Effects of multi-strain probiotic supplementation on intestinal microbiota, tight junctions, and inflammation in young broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:This study assessed the effects of probiotics on cecal microbiota, gene expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, and immune response in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. METHODS:One-day-old broiler chickens (n = 240) were randomly allocated to four treatments: negative control (Cont), multi-strain probiotic-treated group (Pro), Salmonella-infected group (Sal), and multi-strain probiotic-treated and Salmonella-infected group (ProSal). All chickens except those in the Cont and Pro groups were gavaged with 1×108 cfu/mL of S. enterica subsp. enterica 4 days after hatching. RESULTS:Our results indicated that body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio of birds were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by Salmonella challenge. Chickens challenged with Salmonella decreased cecal microbial diversity. Chickens in the Sal group exhibited abundant Proteobacteria than those in the Cont, Pro, and ProSal groups. Salmonella infection downregulated gene expression of Occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO1), and Mucin 2 in the jejunum and Occludin and Claudin in the ileum. Moreover, the Sal group increased gene expression of interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor (LITAF) and reduced levels of transforming growth factor-?4 and IL-10 compared with the other groups (p<0.05). However, chickens receiving probiotic diets increased Lactobacillaceae abundance and reduced Enterobacteriaceae abundance in the ceca. Moreover, supplementation with probiotics increased the mRNA expression of Occludin, ZO1, and Mucin 2 in the ileum (p<0.05). In addition, probiotic supplementation downregulated the mRNA levels of IFN-? (p<0.05) and LITAF (p = 0.075) and upregulated IL-10 (p = 0.084) expression in the cecal tonsil. CONCLUSION:The administration of multi-strain probiotics modulated intestinal microbiota, gene expression of tight junction proteins, and immunomodulatory activity in broiler chickens.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0) and high bile salt (0.3-1.5%) and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (10(6-7) CFU/chick) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (10(4) CFU/chick) next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures) were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10) in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in vivo can be one of the strategies for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens.
Project description:Synbiotics are synergistic combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. In chickens, synbiotics can be delivered in ovo to expedite colonization of the gut by beneficial bacteria. We therefore aimed to design synbiotics in vitro and validate them in broiler chickens upon in ovo delivery. The probiotic components of the synbiotics were Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. Their growth was assessed in MRS medium supplemented with different prebiotics. Based on in vitro results (hatchability and growth curve), two synbiotics were designed: S1 -Lactobacillus salivarius with galactooligosaccarides (GOS) and S2 -Lactobacillus plantarum with raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO). These synbiotics were delivered to Cobb broiler chicken embryos on day 12 of incubation at optimized doses (105 cfu egg-1 of probiotic, 2 mg egg-1 of prebiotic). Post hatching, 2,400 roosters were reared (600 individuals group-1 divided into eight replicate pens). Microbial communities were analyzed in ileal and cecal digesta on day 21 using FISH. Gene expression analysis (IL1?, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL12, IL18, IFN?, and IFN?) was performed on days 7, 14, 21, and 42 for the spleen and cecal tonsils with RT-qPCR. Body weight and feed intake of the roosters did not differ by the treatments. Microbial populations of Lactobacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in the ileum were higher in S1 and S2 than in the control. In the cecum, the control had the highest bacterial counts. S1 caused significant up-regulation of IL6, IL18, IL1?, IFN?, and IFN? in the spleen on day 21 and IL1? on day 7 (P < 0.05). In cecal tonsils, S1 caused significant down-regulation of IL12, IL8, and IL1? on day 42 and IFN? on day 14 (P < 0.05). S2 did not elicit such patterns in any tissues investigated. Thus, we demonstrate that divergent effects of synbiotics in broiler chickens were reflected in in vitro tests.
Project description:As the poultry industry recedes from the use of antibiotic growth promoters, the need to evaluate the efficacy of possible alternatives and the delivery method that maximizes their effectiveness arises. This study aimed at expounding knowledge on the effect of the delivery method of a probiotic product (Bacillus subtilis fermentation extract) on performance and gut parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 450 fertile eggs sourced from Cobb 500 broiler breeders were randomly allotted to 3 groups: in ovo probiotic (n = 66), in ovo saline (n = 66), and noninjection (n = 200) and incubated for 21 d. On day 18.5 of incubation, 200 ?L of either probiotic (10 × 10<sup>6</sup> cfu) or saline was injected into the amnion. At hatch, chicks were reallotted to 6 new treatment groups: in ovo probiotic, in ovo saline, in-feed antibiotics, in-water probiotic, in-feed probiotics, and control (corn-wheat-soybean diet) in 6 replicate cages and raised for 28 d. Of all hatch parameters evaluated, only percentage pipped eggs was found significant (P < 0.05) with the noninjection group having higher percentage pipped eggs than the other groups. Treatments did not affect the incidence of necrotic enteritis on day 28 (P > 0.05). Irrespective of the delivery method, the probiotic treatments had no significant effect on growth performance. The ileum villus width of the in ovo probiotic treatment was 18% higher than the in ovo saline group (P = 0.05) but not statistically higher than other groups. The jejunum villus height was 23% higher (P = 0.000) in the in ovo probiotic group than in the control group. There was no effect of treatment on total cecal short-chain fatty acid concentration and cecal gut microbiota composition and diversity (P > 0.05), although few unique bacteria differential abundance were recorded per treatment. Conclusively, although probiotic treatments (irrespective of the delivery route) did not affect growth performance, in ovo delivery of the probiotic product enhanced intestinal morphology, without compromising hatch performance and gut homeostasis.
Project description:Probiotics can promote the health and growth performance of animals through modulation of intestinal microbiota. When used as a feed additive, they have the potential to minimize or abolish the use of antibiotics. In this study, we investigated the effect of the probiotic strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TL on the growth performance and cecum microflora composition in Cobb 500 broiler chickens. In total, 180 broilers were randomly divided into three groups-each group comprised 4 pens, and each pen contained 15 chickens. The three groups were fed either a control diet, or a diet supplemented with either the antibiotic chlortetracycline or B. amyloliquefaciens TL. Broilers were weighed, and cecum contents were collected on days 7, 14, 21, and 35, respectively. The broilers in both the antibiotic and probiotic groups exhibited significant weight gain compared with controls, exhibiting increases of 16.02% and 13.40%, respectively, after 35 days (P < 0.01). Similarly, the feed conversion ratio (FCR, 1-35 days) of broilers in the chlortetracycline and B. amyloliquefaciens TL groups was lower than that of the controls. HiSeq high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA of the cecal microbiota was performed on days 7, 14, 21, and 35, respectively. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was higher in the chlortetracycline and B. amyloliquefaciens TL groups than in the control group on days 14, 21, and 35, and especially on day 21. The prevalence of genera Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, Butyricicoccus, and Faecalibacterium (Firmicutes) was higher in the antibiotic and probiotic groups, while that of Bacteroides, Parabacteroides (Bacteroidetes), and Lactobacillus was higher in the control group. In this study, the changes in the microbiota of the probiotic group were similar to those in the antibiotic group. These results suggest that the probiotic strain B. amyloliquefaciens TL can modulate the cecal microbiota of broilers similar to chlortetracycline.
Project description:Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of two Clostridium strains, C8-1-8 and C2-6-12, isolated from the cecal contents of commercial broiler chickens (in Athens, GA). These strains may represent potentially novel species within the genus Clostridium, and these draft genomes allow further investigation into potential probiotics for poultry.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a multi-strain probiotic combined with Gardeniae fructus on the growth performance, intestinal microbiota composition and metabolites, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. The dietary treatments included the basal diet without any antimicrobials (C), the basal diet supplemented with 10 ppm avilamycin (A), the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% multi-strain probiotics powder containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LAP5, L. fermentum P2, L. casei L21, and Pediococcus acidophilus LS (1×107 CFU/g) (P), and the basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 0.1% multi-strain probiotics and 0.05% herbal medicine G. fructus (PH). The results showed no significant differences in growth performance across all groups. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the groups PH, P, and A exhibited an increase in the similarity coefficients of their intestinal microbial populations. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that the relative concentrations of Firmicutes and Lactobacillus in the cecum and Bifidobacterium spp. in the ileum were higher in the groups PH, P, and A than in group C, and the diet supplemented with multi-strain probiotics combined with G. fructus decreased the concentrations of cecal Escherichia spp. and Clostridium perfringens. The broilers fed with multi-strain probiotics combined with G. fructus showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in the cecal short-chain fatty acids (total SCFA, acetic acid, and butyric acid) compared to the other groups. The treatment with antibiotics, multi-strain probiotics, or multi-strain probiotics combined with G. fructus increased the villus height/crypt depth ratio in the ileum of broilers. In conclusion, the supplementation of multi-strain probiotics combined with G. fructus was beneficial to the intestinal microflora composition, metabolites, and morphology in broilers.
Project description:Three strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolated from healthy broiler chickens from 2012 to 2013 have been sequenced. Comparison of these and previously published S Infantis genome sequences of broiler origin in 1996 and 2004 will provide new insight into the genome evolution and recent spread of S Infantis in poultry.
Project description:The genome sequences of three strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from broiler chickens in 1994 and 2004 in Hungary and in the 1980s in the United Kingdom are reported here. A sequence comparison should improve our understanding of the evolution of the genome and spread of S. Infantis in poultry.
Project description:Four strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis isolated from humans (1980 to 1982) and broiler chickens (2016) have been sequenced. They represent the early and recent peak incidences of this serovar in Hungary. Genome sequences of these isolates provide comparative data on the evolution and rise of an endemic S Infantis clone in Hungary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to survey the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence-associated genes of Salmonella enterica recovered from broiler chickens and retail shops at El-Sharkia Province in Egypt. Salmonella virulence factors were determined using the polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the invA, csgD, hilC, bcfC, stn, avrA, mgtC, ompF, sopE1 and pefA genes. RESULTS:One hundred tweenty out of 420- samples from broiler chickens' cloacal swabs, farm environmental samples, and freshly dressed whole chicken carcasses were positive Salmonella species. The isolates were serotyped as S. Enteritidis as the most dominant serotypes. Interestingly, none of the isolates were resistant to imipenem. The multidrug resistance was determined in 76.7% of the isolates with multidrug antibiotic resistance index of 0.2-0.6. Eight virulence genes (invA, csgD, hilC, stn, bcfC, mgtC, avrA, and ompf) were characterized among 120 S. enterica isolates with variable frequencies, while sopE1and pefA genes that were completely absent in all isolates. Based on the combination of presence and absence of virulence genes, the most common genetic profile (P7, 30%) was invA and csgD genes. CONCLUSION:S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the most common identified serotypes in the examined sources. Circulation of such strains in broiler farms required introducing special biosecurity and biocontrol measures for control of Salmonella. Such measures might limit the adverse effects of antibiotics and ensure the safety of the environment and animal-derived food.