The Effect of Combined Growth Hormone and a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy on Height in Korean 3-M Syndrome Siblings.
ABSTRACT: 3-M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive growth disorder characterized by severe growth retardation, low birth weight, characteristic facial features, and skeletal anomalies, for which three causative genes (CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8) have been identified. We herein report two Korean siblings with 3-M syndrome caused by two novel OBSL1 mutations, and describe the effect of a combined treatment with growth hormone (GH) and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. A 7-year-old girl with short stature (-3.37 standard deviation score, SDS) and breast budding presented with subtle dysmorphic features, including macrocephaly, frontal bossing, a triangular face, prominent philtrum, full lips, a short neck, and fifth-finger clinodactyly. GnRH stimulation test revealed a pubertal pattern and advanced bone age of 8 years and 10 months. Her older sister, aged 10 years and 9 months, had experienced an early menarche, and had an advanced bone age (13.5 years) and predicted adult height of 142 cm (-4.04 SDS). Targeted exome sequencing identified that the siblings had two heteroallelic mutations in OBSL1. Both siblings underwent a combination therapy with GH and a GnRH agonist. A height gain was noted in both siblings even after short-term treatment. To fully elucidate the effects of the combined therapy, a larger cohort should be analyzed following a longer treatment period. However, such an analysis would be challenging due to the rarity of this disease.
Project description:UNLABELLED:3-M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8 genes. It is characterised by growth failure, dysmorphic features and skeletal abnormalities. Data in the literature show variable efficacy of GH in the treatment of short stature. We report four Emirati siblings with the condition. The index case is a 10-year-old boy with characteristic features, including prenatal and postnatal growth failure, a triangular face, a long philtrum, full lips and prominent heels. Genetic testing confirmed a novel mutation (p.val88Ala) in the CUL7 gene. The parents are healthy, first-degree cousins with nine children, of whom two died in the first year of life with respiratory failure. Both had low birth weight and growth retardation. The boy's older sibling reached an adult height of 117?cm (-6.71?SDS). She was never treated with GH. He was started on GH treatment at 7 years of age, when his height was 94?cm (-5.3?SDS). 3-M syndrome should be considered in children with short stature who have associated dysmorphism and skeletal abnormalities. The diagnosis is more likely to occur in families that have a history of consanguinity and more than one affected sibling. Death in early infancy due to respiratory failure is another clue to the diagnosis, which might have a variable phenotype within a family. Genetic testing is important for confirming the diagnosis and for genetic counselling. GH treatment might be beneficial in improving stature in affected children. LEARNING POINTS:3-M syndrome should be considered in families that have more than one sibling with short stature, particularly if there is consanguinity.Syndrome phenotype might be variable within a family with the same mutation.Genetic analysis is helpful in confirming diagnosis in the presence of variable siblings' phenotype.GH treatment might be useful in improving stature in 3-M syndrome.
Project description:3-M syndrome, a primordial growth disorder, is associated with mutations in CUL7 and OBSL1. Exome sequencing now identifies mutations in CCDC8 as a cause of 3-M syndrome. CCDC8 is a widely expressed gene that is transcriptionally associated to CUL7 and OBSL1, and coimmunoprecipitation indicates a physical interaction between CCDC8 and OBSL1 but not CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 are members of a pathway controlling mammalian growth.
Project description:CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 genes are mutated in a mutually exclusive manner in 3M and other growth retardation syndromes. The mechanism underlying the function of the three 3M genes in development is not known. We found that OBSL1 and CCDC8 form a complex with CUL7 and regulate the level and centrosomal localization of CUL7, respectively. CUL7 depletion results in altered microtubule dynamics, prometaphase arrest, tetraploidy, and mitotic cell death. These defects are recaptured in CUL7 mutated 3M cells and can be rescued by wild-type, but not by 3M patient-derived CUL7 mutants. Depletion of either OBSL1 or CCDC8 results in defects and sensitizes cells to microtubule damage similarly to loss of CUL7 function. Microtubule damage reduces the level of CCDC8 that is required for the centrosomal localization of CUL7. We propose that CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8 proteins form a 3M complex that functions in maintaining microtubule and genome integrity and normal development.
Project description:Mutations in CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8, leading to disordered ubiquitination, cause one of the commonest primordial growth disorders, 3-M syndrome. This condition is associated with i) abnormal p53 function, ii) GH and/or IGF1 resistance, which may relate to failure to recycle signalling molecules, and iii) cellular IGF2 deficiency. However the exact molecular mechanisms that may link these abnormalities generating growth restriction remain undefined. In this study, we have used immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry and transcriptomic studies to generate a 3-M 'interactome', to define key cellular pathways and biological functions associated with growth failure seen in 3-M. We identified 189 proteins which interacted with CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8, from which a network including 176 of these proteins was generated. To strengthen the association to 3-M syndrome, these proteins were compared with an inferred network generated from the genes that were differentially expressed in 3-M fibroblasts compared with controls. This resulted in a final 3-M network of 131 proteins, with the most significant biological pathway within the network being mRNA splicing/processing. We have shown using an exogenous insulin receptor (INSR) minigene system that alternative splicing of exon 11 is significantly changed in HEK293 cells with altered expression of CUL7, OBSL1 and CCDC8 and in 3-M fibroblasts. The net result is a reduction in the expression of the mitogenic INSR isoform in 3-M syndrome. From these preliminary data, we hypothesise that disordered ubiquitination could result in aberrant mRNA splicing in 3-M; however, further investigation is required to determine whether this contributes to growth failure.
Project description:3-M primordial dwarfism is an inherited disease characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation and by mutually exclusive mutations in three genes, CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8. The mechanism underlying 3-M dwarfism is not clear. We showed here that CCDC8, derived from a retrotransposon Gag protein in placental mammals, exclusively localized on the plasma membrane and was phosphorylated by CK2 and GSK3. Phosphorylation of CCDC8 resulted in its binding first with OBSL1, and then CUL7, leading to the membrane assembly of the 3-M E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. We identified LL5?, a plasma membrane protein that regulates cell migration, as a substrate of 3-M ligase. Wnt inhibition of CCDC8 phosphorylation or patient-derived mutations in 3-M genes disrupted membrane localization of the 3-M complex and accumulated LL5?. Deletion of Ccdc8 in mice impaired trophoblast migration and placental development, resulting in intrauterine growth restriction and perinatal lethality. These results identified a mechanism regulating cell migration and placental development that underlies the development of 3-M dwarfism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:3-M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by primordial growth retardation, large head circumference, characteristic facial features, and mild skeletal changes, which is associated with the exclusive variants in three genes, namely CUL7, OBSL1, and CCDC8. Only a few 3-M syndrome patients have been reported in Chinese population. METHODS:Children with unexplained severe short stature, facial dysmorphism, and normal intelligence in two Chinese families and their relatives were enrolled. Trio-whole-exome sequencing (trio-WES) and pathogenicity prediction analysis were conducted on the recruited patients. A conservative analysis of the mutant amino acid sequences and function prediction analysis of the wild-type (WT) and mutant CUL7 protein were performed. RESULTS:We identified a homozygous missense variant (NM_014780.4: c.4898C > T, p.Thr1633Met) in CUL7 gene in a 6-month-old female infant from a non-consanguineous family, and a homozygous frameshift variant (NM_014780.4: c.3722_3749 dup GGCTGGCACAGCTGCAGCAATGCCTGCA, p. Val1252Glyfs*23) in CUL7 gene in two affected siblings from a consanguinity family. These two variants may affect the properties and structure of CUL7 protein. CONCLUSION:These two rare variants were observed in Chinese population for the first time and have not been reported in the literature. Our findings expand the variant spectrum of 3-M syndrome in Chinese population and provide valuable insights into the early clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of 3-M syndrome for pediatricians and endocrinologists.
Project description:Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) major structure protein Gag is synthesized in the cytoplasm, assembles on the plasma membrane, subsequently buds and releases. HIV-1 viral particles incorporate a number of host proteins to facilitate or inhibit HIV-1 replication. Here we identify a new host protein, coiled-coil domain containing protein 8 (CCDC8), in HIV-1 particles. Incorporation of CCDC8 into virions is dependent on the interaction between CCDC8 and Gag matrix region. Exogenous overexpression of CCDC8 can strongly inhibit HIV-1 production, up to ~30 fold. CCDC8 is a membrane-associated protein. The interaction between exogenously expressed CCDC8 and Gag on the plasma membrane changes the assembly of Gag, and redirects it into intracellular sites, or causes Gag endocytosis. CCDC8, along with cytoskeleton protein obscuring-like1 (Obsl1) and E3 ligase Cul7, induces Gag polyubiquitination and degradation. Thus we identify a new host protein and a new pathway for HIV-1 Gag polyubiquitination and degradation. This pathway presents potential therapeutic strategies against HIV infection.
Project description:CONTEXT: Isolated heterozygous SHOX defects are the most frequent monogenic cause of short stature, and combined therapy with recombinant human GH (rhGH) and GnRH analog (GnRHa) in pubertal patients has been suggested, but there are no data on final height. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze adult height after rhGH and GnRHa therapy in patients with SHOX haploinsufficiency. PATIENTS: Ten peripubertal patients with isolated SHOX defects participated in the study. INTERVENTION: Five patients were followed without treatment, and five were treated with rhGH (50 mug/kg/d) and depot leuprolide acetate (3.75 mg/month). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adult height sd score (SDS) was measured. RESULTS: All patients followed without treatment had marked downward growth shift during puberty (height SDS, -1.2 +/- 0.7 at 11.4 +/- 1.4 yr; adult height SDS, -2.5 +/- 0.5). Conversely, four of five patients treated with rhGH for 2 to 4.9 yr associated to GnRHa for 1.4 to 5.8 yr improved their height SDS from -2.3 +/- 1.3 at 11.8 +/- 2.1 yr to a final height SDS of -1.7 +/- 1.6. The difference between the mean height SDS at the first evaluation and final height SDS was statistically significant in nontreated vs. treated patients (mean height SDS change, -1.2 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.4, respectively; P <0.001). CONCLUSION: A gain in adult height of patients with isolated SHOX defects treated with combined rhGH and GnRHa therapy was demonstrated for the first time, supporting this treatment for children with SHOX defects who have just started puberty to avoid the loss of growth potential observed in these patients during puberty.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The incidence of short stature in KBG syndrome is relatively high. Data on the therapeutic effects of growth hormone (GH) on children with KBG syndrome accompanied by short stature in the previous literature has not been summarized. CASE SUMMARY:Here we studied a girl with KBG syndrome and collected the data of children with KBG syndrome accompanied by short stature from previous studies before and after GH therapy. The girl was referred to our department because of short stature. Physical examination revealed mild dysmorphic features. The peak GH responses to arginine and clonidine were 6.22 and 5.40 ng/mL, respectively. The level of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was 42.0 ng/mL. Genetic analysis showed a c.2635 dupG (p.Glu879fs) mutation in the ANKRD11 gene. She received GH therapy. During the first year of GH therapy, her height increased by 0.92 standard deviation score (SDS). Her height increased from -1.95 SDS to -0.70 SDS after two years of GH therapy. There were ten children with KBG syndrome accompanied by short stature who received GH therapy in reported cases. Height SDS was improved in nine (9/10) of them. The mean height SDS in five children with KBG syndrome accompanied by short stature increased from -2.72 ± 0.44 to -1.95 ± 0.57 after the first year of GH therapy (P = 0.001). There were no adverse reactions reported after GH treatment. CONCLUSION:GH treatment is effective in our girl and most children with KBG syndrome accompanied by short stature during the first year of therapy.
Project description:Growth of short children in puberty is limited by the effect of estrogen on epiphyseal fusion.To compare: 1) the efficacy and safety of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) vs GH vs AI/GH on increasing adult height potential in pubertal boys with severe idiopathic short stature (ISS); and 2) differences in body composition among groups.Randomized three-arm open-label comparator.Outpatient clinical research.Seventy-six pubertal boys [mean (SE) age, 14.1 (0.1) years] with ISS [height SD score (SDS), -2.3 (0.0)].Daily AIs (anastrozole or letrozole), GH, or AI/GH for 24-36 months.Anthropometry, bone ages, dual x-ray absorptiometry, spine x-rays, hormones, safety labs.Height gain [mean (SE)] at 24 months was: AI, +14.0 (0.8) cm; GH, +17.1 (0.9) cm; AI/GH, +18.9 (0.8) cm (P < .0006, analysis of covariance). Height SDS was: AI, -1.73 (0.12); GH, -1.43 (0.14); AI/GH, -1.25 (0.12) (P < .0012). Those treated through 36 months grew more. Regardless of treatment duration, height SDS at near-final height [n = 71; age, 17.4 (0.2) years; bone age, 15.3 (0.1) years; height achieved, ?97.6%] was: AI, -1.4 (0.1); GH, -1.4 (0.2); AI/GH, -1.0 (0.1) (P = .06). Absolute height change was: AI, +18.2 (1.6) cm; GH, +20.6 (1.5) cm; AI/GH, +22.5 (1.4) cm (P = .01) (expected height gain at -2.0 height SDS, +13.0 cm). AI/GH had higher fat free mass accrual. Measures of bone health, safety labs, and adverse events were similar in all groups. Letrozole caused higher T and lower estradiol than anastrozole.Combination therapy with AI/GH increases height potential in pubertal boys with ISS more than GH and AI alone treated for 24-36 months with a strong safety profile.