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Transcriptome-wide identification of MAPKKK genes in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and their potential roles in low temperature stress responses.

ABSTRACT: As upstream components of MAPK cascades, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) act as adaptors linking upstream signaling steps to the core MAPK cascades. MAPK cascades are universal modules of signal transduction in eukaryotic organisms and play crucial roles in plant development processes and in responses to biotic and abiotic stress and signal transduction. Members of the MAPKKK gene family have been identified in several plants,however, MAPKKKs have not been systematically studied in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.). In this study, 55 potential CdMAPKKKs were produced from bermudagrass transcriptome data, of which 13 belonged to the MEKK, 38 to the Raf, and 4 to the ZIK subfamily. Multiple alignment and conserved motif analysis of CdMAPKKKs supported the evolutionary relationships inferred from phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, the distribution pattern in Poaceae species indicated that members of the MAPKKK family were conserved among almost all diploid species, and species-specific polyploidy or higher duplication ratios resulted in an expansion of the MAPKKK family. In addition, 714 co-functional links which were significantly enriched in signal transduction, responses to temperature stimuli, and other important biological processes of 55 CdMAPKKKs were identified using co-functional gene networks analysis; 30 and 19 co-functional genes involved in response to cold or heat stress, respectively, were also identified. Results of promoter analyses, and interaction network investigation of all CdMAPKKKs based on the rice homologs suggested that CdMAPKKKs are commonly associated with regulation of numerous biological processes. Furthermore, 12 and 13 CdMAPKKKs were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, in response to low temperature stress; among them, six CdMAPKKKs were significantly induced by low temperature stress, at least at one point in time. This is the first study to conduct identification and functional analysis of the MAPKKK gene family in bermudagrass, and our results provide a foundation for further research on the functions of CdMAPKKKs in response to low temperature stress.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7602684 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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