Incidence of Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis in Acute Leukemia and Effect on Mortality.
ABSTRACT: The cumulative incidence, risk factors, rate of subsequent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding and impact on mortality of isolated upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UE DVT) in acute leukemia are not well-described. The California Cancer Registry, used to identify treated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, was linked with the statewide hospitalization database to determine cumulative incidences of UE DVT and subsequent VTE and bleeding after UE DVT diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association of UE DVT on the risk of subsequent pulmonary embolism (PE) or lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LE DVT) and subsequent bleeding, and the impact of UE DVT on mortality. There were 5,072 patients identified: 3,252 had AML and 1,820 had ALL. Three- and 12-month cumulative incidences of UE DVT were 4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1-5.6) and 6.6% (95% CI: 5.8-7.5) for AML and 4.1% (95% CI: 3.2-5.1) and 5.9% (95% CI: 4.9-7.1) for ALL, respectively. Twelve-month cumulative incidences of subsequent VTE after an incident UE DVT diagnosis were 5.3% for AML and 12.2% for ALL. Twelve-month cumulative incidences of subsequent bleeding after an incident UE DVT diagnosis were 15.4% for AML and 21.1% for ALL. UE DVT was associated with an increased risk of subsequent bleeding for both AML (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.60-2.68) and ALL (HR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.02-2.57) but was not an independent risk factor for subsequent PE or LE DVT for either leukemia subtype. Isolated incident UE DVT was associated with increased leukemia-specific mortality for AML (HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16-1.73) and ALL (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.31-2.47). UE DVT is a relatively common complication among patients with AML and ALL and has a significant impact on bleeding and mortality. Further research is needed to determine appropriate therapy for this high-risk population.
Project description:Background ?Overall, 30 to 50% of lower-limb deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) cases are isolated distal DVT (IDDVT). The recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk is unclear, leaving uncertainty over optimal IDDVT treatment. We present data on patients with IDDVT and proximal DVT (PDVT) from the prospective, noninterventional XALIA study of rivaroxaban for acute and extended VTE treatment. Methods ?Patients aged ?18 years scheduled to receive ?3 months' anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or standard anticoagulation were eligible, with follow-up for ?12 months. We describe baseline characteristics, management strategies, and incidence proportions of VTE recurrence, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality in patients with IDDVT or PDVT, with or without distal vein involvement. Findings ?Overall, 1,004 patients with IDDVT and 3,098 with PDVT were enrolled; 641 (63.8%) and 1,683 (54.3%) received rivaroxaban, respectively. Patients with IDDVT were younger and had lower incidences of renal impairment, cancer, and unprovoked VTE than those with PDVT. On-treatment recurrence incidences for IDDVT versus PDVT were 1.0 versus 2.4% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-1.08), and incidences posttreatment cessation were 1.1 versus 2.1% (adjusted HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.32-1.35), respectively. On-treatment major bleeding incidences were 0.9 versus 1.4% and mortality was 0.8 versus 2.2%, respectively. Median treatment duration in patients with IDDVT was shorter than in those with PDVT (102 vs. 192 days, respectively). Interpretation ?Patients with IDDVT had fewer comorbidities and were more frequently treated with rivaroxaban than those with PDVT. On-treatment and posttreatment recurrences were less frequent in patients with IDDVT. Trial registration number: ?NCT01619007.
Project description:Previous reports show increased incidence of venous thromboembolism [VTE, deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolus (PE)] in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The incidence, time course, and risk factors for VTE recurrence have been less well described. We determined the cumulative incidence of first VTE recurrence and bleeding in a cohort of SCD patients with incident VTE. Risk factors for recurrence and bleeding were also determined using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, era of incident VTE, location and hospitalization-associated status of incident VTE, and SCD-related complications. Results are presented as adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 877 SCD patients with an incident VTE, the 1-year and 5-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 13.2% (95% CI 11.0%-15.5%) and 24.1% (95% CI 21.2%-27.1%). Risk factors for VTE recurrence included more severe SCD (HR = 2.41; CI: 1.67-3.47), lower extremity DVT as the incident event (HR = 1.64; CI: 1.17-2.30), and pneumonia/acute chest syndrome (HR = 1.68; CI: 1.15-2.45). The cumulative incidence of bleeding was 4.9% (CI 3.5%-6.4%) at 6 months and 7.9% (CI: 6.2%-9.8%) at 1 year. More severe SCD (HR = 1.61; CI: 1.11-2.35) was associated with bleeding. The high incidence of VTE recurrence in patients with SCD suggests that extended anticoagulation may be indicated; however, this must be weighed against a relatively high risk of bleeding. Prospective, randomized studies of anticoagulation in SCD patients with VTE are needed.
Project description:Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is associated with systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, increasing risk for thromboembolic events (TEE). In 145 adult recipients who developed cGVHD after a matched sibling or umbilical cord blood donor HCT from 2010 to 2018, 32(22%) developed at least 1 TEE event, and 14(10%) developed 2 TEE events. The 5-year cumulative incidence of TEE was 22% (95% CI, 15-29%) with a median time from cGVHD to TEE of 234 days (range, 12-2050). Median time to the development of LE DVT or PE was 107 (range, 12-1925) compared to 450 days (range, 158-1300) for UE DVT. Cumulative incidence of TEE was 9% (95% CI, 0-20%), 17% (95% CI, 9-25%), and 38% (95% CI, 22-55%) in those with mild, moderate, and severe GVHD, respectively. Higher risk for TEE was associated with cGVHD severity (hazard ratio [HR] 4.9, [95% CI, 1.1-22.0]; p = 0.03), non-O-donor to recipient ABO match compared to O-donor to O-recipient match (HR 2.7, [95% CI, 1.0-7.5]; p = 0.053), and personal history of coronary artery disease (HR 2.4, [95% CI, 1.1-5.3]; p = 0.03). TEE was not associated with 2-year non-relapse mortality or 5-year overall survival.
Project description:Background:Thrombosis is a common complication in patients with cancer. Whether thromboprophylaxis could benefit patients with cancer is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer undergoing surgery or chemotherapy. Methods:We searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, and Web of Science for studies published before May 2018 to investigate whether thromboprophylaxis measures were more effective than a placebo in patients with cancer. Results:In total, 33 trials with 11,942 patients with cancer were identified. In patients with cancer undergoing surgery, the administration of thromboprophylaxis was associated with decreasing trends in venous thromboembolism (VTE) [relative risk (RR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.81] and DVT (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.87). In patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, the administration of thromboprophylaxis reduced the incidences of VTE, DVT, and pulmonary embolism compared with no thromboprophylaxis (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.40-0.73; RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.31-0.73; RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.81, respectively). The pooled results regarding major bleeding showed no significant difference between prophylaxis and no prophylaxis in either the surgical or the chemotherapy groups (RR 2.35, 95% CI 0.74-7.52, p?=?0.1482, I2?=?0%; RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.83, p?=?0.1274, I2?=?0%, respectively). Conclusion:Thromboprophylaxis did not increase major bleeding events or the incidence of thrombocytopenia. All-cause mortality was not significantly different between those who received thromboprophylaxis and those who did not. This meta-analysis provides evidence that thromboprophylaxis can reduce the number of VTE and DVT events, with no apparent increase in the incidence of major bleeding in patients with cancer.
Project description:Large series of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after ex vivo T cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have not been reported previously. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 266 patients (median age, 54 years) with AML who received CD34-selected TCD allo-HSCTs while in first (75%) or second (25%) complete remission (CR1/CR2) at a single institution. The conditioning regimens were all myeloablative, and no additional graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was given. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at 180 days were 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10% to 18%) and 3% (95% CI, 1% to 5%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 3 years was 3% (95% CI, 1% to 6%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%) and that of relapse was 21% (95% CI, 17% to 27%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 75%, 61%, and 56% and 68%, 57%, and 53%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, and relapse rates for patients who underwent transplantation in CR1 and those who did so in CR2. However, patients with high-risk cytogenetics at diagnosis had significantly poorer outcomes. The OS and DFS rates compare favorably with those for unmodified allo-HSCT, but with considerably lower rates of GVHD.
Project description:There is marked paucity of data regarding late effects in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who undergo myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated late effects and survival in 826 1-year disease-free survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML, with an additional focus on comparing late effects based upon MAC type (total body irradiation [TBI] vs high-dose chemotherapy only). The estimated 10-year cumulative incidence of subsequent neoplasms was 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-6%); 10-year cumulative incidence of nonmalignant late effects included gonadal dysfunction (10%; 95% CI, 8%-13%), cataracts (10%; 95% CI, 7%-13%), avascular necrosis (8%; 95% CI, 5%-10%), diabetes mellitus (5%; 95% CI, 3%-7%), and hypothyroidism (3%; 95% CI, 2%-5%). Receipt of TBI was independently associated with a higher risk of cataracts only (hazard ratio [HR], 4.98; P < .0001) whereas chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was associated with an increased risk of cataracts (HR, 3.22; P = .0006), avascular necrosis (HR, 2.49; P = .006), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 3.36; P = .03). Estimated 10-year overall survival and leukemia-free survival were 73% and 70%, respectively, and did not differ on the basis of conditioning type. In conclusion, late effects among survivors of MAC HCT for AYA AML are frequent and are more closely linked to cGVHD than type of conditioning.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:There is little evidence about gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in patients with schizophrenia. We examined association of schizophrenia with upper GI bleeding (UGIB) and nonbleeding ulcers and associated risk factors and mortality. METHODS:We used the data linked from population-based registries in Denmark. Among patients with incident schizophrenia in 1980-2011, we computed cumulative incidences and standardized incidence ratios of UGIB, bleeding ulcers, and nonbleeding ulcers compared with the general population; evaluated risk factors for the 3 GI endpoints, including somatic and psychiatric comorbidity; and examined subsequent all-cause mortality. RESULTS:Among 39,998 patients with schizophrenia, the standardized incidence ratios were 2.92 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.76-3.08) for UGIB, 2.36 (95% CI, 2.15-2.58) for bleeding ulcers, and 2.00 (95% CI, 1.87-2.15) for nonbleeding ulcers. Risk factors for UGIB and nonbleeding ulcers included age, somatic comorbidity, and medication use. UGIB and nonbleeding ulcers were associated with the subsequent increase in mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of UGIB and nonbleeding ulcers, whose risk factors in patients with schizophrenia are similar to those in the general population.
Project description:Low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been the standard of care for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. Rivaroxaban was approved in 2012 for the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but no prior studies have been reported specifically evaluating the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban for cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT). Under a Quality Assessment Initiative (QAI), we established a Clinical Pathway to guide rivaroxaban use for CAT and now report a validation analysis of our first 200 patients. A 200 patient cohort with CAT (PE or symptomatic, proximal DVT), whose full course of anticoagulation was with rivaroxaban, were accrued. In competing risk analysis, primary endpoints at 6 months included new or recurrent PE or symptomatic proximal lower extremity DVT, major bleeding, clinically-relevant non-major bleeding leading to discontinuation of rivaroxaban, or death. In competing risk analysis, the 6 months cumulative incidence of new or recurrent VTE was 4.4?% (95?% CI?=?1.4-7.4?%), major bleeding was 2.2?% (95?% CI?=?0-4.2?%) and all-cause mortality 17.6?% (95?% CI?=?11.7-23.0?%). In this cohort of 200 patients with active cancer and CAT the rates of new or recurrent VTE and major bleeding were comparable to the cancer subgroup analysis from the EINSTEIN studies. The results of our Clinical Pathway provide guidance on Rivaroxaban use for treatment of CAT, and suggest that safety and efficacy is preserved, compared with past-published experience with LMWH.
Project description:Data comparing long-term outcomes in lenalidomide-treated and untreated patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with del(5q) are limited. We evaluated clinical outcomes of 295 lenalidomide-treated patients from two clinical trials (MDS-003 and MDS-004) and 125 untreated red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent patients with del(5q) Low- or Intermediate-1 (Int-1)-risk MDS from a large multicenter registry. Risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression and mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation to adjust for study entry differences between cohorts. Baseline characteristics were well balanced across cohorts, except for a higher RBC transfusion burden in lenalidomide-treated patients (median, 6 vs 2 units/8 weeks). Median follow-up was 4.3 years from first dose for lenalidomide-treated patients and 4.6 years from diagnosis for untreated patients. Two-year cumulative AML progression incidences were 6.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-13.9) and 12.1% (95% CI: 7.0-20.3) and 2-year overall survival (OS) probabilities were 89.9% (95% CI: 84.1-96.0) and 74.4% (95% CI: 66.1-83.7), respectively. AML progression risk was similar in both cohorts (hazard ratio (HR) 0.969, P=0.930); however, lenalidomide treatment was associated with significant improvement in survival (HR 0.597, P=0.012), after adjusting for all other covariates. In conclusion, lenalidomide treatment does not increase AML progression risk, but instead confers a possible survival benefit in RBC transfusion-dependent patients with del(5q) Low- or Int-1-risk MDS.