The prevalence of fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with chronic periodontitis: A meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: FimA is an important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). According to its DNA sequence, the fimA genotype of P. gingivalis can be divided into six categories (I, Ib, ?, III, IV, V). The fimA gene may be a key factor in the diversity of virulence found in P. gingivalis. Moreover, the role fimA plays in the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis is closely associated with periodontitis, making it an important factor of study for disease prevention and treatment. In this study, the prevalence of fimA genotypes of P. gingivalis in patients with periodontal diseases was evaluated by meta-analysis. The Embase and PubMed databases were searched for articles from 1999 to 2019 using the following search terms: Porphyromonas gingivalis or P. gingivalis; periodontitis or chronic periodontal disease; fimA or fimA genotype. The reference lists of relevant published articles were searched manually. A total of 17 studies were included in this report. A statistical software package (Stata, version 11.0/mp, StataCorp) was utilized to calculate and analyze the P. gingivalis fimA genotypes for each combined incidence estimate. The pooled rates of fimA ?, fimA Ib, fimA ?, fimA ?, fimA ? and fimA ? genotypes of P. gingivalis were 8.4% (95% CI: 5.7-11.1), 11.7% (95% CI: 7.4-16), 42.9% (95% CI: 34.2-51.7), 6.5% (95% CI: 5.1-7.9), 17.8% (95% CI: 9.0-26.5), and 3.2% (95% CI: 1.6-4.9), respectively. This study showed that the fimA ? and fimA ? genotypes of P. gingivalis are highly present in patients with periodontal disease. Therefore, these two genotypes may be related to the pathogenesis and progress of periodontal disease, one of the main risk factors of periodontitis.
Project description:Fimbriae are important virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, facilitating their attachment to host and bacterial cells. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the fimA gene is classified into six types (genotypes I, Ib, II, III, IV, and V) on the basis of different nucleotide sequences, with fimA genotypes II and IV being prevalent in isolates from patients with periodontitis. The aims of this study were to examine the distribution of fimA genotypes in a collection of 82 P. gingivalis isolates from adult periodontitis patients of worldwide origin and to investigate the relationship between the fimA genotypes and the sequence types (STs), as determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), of the isolates. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with primer sets specific for each genotype. The STs of all strains were assigned according to the MLST database for P. gingivalis (www.pubmlst.org/pgingivalis). The 82 strains showed extensive genetic diversity and were assigned to 69 STs. Only isolates with closely related STs harbored the same fimA genotype. Twenty-eight (34.1%) strains harbored fimA genotype II, while only the reference strain for fimA genotype V reacted with the primers specific for this genotype. Twenty-one isolates (25.6%) were positive by more than one of the fimA PCR assays; the most frequent combinations were genotypes I, Ib, and II (eight isolates) and genotypes I and II (four isolates). Sequencing of the fimA gene from selected isolates did not support the observed specific fimA genotype combinations, suggesting that the genotyping method used for the major fimbriae in P. gingivalis should be reevaluated.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Strains of periodontal disease-associated bacterium <i>Porphyromonas gingivalis</i> have different pathogenicity, which can be attributed to clonal genetic diversity. <i>P. gingivalis</i> typically expresses two types of fimbriae, FimA and Mfa1, which comprise six (I, Ib, II, III, IV, and V) and two (<i>mfa<sup>53</sup></i> and <i>mfa<sup>70</sup></i> ) genotypes, respectively. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of the two fimbrial genotypes of <i>P. gingivalis</i> in clinical specimens.<h4>Methods</h4>Subgingival plaques were collected from 100 participants during periodontal maintenance therapy and examined for <i>P. gingivalis</i> fimbrial genotypes by direct polymerase chain reaction and/or DNA sequencing. We also analyzed the relationship between fimbrial genotypes and clinical parameters of periodontitis recorded at the first medical examination.<h4>Results</h4>Both fimbrial types could be detected in 63 out of 100 samples; among them, <i>fimA</i> genotype II was found in 33 samples (52.4%), in which the <i>mfa<sup>70</sup></i> genotype was 1.75 times more prevalent than <i>mfa<sup>53</sup></i> . The total detection rate of <i>fimA</i> genotypes I and Ib was 38.1%; in these samples, the two <i>mfa1</i> genotypes were observed at a comparable frequency. In two samples positive for <i>fimA</i> III (3.2%), only <i>mfa<sup>53</sup></i> was detected, whereas in four samples positive for <i>fimA</i> IV (6.3%), the two <i>mfa1</i> genotypes were equally represented, and none of <i>fimA</i> V-positive samples defined the <i>mfa1</i> genotype. No associations were found between clinical parameters and fimbrial subtype combinations.<h4>Discussion</h4>Both <i>P. gingivalis</i> fimbrial types were detected at various ratios in subgingival plaques, and a tendency for <i>fimA</i> and <i>mfa1</i> genotype combinations was observed. However, there was no association between <i>P. gingivalis</i> fimbrial genotypes and periodontitis severity.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the most important Gram-negative anaerobe bacteria involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an arsenal of specialized virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. Among them, fimbriae play a role in the initial attachment and organization of biofilms. Different genotypes of fimA have been related to length of fimbriae and pathogenicity of the bacterium. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to identify 5 types of fimA genotype strains in smokers and nonsmokers with periodontitis, before and after periodontal therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Thirty-one patients with periodontitis harboring P. gingivalis were selected: 16 nonsmokers (NS) and 15 smokers (SM). Clinical and microbiological parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after periodontal treatment, namely: plaque index, bleeding on probe, probing depth, gingival recession and clinical attachment level. The frequency of P. gingivalis and fimA genotype strains were determined by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Type I fimA was detected in the majority of SM and NS at baseline, and the frequency did not diminish after 3 months of treatment. The frequency of type II genotype was higher in SM than NS at baseline. After 3 months, statistical reduction was observed only for types II and V fimA genotypes in SM. The highest association was found between types I and II at baseline for NS (37.5%) and SM (53.3%). CONCLUSION:The most prevalent P. gingivalis fimA genotypes detected in periodontal and smoker patients were genotypes I and II. However, the presence of fimA genotype II was higher in SM. Periodontal treatment was effective in controlling periodontal disease and reducing type II and V P. gingivalis fimA.
Project description:Fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis are filamentous appendages on the cell surface and are thought to be one of the virulence factors. The fimA gene encoding the subunit protein of fimbriae, fimbrillin (FimA), was classified into four typeable variants (types I to IV). We previously examined the distribution of P. gingivalis in terms of fimA genotypes in periodontitis patients using a fimA type-specific PCR assay. However, some patients harbored P. gingivalis with untypeable fimA. In this study, we have cloned a new type (type V) of fimA from dental plaque samples. P. gingivalis with type V fimA was isolated from dental plaque of a periodontitis patient, and the isolate was named HNA-99. The deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those of type I P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, type II strain HW24D1, type III strain 6/26, and type IV strain HG564, and the homologies were found to be 45, 44, 43, and 55%, respectively. Southern blot analysis showed that the clinical isolate HNA-99 possessed P. gingivalis-specific genes sod and kgp. However, in terms of serological specificities, type V FimA showed a difference from other types of FimA. In addition, type V P. gingivalis bacteria were detected in 16.4% (12 of 73) of the P. gingivalis-positive patients with periodontitis by PCR assay using specific primers. Thus, a new type of fimA gene is now established, and the fimA genotyping could be useful in determining the disease-associated genotypes of P. gingivalis involved in the development of adult periodontitis.
Project description:The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis colonizes largely through FimA fimbriae, composed of polymerized FimA encoded by fimA. fimA exists as a single copy within the fim gene cluster (fim cluster), which consists of seven genes: fimX, pgmA and fimA-E. Using an expression vector, fimA alone was inserted into a mutant from which the whole fim cluster was deleted, and the resultant complement exhibited a fimbrial structure. Thus, the genes of the fim cluster other than fimA were not essential for the assembly of FimA fimbriae, although they were reported to influence FimA protein expression. It is known that there are various genotypes for fimA, and it was indicated that the genotype was related to the morphological features of FimA fimbriae, especially the length, and to the pathogenicity of the bacterium. We next complemented the fim cluster-deletion mutant with fimA genes cloned from P. gingivalis strains including genotypes I to V. All genotypes showed a long fimbrial structure, indicating that FimA itself had nothing to do with regulation of the fimbrial length. In FimA fimbriae purified from the complemented strains, types I, II, and III showed slightly higher thermostability than types IV and V. Antisera of mice immunized with each purified fimbria principally recognized the polymeric, structural conformation of the fimbriae, and showed low cross-reactivity among genotypes, indicating that FimA fimbriae of each genotype were antigenically different. Additionally, the activity of a macrophage cell line stimulated with the purified fimbriae was much lower than that induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.
Project description:The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may alter the composition of oral microbiota and has the potential risk of periodontal complication. Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae play a critical role in colonization of P. gingivalis in subgingival regions. In this study, we investigated the association between the prevalence of P. gingivalis-specific fimA genotypes and periodontal health status in adolescent orthodontic patients, to identify the pathogencity of P. gingivalis during orthodontic therapy.Sixty-one adolescent orthodontic patients were enrolled in the case group, while the control group consisted of 56 periodontally healthy adolescents. At baseline (T0), clinical parameter (gingival index) was tested, and subgingival plaque samples were obtained from the lower incisors. The incidences of P. gingivalis and fimA genotypes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. All parameters were reassessed after 1 month (T1), 2 months (T2), 3 months (T3), and 6 months (T4) in the case group and then compared with those of the controls.Both microbiological and clinical parameters from orthodontic patients started to increase after placement of fixed appliances. Maximum values were reached at 3 months after placement and followed by their decreases at six months. However, the microbiological and clinical parameters in the case group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The GI of fimA II, IV-positive samples was significantly higher than that of negative samples.P. gingivalis carrying fimA II or IV was closely related to orthodontic gingivitis. In addition, proper oral hygiene control could lead to little increase in dental plaque accumulation, and exert a beneficial effect to periodontal tissues.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Published literature till date reveals a high prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA type I genotype among healthy subjects. Quite a few studies have reported its prevalence also in periodontitis patients. Nevertheless incidence of this genotype in gingivitis is lacking in adult population. AIM:The present study was chosen to detect P. gingivalis fimA type I genotype among chronic gingivitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 46 subgingival plaque samples collected from chronic marginal gingivitis (n=23) and chronic periodontitis subjects (control group) (n=23) were subjected to Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction to detect the P. gingivalis fimA type I gene. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test. RESULTS:Prevalence of P. gingivalis fimA type I gene among chronic periodontitis and chronic gingivitis patients were 8.7% and 30.4% respectively. P. gingivalis fimA type I genotype prevalence was found to be statistically insignificant between the two study groups (p=0.135). CONCLUSION:The avirulent P. gingivalis fimA type I genotype, occurred in high prevalence among chronic gingivitis patients, while its presence was low in chronic periodontitis patients. Presence of this avirulent genotype in chronic marginal gingivitis signifies its reversible condition.
Project description:PURPOSE:To identify potential antigenic targets for Porphyromonas gingivalis vaccine development. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In the present study, we analyzed the Porphyromonas gingivalis, fimA type II primary amino acid sequence and characterized the similarity to the human proteome at the pentapeptide level. RESULTS:We found that exact peptide-peptide profiling of the fimbrial antigen versus the human proteome shows that only 19 out of 344 fimA type II pentapeptides are uniquely owned by the bacterial protein. CONCLUSIONS:The concept that protein immunogenicity is allocated in rare peptide sequences and the search the Porphyromonas gingivalis fimA type II sequence for peptides unique to the bacterial protein and absent in the human host, might be used in new therapeutical approaches as a significant adjunct to current periodontal therapies.
Project description:Marginal periodontitis is not a homogeneous disease but is rather influenced by an intricate set of host susceptibility differences as well as diversities in virulence among the harbored organisms. It is likely that clonal heterogeneity of subpopulations with both high and low levels of pathogenicity exists among organisms harbored by individuals with negligible, slight, or even severe periodontal destruction. Therefore, specific virulent clones of periodontal pathogens may cause advanced and/or aggressive periodontitis. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a predominant periodontal pathogen that expresses a number of potential virulence factors involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, and accumulated evidence shows that its expression of heterogenic virulence properties is dependent on clonal diversity. Fimbriae are considered to be critical factors that mediate bacterial interactions with and invasion of host tissues, with P. gingivalis shown to express two distinct fimbria-molecules, long and short fimbriae, on the cell surface, both of which seem to be involved in development of periodontitis. Long fimbriae are classified into six types (I to V and Ib) based on the diversity of fimA genes encoding FimA (a subunit of long fimbriae). Studies of clones with type II fimA have revealed their significantly greater adhesive and invasive capabilities as compared to other fimA type clones. Long and short fimbriae induce various cytokine expressions such as IL-1?, IL-?, IL-6, and TNF-?, which result in alveolar bone resorption. Although the clonal diversity of short fimbriae is unclear, distinct short fimbria-molecules have been found in different strains. These fimbriae variations likely influence the development of periodontal disease.
Project description:Fimbrial protein fimbrillin (FimA), a major structural subunit of Porphyromonas gingivalis, has been suggested as a vaccine candidate to control P. gingivalis-induced periodontal disease. Previously, cDNAs encoding IgG monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against purified FimA from P. gingivalis 2561 have been cloned, and the MAbs have been produced in rice cell suspension. Here we examined the biological activities of the plant-produced MAb specific for FimA (anti-FimA plantibody) of P. gingivalis in vitro and in vivo. The anti-FimA plantibody recognized oligomeric/polymeric forms of native FimA in immunoblot analysis and showed high affinity for native FimA (KD = 0.11 nM). Binding of P. gingivalis (10(8) cells) to 2 mg of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads was reduced by 53.8% in the presence of 1 ?g/ml plantibody. Anti-FimA plantibody (10 ?g/ml) reduced invasion of periodontal ligament cells by P. gingivalis (multiplicity of infection, 100) by 68.3%. Intracellular killing of P. gingivalis opsonized with the anti-FimA plantibody by mouse macrophages was significantly increased (77.1%) compared to killing of bacterial cells with irrelevant IgG (36.7%). In a mouse subcutaneous chamber model, the number of recoverable P. gingivalis cells from the chamber fluid was significantly reduced when the numbers of bacterial cells opsonized with anti-FimA plantibody were compared with the numbers of bacterial cells with irrelevant IgG, 66.7% and 37.1%, respectively. These in vitro and in vivo effects of anti-FimA plantibody were comparable to those of the parental MAb. Further studies with P. gingivalis strains with different types of fimbriae are needed to investigate the usefulness of anti-FimA plantibody for passive immunization to control P. gingivalis-induced periodontal disease.