Shifts in microbial diversity, composition, and functionality in the gut and genital microbiome during a natural SIV infection in vervet monkeys.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The microbiota plays an important role in HIV pathogenesis in humans. Microbiota can impact health through several pathways such as increasing inflammation in the gut, metabolites of bacterial origin, and microbial translocation from the gut to the periphery which contributes to systemic chronic inflammation and immune activation and the development of AIDS. Unlike HIV-infected humans, SIV-infected vervet monkeys do not experience gut dysfunction, microbial translocation, and chronic immune activation and do not progress to immunodeficiency. Here, we provide the first reported characterization of the microbial ecosystems of the gut and genital tract in a natural nonprogressing host of SIV, wild vervet monkeys from South Africa. RESULTS:We characterized fecal, rectal, vaginal, and penile microbiomes in vervets from populations heavily infected with SIV from diverse locations across South Africa. Geographic site, age, and sex affected the vervet microbiome across different body sites. Fecal and vaginal microbiome showed marked stratification with three enterotypes in fecal samples and two vagitypes, which were predicted functionally distinct within each body site. External bioclimatic factors, biome type, and environmental temperature influenced microbiomes locally associated with vaginal and rectal mucosa. Several fecal microbial taxa were linked to plasma levels of immune molecules, for example, MIG was positively correlated with Lactobacillus and Escherichia/Shigella and Helicobacter, and IL-10 was negatively associated with Erysipelotrichaceae, Anaerostipes, Prevotella, and Anaerovibrio, and positively correlated with Bacteroidetes and Succinivibrio. During the chronic phase of infection, we observed a significant increase in gut microbial diversity, alterations in community composition (including a decrease in Proteobacteria/Succinivibrio in the gut) and functionality (including a decrease in genes involved in bacterial invasion of epithelial cells in the gut), and partial reversibility of acute infection-related shifts in microbial abundance observed in the fecal microbiome. As part of our study, we also developed an accurate predictor of SIV infection using fecal samples. CONCLUSIONS:The vervets infected with SIV and humans infected with HIV differ in microbial responses to infection. These responses to SIV infection may aid in preventing microbial translocation and subsequent disease progression in vervets, and may represent host microbiome adaptations to the virus. Video Abstract.
Project description:The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGM). Despite moderate to high levels of plasma viremia in naturally infected AGM, infection is not associated with immunodeficiency. We recently reported that SIVagmVer90 isolated from a naturally infected vervet AGM induced AIDS following experimental inoculation of pigtailed macaques. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the replication of this isolate in two species of AGM, sabaeus monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) and vervets (C. pygerythrus). Inoculation of sabaeus AGM with SIVagmVer90 resulted in low and variable primary and set-point viremia (<10(2) to 10(4) copies/ml). In contrast, inoculation of vervet AGM with either SIVagmVer90 or blood from a naturally infected vervet (Ver1) resulted in high primary viremia and moderate plateau levels, similar to the range seen in naturally infected vervets from this cohort. CD4(+) T cells remained stable throughout infection, even in AGM with persistent high viremia. Despite the lack of measurable lymphadenopathy, infection was associated with an increased number of Ki-67(+) T cells in lymph node biopsies, consistent with an early antiviral immune response. The preferential replication of SIVagmVer in vervet versus sabaeus AGM shows that it is critical to match AGM species and SIV strains for experimental models of natural SIV infection.
Project description:Gut dysbiosis and microbial translocation are associated with chronic systemic immune activation and inflammation in HIV-1 infection. However, the extent of restoration of gut microbiota in HIV-1 patients with short or long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. To understand the impact of ART on the gut microbiota, we used the rhesus macaque model of SIV infection to characterize and compare the gut microbial community upon SIV infection and during ART. We observed altered taxonomic compositions of gut microbiota communities upon SIV infection and at different time points of ART. SIV-infected animals showed decreased diversity of gut microbiome composition, while the ART group appeared to recover towards the diversity level of the healthy control. Animals undergoing ART for various lengths of time were observed to have differential gut bacterial abundance across different time points. In addition, increased blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels during SIV infection were reduced to near normal upon ART, indicating that microbial translocation and immune activation can be improved during therapy. In conclusion, while short ART may be related to transient increase of certain pathogenic bacterial microbiome, ART may promote microbiome diversity compromised by SIV infection, improve the gut microbiota towards the healthy compositions and alleviate immune activation.
Project description:Bacterial communities colonizing the reproductive tracts of primates (including humans) impact the health, survival and fitness of the host, and thereby the evolution of the host species. Despite their importance, we currently have a poor understanding of primate microbiomes. The composition and structure of microbial communities vary considerably depending on the host and environmental factors. We conducted comparative analyses of the primate vaginal microbiome using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of a phylogenetically broad range of primates to test for factors affecting the diversity of primate vaginal ecosystems. The nine primate species included: humans (Homo sapiens), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), olive baboons (Papio anubis), lemurs (Propithecus diadema), howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), red colobus (Piliocolobus rufomitratus), vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops), mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Our results indicated that all primates exhibited host-specific vaginal microbiota and that humans were distinct from other primates in both microbiome composition and diversity. In contrast to the gut microbiome, the vaginal microbiome showed limited congruence with host phylogeny, and neither captivity nor diet elicited substantial effects on the vaginal microbiomes of primates. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance and Wilcoxon tests revealed correlations among vaginal microbiota and host species-specific socioecological factors, particularly related to sexuality, including: female promiscuity, baculum length, gestation time, mating group size and neonatal birth weight. The proportion of unclassified taxa observed in nonhuman primate samples increased with phylogenetic distance from humans, indicative of the existence of previously unrecognized microbial taxa. These findings contribute to our understanding of host-microbe variation and coevolution, microbial biogeography, and disease risk, and have important implications for the use of animal models in studies of human sexual and reproductive diseases.
Project description:In HIV-1-infected patients, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key factor that may impact commensal microbiota and cause the emergence of side effects. However, it is not fully understood how long-term ART regimens have diverse impacts on the microbial compositions over time. Here, we performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of the fecal and salivary microbiomes in patients under different long-term ART. We found that ART, especially conventional nucleotide/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based ART, has remarkable impacts on fecal microbial diversity: decreased ?-diversity and increased ß-diversity over time. In contrast, dynamic diversity changes in the salivary microbiome were not observed. Comparative analysis of bacterial genus compositions showed a propensity for Prevotella-enriched and Bacteroides-poor gut microbiotas in patients with ART over time. In addition, we observed a gradual reduction in Bacteroides but drastic increases in Succinivibrio and/or Megasphaera under conventional ART. These results suggest that ART, especially NRTI-based ART, has more suppressive impacts on microbiota composition and diversity in the gut than in the mouth, which potentially causes intestinal dysbiosis in patients. Therefore, NRTI-sparing ART, especially integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)- and/or non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing regimens, might alleviate the burden of intestinal dysbiosis in HIV-1-infected patients under long-term ART.
Project description:We describe a genome reference of the African green monkey or vervet (Chlorocebus aethiops). This member of the Old World monkey (OWM) superfamily is uniquely valuable for genetic investigations of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), for which it is the most abundant natural host species, and of a wide range of health-related phenotypes assessed in Caribbean vervets (C. a. sabaeus), whose numbers have expanded dramatically since Europeans introduced small numbers of their ancestors from West Africa during the colonial era. We use the reference to characterize the genomic relationship between vervets and other primates, the intra-generic phylogeny of vervet subspecies, and genome-wide structural variations of a pedigreed C. a. sabaeus population. Through comparative analyses with human and rhesus macaque, we characterize at high resolution the unique chromosomal fission events that differentiate the vervets and their close relatives from most other catarrhine primates, in whom karyotype is highly conserved. We also provide a summary of transposable elements and contrast these with the rhesus macaque and human. Analysis of sequenced genomes representing each of the main vervet subspecies supports previously hypothesized relationships between these populations, which range across most of sub-Saharan Africa, while uncovering high levels of genetic diversity within each. Sequence-based analyses of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms reveal extremely low diversity in Caribbean C. a. sabaeus vervets, compared to vervets from putatively ancestral West African regions. In the C. a. sabaeus research population, we discover the first structural variations that are, in some cases, predicted to have a deleterious effect; future studies will determine the phenotypic impact of these variations.
Project description:Gut mucosal damage, associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) infection, is characterized by depletion in CD4+ T cells and persistent immune activation as a result of early epithelial barrier disruption and systemic translocation of microbial products. Unique approaches in studying both HIV infection in human patients and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques have provided critical evidence for the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV/AIDS. While there is vast resemblance between SIV and HIV infection, the development of gut dysbiosis attributed to HIV infection in chronically infected patients has not been consistently reported in SIV infection in the non-human primate model of AIDS, raising concerns for the translatability of gut microbiome studies in rhesus macaques. This review outlines our current understanding of gut microbial signatures across various stages of HIV versus SIV infection, with an emphasis on the impact of microbiome-based therapies in restoring gut mucosal immunity as well as their translational potential to supplement current HIV cure efforts.
Project description:Vervet monkeys are among the most widely distributed nonhuman primates, show considerable phenotypic diversity, and have long been an important biomedical model for a variety of human diseases and in vaccine research. Using whole-genome sequencing data from 163 vervets sampled from across Africa and the Caribbean, we find high diversity within and between taxa and clear evidence that taxonomic divergence was reticulate rather than following a simple branching pattern. A scan for diversifying selection across taxa identifies strong and highly polygenic selection signals affecting viral processes. Furthermore, selection scores are elevated in genes whose human orthologs interact with HIV and in genes that show a response to experimental simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in vervet monkeys but not in rhesus macaques, suggesting that part of the signal reflects taxon-specific adaptation to SIV.
Project description:In Hong Kong, cattle were traditionally raised by farmers as draft animals to plough rice fields. Due to urbanization in the 20th century, they were gradually abandoned and became wild cattle straying in suburban Hong Kong. Recently, these cattle were observed to have become omnivorous by eating leftover barbeque food waste in country parks. Microbiome analysis was performed on fecal samples of the omnivorous cattle using deep sequencing and the resulting microbiome was compared with that of traditional herbivorous cattle in Southern China. A more diverse gut microbiome was observed in the omnivorous cattle, suggesting that microbiota diversity increases as diet variation increases. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Anaeroplasma, Anaerovorax, Bacillus, Coprobacillus and Solibacillus significantly increased and those of Anaerofustis, Butyricimonas, Campylobacter, Coprococcus, Dehalobacterium, Phascolarctobacterium, rc4.4, RFN20, Succinivibrio and Turicibacter significantly decreased in the omnivorous group. The increase in microbial community levels of Bacillus and Anaerovorax likely attributes to the inclusion of meat in the diet; while the decrease in relative abundance of Coprococcus, Butyricimonas, Succinivibrio, Campylobacter and Phascolarctobacterium may reflect the reduction in grass intake. Furthermore, an increased consumption of resistant starch likely resulted in the increase in abundance of Anaeroplasma. In conclusion, a significant change in the gut microbial community was observed in the omnivorous cattle, suggesting that diet may be one of the factors that may signal an adaptation response by the cattle to maintain feed efficiency as a consequence of the change in environment.
Project description:The microbiome is a regulator of host immunity, metabolism, neurodevelopment, and behavior. During early life, bacterial communities within maternal gut and vaginal compartments can have an impact on directing these processes. Maternal stress experience during pregnancy may impact offspring development by altering the temporal and spatial dynamics of the maternal microbiome during pregnancy. To examine the hypothesis that maternal stress disrupts gut and vaginal microbial dynamics during critical prenatal and postnatal windows, we used high-resolution 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing to examine outcomes in our mouse model of early prenatal stress. Consistent with predictions, maternal fecal communities shift across pregnancy, a process that is disrupted by stress. Vaginal bacterial community structure and composition exhibit lasting disruption following stress exposure. Comparison of maternal and offspring microbiota revealed that similarities in bacterial community composition was predicted by a complex interaction between maternal body niche and offspring age and sex. Importantly, early prenatal stress influenced offspring bacterial community assembly in a temporal and sex-specific manner. Taken together, our results demonstrate that early prenatal stress may influence offspring development through converging modifications to gut microbial composition during pregnancy and transmission of dysbiotic vaginal microbiome at birth.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a massive loss of CD4 T cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that is accompanied by changes in the gut microbiome and microbial translocation that contribute to inflammation and chronic immune activation. Though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to better long-term outcomes in HIV infected patients, it has not been as effective at reverting pathogenesis in the GIT. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we show that combination antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) partially reverted microbial dysbiosis observed during SIV infection. Though the relative abundance of bacteria, their richness or diversity did not significantly differ between infected and treated animals, microbial dysbiosis was evident via multiple beta diversity metrics: Jaccard similarity coefficient, Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient, and Yue & Clayton theta similarity coefficient. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) clustered SIV-infected untreated animals away from healthy and treated animals that were clustered closely, indicating that c-ART partially reversed the gut dysbiosis associated with SIV infection. Metastats analysis identified specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs) falling within the Streptococcus, Prevotella, Acinetobacter, Treponema, and Lactobacillus genera that were differentially represented across the three groups. Our results suggest that complete viral suppression with c-ART could potentially revert microbial dysbiosis observed during SIV and HIV infections.