precise knowledge of population immunity could allow government bodies to make informed decisions about how and when to relax stay-at-home directives and to reopen the economy. We hypothesized that salivary antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 could serve as a non-invasive alternative to serological testing for widespread monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout the population. We developed a multiplex SARS-CoV-2 antibody immunoassay based on Luminex technology and tested 167 saliva and 324 serum samples, including 134 and 118 negative saliva and serum samples, respectively, collected before the COVID-19 pandemic, and 33 saliva and 206 serum samples from participants with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We evaluated the correlation of results obtained in saliva vs. serum and determined the sensitivity and specificity for each diagnostic media, stratified by antibody isotype, for detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on COVID-19 case designation for all specimens. Matched serum and saliva SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific IgG responses were significantly correlated. Within the 10-plex SARS-CoV-2 panel, the salivary anti-nucleocapsid (N) protein IgG response resulted in the highest sensitivity for detecting prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (100% sensitivity at ?10 days post-SARS-CoV-2 symptom onset). The salivary anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG response resulted in 100% specificity. Among individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed with RT-PCR, the temporal kinetics of IgG, IgA, and IgM in saliva were consistent with those observed in serum. SARS-CoV-2 appears to trigger a humoral immune response resulting in the almost simultaneous rise of IgG, IgM and IgA levels both in serum and in saliva, mirroring responses consistent with the stimulation of existing, cross-reactive B cells. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing in saliva can play a critically important role in large-scale 'sero'-surveillance to address key public health priorities and guide policy and decision-making for COVID-19.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerging human infectious disease. Because no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are available to treat COVID-19, early diagnostics, isolation, and prevention are crucial for containing the outbreak. Molecular diagnostics using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the current gold standard for detection. However, viral RNAs are much less stable during transport and storage than proteins such as antigens and antibodies. Consequently, false-negative RT-PCR results can occur due to inadequate collection of clinical specimens or poor handling of a specimen during testing. Although antigen immunoassays are stable diagnostics for detection of past infection, infection progress, and transmission dynamics, no matched antibody pair for immunoassay of SARS-CoV-2 antigens has yet been reported. In this study, we designed and developed a novel rapid detection method for SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 (S1) protein using the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, which can form matched pairs with commercially available antibodies. ACE2 and S1-mAb were paired with each other for capture and detection in a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) that did not cross-react with SARS-CoV Spike 1 or MERS-CoV Spike 1 protein. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 (<5 ng of recombinant proteins/reaction) was detected by the ACE2-based LFIA. The limit of detection of our ACE2-LFIA was 1.86 × 105 copies/mL in the clinical specimen of COVID-19 Patients without no cross-reactivity for nasal swabs from healthy subjects. This is the first study to detect SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen using an LFIA with matched pair consisting of ACE2 and antibody. Our findings will be helpful to detect the S1 antigen of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 patients.
Project description:The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global challenge for public health systems. Ultrasensitive and early identification of infection is critical to prevent widespread COVID-19 infection by presymptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, especially in the community and in-home settings. We demonstrate a multiplexed, portable, wireless electrochemical platform for ultra-rapid detection of COVID-19: the SARS-CoV-2 RapidPlex. It detects viral antigen nucleocapsid protein, IgM and IgG antibodies, as well as the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein, based on our mass-producible laser-engraved graphene electrodes. We demonstrate ultrasensitive, highly selective, and rapid electrochemical detection in the physiologically relevant ranges. We successfully evaluated the applicability of our SARS-CoV-2 RapidPlex platform with COVID-19 positive and negative blood and saliva samples. Based on this pilot study, our multiplexed immunosensor platform may allow for high frequency at-home testing for COVID-19 telemedicine diagnosis and monitoring.
Project description:The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global ongoing pandemic. Timely, accurate and non-invasive SARS-CoV-2 detection in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, as well as determination of their immune status, will facilitate effective large-scale pandemic control measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Saliva is a biofluid whose anatomical source and location is of particularly strategic relevance to COVID-19 transmission and monitoring. This review focuses on the role of saliva as both a foe (a common mode of viral transmission via salivary droplets and potentially aerosols) and a friend (as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for viral detection and immune status surveillance) in combating COVID-19.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We aimed to evaluate the role of rapid serological tests in the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS:This retrospective study enrolled 16 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed symptomatic patients with COVID-19 and 58 COVID-19 negative patients at a medical center in Taiwan over a 3-month period. Serial serum samples were collected and tested for antibody response using four point-of-care (POC) lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) (ALLTEST 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Rapid Test, Dynamiker 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM Rapid Test, ASK COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test, and Wondfo SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Test). Time-dependent detection sensitivity and timeliness of seroconversion were determined and compared between the four POC rapid tests. RESULTS:The overall sensitivity and specificity of the four tests for detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after 3 weeks of symptom onset were 100% and 100%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rapid tests used for detection of IgM and IgG separately and those used for detection of combined total antibody (mainly IgM/IgG). There was no significant difference between the four POC rapid tests in terms of time required for determining seroconversion of COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 with pneumonia demonstrated shorter seroconversion time than those without pneumonia. CONCLUSION:Though the POC antibody rapid tests based on LFIA showed reliable performance in the detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, the results of these tests should be interpreted and applied appropriately in the context of antibody dynamic of COVID-19 infection. COVID-19 patients complicated with pneumonia exhibited earlier anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response than COVID-19 patients without pneumonia.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2, a novel emerging coronavirus, has caused severe disease (COVID-19), and rapidly spread worldwide since the beginning of 2020. SARS-CoV-2 mainly spreads by coughing, sneezing, droplet inhalation, and contact. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in saliva samples, making saliva a potential transmission route for COVID-19. The participants in dental practice confront a particular risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to close contact with the patients and potential exposure to saliva-contaminated droplets and aerosols generated during dental procedures. In addition, saliva-contaminated surfaces could lead to potential cross-infection. Hence, the control of saliva-related transmission in the dental clinic is critical, particularly in the epidemic period of COVID-19. Based on our experience of the COVID-19 epidemic, some protective measures that can help reduce the risk of saliva-related transmission are suggested, in order to avoid the potential spread of SARS-CoV-2 among patients, visitors, and dental practitioners.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Italy was the first western country to experience a large Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and the province of Bergamo experienced one of the deadliest COVID-19 outbreaks in the world. Following the peak of the epidemic in mid-March, the curve has slowly fallen thanks to the strict lockdown imposed by the Italian government on 9th March 2020. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in 423 workers in Bergamo province who returned to the workplace after the end of the Italian lockdown on 5th May 2020. To this end, we performed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 and a nasopharyngeal swab to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). As a secondary aim of the study, we validated a lateral flow immunochromatography assay (LFIA) for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. FINDINGS:ELISA identified 38.5% positive subjects, of whom 51.5% were positive for both IgG and IgM, 47.3% were positive only for IgG, but only 1.2% were positive for IgM alone. Only 23 (5.4%) participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR, although with high cycle thresholds (between 34 and 39), indicating a very low residual viral load that was not able to infect cultured cells. All these rRT-PCR positive subjects had already experienced seroconversion. When the ELISA was used as the comparator, the estimated specificity and sensitivity of the rapid LFIA for IgG were 98% and 92%, respectively. INTERPRETATION:the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the province of Bergamo reached 38.5%, significantly higher than has been reported for most other regions worldwide. Few nasopharyngeal swabs tested positive in fully recovered subjects, though with a very low SARS-CoV-2 viral load, with implications for infectivity and discharge policies for positive individuals in the post-pandemic period. The rapid LFIA used in this study is a valuable tool for rapid serologic surveillance of COVID-19 for population studies. FUNDING:The study was supported by Regione Lombardia, Milano Serravalle - Milano Tangenziali S.p.A., Brembo S.p.A, and by MEI System.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) and represents a global pandemic affecting more than 26 million people and has claimed >870,000 lives worldwide. Diagnostic tests for SARS-COV-2 infection commonly use nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). As an alternative specimen, we investigated the potential use of the real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detection of SARS-COV-2 in saliva samples in large suspected-COVID-19 patients in Kuwait. NPS and saliva samples pairs were prospectively collected from 891 COVID-19 suspected patients in Kuwait and analyzed using TaqPath™ COVID-19 multiplex RT-PCR. Of the 891 patients, 38.61 % (344/891) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 4.83 % (43/891) were equivocal, and 56.56 % (504/891) were negative with NPS by RT-PCR. For saliva, 34.23 % (305/891) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 3.14 (28/891) were equivocal, and 62.63 % (558/891) were negative. From 344 confirmed cases for SARS-CoV-2 with NPS samples, 287 (83.43 %) (95 % CI, 79.14-86.99) were positive with saliva specimens. Moreover, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in saliva were 83.43 % (95 % CI: 79.07-87.20) and 96.71 % (95 % CI: 94.85-98.04 %), respectively. An analysis of the agreement between the NPS and saliva specimens demonstrated 91.25 % observed agreement (? coefficient = 0.814, 95 % CI, 0.775-0.854). This study demonstrates that saliva can be a noninvasive specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR.
Project description:The emergence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 made imperative the need for diagnostic tests that can identify the infection. Although Nucleic Acid Test (NAT) is considered to be the gold standard, serological tests based on antibodies could be very helpful. However, individual studies are usually inconclusive, thus, a comparison of different tests is needed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv. We used the bivariate method for meta-analysis of diagnostic tests pooling sensitivities and specificities. We evaluated IgM and IgG tests based on Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Chemiluminescence Enzyme Immunoassays (CLIA), Fluorescence Immunoassays (FIA), and the Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIA). We identified 38 studies containing data from 7848 individuals. Tests using the S antigen are more sensitive than N antigen-based tests. IgG tests perform better compared to IgM ones and show better sensitivity when the samples were taken longer after the onset of symptoms. Moreover, a combined IgG/IgM test seems to be a better choice in terms of sensitivity than measuring either antibody alone. All methods yield high specificity with some of them (ELISA and LFIA) reaching levels around 99%. ELISA- and CLIA-based methods perform better in terms of sensitivity (90%-94%) followed by LFIA and FIA with sensitivities ranging from 80% to 89%. ELISA tests could be a safer choice at this stage of the pandemic. LFIA tests are more attractive for large seroprevalence studies but show lower sensitivity, and this should be taken into account when designing and performing seroprevalence studies.