Systematic Surveys of Iron Homeostasis Mechanisms Reveal Ferritin Superfamily and Nucleotide Surveillance Regulation to be Modified by PINK1 Absence.
ABSTRACT: Iron deprivation activates mitophagy and extends lifespan in nematodes. In patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD), PINK1-PRKN mutations via deficient mitophagy trigger iron accumulation and reduce lifespan. To evaluate molecular effects of iron chelator drugs as a potential PD therapy, we assessed fibroblasts by global proteome profiles and targeted transcript analyses. In mouse cells, iron shortage decreased protein abundance for iron-binding nucleotide metabolism enzymes (prominently XDH and ferritin homolog RRM2). It also decreased the expression of factors with a role for nucleotide surveillance, which associate with iron-sulfur-clusters (ISC), and are important for growth and survival. This widespread effect included prominently Nthl1-Ppat-Bdh2, but also mitochondrial Glrx5-Nfu1-Bola1, cytosolic Aco1-Abce1-Tyw5, and nuclear Dna2-Elp3-Pold1-Prim2. Incidentally, upregulated Pink1-Prkn levels explained mitophagy induction, the downregulated expression of Slc25a28 suggested it to function in iron export. The impact of PINK1 mutations in mouse and patient cells was pronounced only after iron overload, causing hyperreactive expression of ribosomal surveillance factor Abce1 and of ferritin, despite ferritin translation being repressed by IRP1. This misregulation might be explained by the deficiency of the ISC-biogenesis factor GLRX5. Our systematic survey suggests mitochondrial ISC-biogenesis and post-transcriptional iron regulation to be important in the decision, whether organisms undergo PD pathogenesis or healthy aging.
Project description:Parkinson disease (PD) is a disabling, incurable disorder with increasing prevalence in the western world. In rare cases PD is caused by mutations in the genes for PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) or PRKN (parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase), which impair the selective autophagic elimination of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). Mutations in the gene encoding LRRK2 (leucine rich repeat kinase 2) are the most common monogenic cause of PD. Here, we report that the LRRK2 kinase substrate RAB10 accumulates on depolarized mitochondria in a PINK1- and PRKN-dependent manner. RAB10 binds the autophagy receptor OPTN (optineurin), promotes OPTN accumulation on depolarized mitochondria and facilitates mitophagy. In PD patients with the two most common <i>LRRK2</i> mutations (G2019S and R1441C), RAB10 phosphorylation at threonine 73 is enhanced, while RAB10 interaction with OPTN, accumulation of RAB10 and OPTN on depolarized mitochondria, depolarization-induced mitophagy and mitochondrial function are all impaired. These defects in <i>LRRK2</i> mutant patient cells are rescued by <i>LRRK2</i> knockdown and LRRK2 kinase inhibition. A phosphomimetic RAB10 mutant showed less OPTN interaction and less translocation to depolarized mitochondria than wild-type RAB10, and failed to rescue mitophagy in <i>LRRK2</i> mutant cells. These data connect LRRK2 with PINK1- and PRKN-mediated mitophagy via its substrate RAB10, and indicate that the pathogenic effects of mutations in <i>LRRK2, PINK1</i> and <i>PRKN</i> may converge on a common pathway.<b>Abbreviations</b> : ACTB: actin beta; ATP5F1B: ATP synthase F1 subunit beta; CALCOCO2: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide <i>m</i>-chlorophenylhydrazone; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; EBSS: Earle's balanced salt solution; GFP: green fluorescent protein; HSPD1: heat shock protein family D (Hsp60) member 1; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LRRK2: leucine rich repeat kinase 2; IF: immunofluorescence; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MFN2: mitofusin 2; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; OPTN: optineurin; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RHOT1: ras homolog family member T1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; WB: western blot.
Project description:Mitochondrial quality control is essential for maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria. Two proteins associated with Parkinson disease, the kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase PRKN, play a central role in the selective degradation of heavily damaged mitochondria (mitophagy), thus avoiding their toxic accumulation. Most of the knowledge on PINK1-PRKN mitophagy comes from in vitro experiments involving the treatment of mammalian cells with high concentrations of mitochondrial uncouplers, such as CCCP. These chemicals have been shown to mediate off target effects, other than mitochondrial depolarization. A matter of controversy between mitochondrial physiologists and cell biologists is the discrepancy between concentrations of CCCP needed to activate mitophagy (usually >10 ?M), when compared to the much lower concentrations used to depolarize mitochondria (<1 ?M). Thus, there is an urgent need for optimizing the current methods to assess PINK1-PRKN mitophagy in vitro. In this study, we address the utilization of high CCCP concentrations commonly used to activate mitophagy. Combining live fluorescence microscopy and biochemistry, we show that the FBS/BSA in the cell culture medium reduces the ability of CCCP to induce PINK1 accumulation at depolarized mitochondria, subsequent PRKN recruitment and ubiquitin phosphorylation, and ultimately mitochondrial clearance. As a result, high concentrations of CCCP are required to induce mitophagy in FBS/BSA containing media. These data unite mitochondrial physiology and mitophagy studies and are a first step toward a consensus on optimal experimental conditions for PINK1-PRKN mitophagy and mitochondrial physiology investigations to be carried out in parallel. Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; DMEM: dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium; DNP: 2,4-dinitrophenol; FBS: fetal bovine serum; FCCP: carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone; GSH: glutathione; HBSS: Hanks' balanced salt solution; mtKeima: mitochondria-targeted monomeric keima-red; PBS: phosphate buffered saline; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; POE SHSY5Ys: FLAG-PRKN over-expressing SHSY5Y cells; SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; TMRM: tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester; WB: western blot; WT: wild-type; ??m: mitochondrial membrane potential.
Project description:PRKN/parkin activation through phosphorylation of its ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 is critical in mitophagy induction for eliminating the damaged mitochondria. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) functionally reversing PRKN ubiquitination are critical in controlling the magnitude of PRKN-mediated mitophagy process. However, potential DUBs that directly target PRKN and antagonize its pro-mitophagy effect remains to be identified and characterized. Here, we demonstrated that USP33/VDU1 is localized at the outer membrane of mitochondria and serves as a PRKN DUB through their interaction. Cellular and <i>in vitro</i> assays illustrated that USP33 deubiquitinates PRKN in a DUB activity-dependent manner. USP33 prefers to remove K6, K11, K48 and K63-linked ubiquitin conjugates from PRKN, and deubiquitinates PRKN mainly at Lys435. Mutation of this site leads to a significantly decreased level of K63-, but not K48-linked PRKN ubiquitination. <i>USP33</i> deficiency enhanced both K48- and K63-linked PRKN ubiquitination, but only K63-linked PRKN ubiquitination was significantly increased under mitochondrial depolarization. Further, <i>USP33</i> knockdown increased both PRKN protein stabilization and its translocation to depolarized mitochondria leading to the enhancement of mitophagy. Moreover, <i>USP33</i> silencing protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells from the neurotoxin MPTP-induced apoptotic cell death. Our findings convincingly demonstrate that USP33 is a novel PRKN deubiquitinase antagonizing its regulatory roles in mitophagy and SH-SY5Y neuron-like cell survival. Thus, <i>USP33</i> inhibition may represents an attractive new therapeutic strategy for PD patients.<b>Abbreviations:</b> CCCP: carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone; DUB: deubiquitinating enzymes; MPTP: 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; OMM: outer mitochondrial membrane; PD: Parkinson disease; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN/PARK2: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TM: transmembrane; Ub: ubiquitin; UBA1: ubiquitin like modifier activating enzyme 1; UBE2L3/UbcH7: ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 L3; USP33: ubiquitin specific peptidase 33; WT: wild type.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early, imminent event in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). The enzymatic pair PINK1 and PRKN/Parkin recognize and transiently label damaged mitochondria with ubiquitin (Ub) phosphorylated at Ser65 (p-S65-Ub) as a signal for degradation via the autophagy-lysosome system (mitophagy). Despite its discovery in cell culture several years ago, robust and quantitative detection of altered mitophagy <i>in vivo</i> has remained challenging. Here we developed a sandwich ELISA targeting p-S65-Ub with the goal to assess mitophagy levels in mouse brain and in human clinical and pathological samples. We characterized five total Ub and four p-S65-Ub antibodies by several techniques and found significant differences in their ability to recognize phosphorylated Ub. The most sensitive antibody pair detected recombinant p-S65-Ub chains in the femtomolar to low picomolar range depending on the poly-Ub chain linkage. Importantly, this ELISA was able to assess very low baseline mitophagy levels in unstressed human cells and in brains from wild-type and <i>prkn</i> knockout mice as well as elevated p-S65-Ub levels in autopsied frontal cortex from AD patients vs. control cases. Moreover, the assay allowed detection of p-S65-Ub in blood plasma and was able to discriminate between <i>PINK1</i> mutation carriers and controls. In summary, we developed a robust and sensitive tool to measure mitophagy levels in cells, tissue, and body fluids. Our data strongly support the idea that the stress-activated PINK1-PRKN mitophagy pathway is constitutively active in mice and humans under unstimulated, physiological and elevated in diseased, pathological conditions.<b>Abbreviations</b>: Ab: antibody; AD: Alzheimer disease; AP: alkaline phosphatase; CV: coefficient of variation; ECL: electrochemiluminescence; KO: knockout; LoB: Limit of Blank; LoD: Limit of Detection; LoQ: Limit of Quantification; MSD: meso scale discovery; PD: Parkinson disease; p-S65-PRKN: phosphorylated PRKN at serine 65; p-S65-Ub: phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65; Std.Dev.: standard deviation; Ub: ubiquitin; WT: wild type.
Project description:Mutations in the PINK1 and PRKN genes are the most common cause of early-onset familial Parkinson disease. These genes code for the PINK1 and Parkin proteins, respectively, which are involved in the degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy. An early step in PINK1 –Parkin mediated mitophagy is the ubiquitination of the mitofusin proteins MFN1 and -2. The ubiquitination of MFN1 and -2 in patient samples may therefore serve as a biomarker to determine the functional effects of PINK1 and PRKN mutations, and to screen idiopathic patients for potential mitophagy defects. We aimed to characterise the expression of the PINK1 –Parkin mitophagy machinery in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and assess if these cells could serve as a platform to evaluate mitophagy via analysis of MFN1 and -2 ubiquitination. Mitophagy was induced through mitochondrial depolarisation by treatment with the protonophore CCCP and ubiquitinated MFN proteins were analysed by western blotting. In addition, PINK1 and PRKN mRNA and protein expression levels were characterised with reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Whilst CCCP treatment led to MFN ubiquitination in primary fibroblasts, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and Jurkat leukaemic cells, treatment of PBMCs did not induce ubiquitination of MFN. PRKN mRNA and protein was readily detectable in PBMCs at comparable levels to those observed in Jurkat and fibroblast cells. In contrast, PINK1 protein was undetectable and PINK1 mRNA levels were remarkably low in control PBMCs. Our findings suggest that the PINK1 –Parkin mitophagy signalling pathway is not functional in PBMCs. Therefore, PBMCs are not a suitable biosample for analysis of mitophagy function in Parkinson disease patients.
Project description:The selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy is crucial for preserving mitochondrial quality and cellular homeostasis. The most described mitophagy pathway is regulated by a positive ubiquitylation feedback loop in which the PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) kinase phosphorylates both ubiquitin and the E3 ubiquitin ligase PRKN (Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin ligase), also known as PARKIN. This event recruits PRKN to the mitochondria, thus amplifying ubiquitylation signal. Here we report that miR-218 targets PRKN and negatively regulates PINK1/PRKN-mediated mitophagy. Overexpression of miR-218 reduces PRKN mRNA levels, thus also reducing protein content and deregulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase action. In fact, following miR-218 overexpression, mitochondria result less ubiquitylated and the autophagy machinery fails to proceed with correct mitochondrial clearance. Since mitophagy defects are associated with various human diseases, these results qualify miR-218 as a promising therapeutic target for human diseases.
Project description:Mitophagy, by maintaining mitochondrial quality control, plays a key role in maintaining kidney function and is impaired in pathologic states. Macrophages are well known for their pathogenic role in kidney fibrosis. Here, we report that PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in macrophages is compromised in experimental and human kidney fibrosis. We demonstrate downregulation of mitophagy regulators mitofusin-2 (MFN2) and Parkin downstream of PINK1 in kidney fibrosis. Loss of either Pink1 or Prkn promoted renal extracellular matrix accumulation and frequency of profibrotic/M2 macrophages. Pink1-/- or Prkn-/- BM-derived macrophages (BMDMs) showed enhanced expression of rictor. Mitochondria from TGF-?1-treated Pink1-/- BMDMs exhibited increased superoxide levels, along with reduced respiration and ATP production. In addition, mitophagy in macrophages involves PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of downstream MFN2, MFN2-facilitated recruitment of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, and macrophage-specific deletion of Mfn2 aggravates kidney fibrosis. Moreover, mitophagy regulators were downregulated in human CKD kidney and TGF-?1-treated human renal macrophages, whereas Mdivi1 treatment suppressed mitophagy mediators and promoted fibrotic response. Taken together, our study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that macrophage mitophagy plays a protective role against kidney fibrosis via regulating the PINK1/MFN2/Parkin-mediated pathway.
Project description:Although serum from patients with Parkinson's disease contains elevated levels of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF, IL-1?, and IFN?, whether inflammation contributes to or is a consequence of neuronal loss remains unknown1. Mutations in parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and PINK1, a ubiquitin kinase, cause early onset Parkinson's disease2,3. Both PINK1 and parkin function within the same biochemical pathway and remove damaged mitochondria from cells in culture and in animal models via mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy4. The in vivo role of mitophagy, however, is unclear, partly because mice that lack either PINK1 or parkin have no substantial Parkinson's-disease-relevant phenotypes5-7. Mitochondrial stress can lead to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that can activate innate immunity8-12, suggesting that mitophagy may mitigate inflammation. Here we report a strong inflammatory phenotype in both Prkn-/- and Pink1-/- mice following exhaustive exercise and in Prkn-/-;mutator mice, which accumulate mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)13,14. Inflammation resulting from either exhaustive exercise or mtDNA mutation is completely rescued by concurrent loss of STING, a central regulator of the type I interferon response to cytosolic DNA15,16. The loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta and the motor defect observed in aged Prkn-/-;mutator mice are also rescued by loss of STING, suggesting that inflammation facilitates this phenotype. Humans with mono- and biallelic PRKN mutations also display elevated cytokines. These results support a role for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy in restraining innate immunity.
Project description:There is increasing evidence for a role of inflammation in Parkinson's disease. Recent research in murine models suggests that parkin and PINK1 deficiency leads to impaired mitophagy, which causes the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), thereby triggering inflammation. Specifically, the CGAS (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase)-STING (stimulator of interferon genes) pathway mitigates activation of the innate immune system, quantifiable as increased interleukin-6 (IL6) levels. However, the role of IL6 and circulating cell-free mtDNA in unaffected and affected individuals harbouring mutations in PRKN/PINK1 and idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients remain elusive. We investigated IL6, C-reactive protein, and circulating cell-free mtDNA in serum of 245 participants in two cohorts from tertiary movement disorder centres. We performed a hypothesis-driven rank-based statistical approach adjusting for multiple testing. We detected (i) elevated IL6 levels in patients with biallelic PRKN/PINK1 mutations compared to healthy control subjects in a German cohort, supporting the concept of a role for inflammation in PRKN/PINK1-linked Parkinson's disease. In addition, the comparison of patients with biallelic and heterozygous mutations in PRKN/PINK1 suggests a gene dosage effect. The differences in IL6 levels were validated in a second independent Italian cohort; (ii) a correlation between IL6 levels and disease duration in carriers of PRKN/PINK1 mutations, while no such association was observed for idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients. These results highlight the potential of IL6 as progression marker in Parkinson's disease due to PRKN/PINK1 mutations; (iii) increased circulating cell-free mtDNA serum levels in both patients with biallelic or with heterozygous PRKN/PINK1 mutations compared to idiopathic Parkinson's disease, which is in line with previous findings in murine models. By contrast, circulating cell-free mtDNA concentrations in unaffected heterozygous carriers of PRKN/PINK1 mutations were comparable to control levels; and (iv) that circulating cell-free mtDNA levels have good predictive potential to discriminate between idiopathic Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease linked to heterozygous PRKN/PINK1 mutations, providing functional evidence for a role of heterozygous mutations in PRKN or PINK1 as Parkinson's disease risk factor. Taken together, our study further implicates inflammation due to impaired mitophagy and subsequent mtDNA release in the pathogenesis of PRKN/PINK1-linked Parkinson's disease. In individuals carrying mutations in PRKN/PINK1, IL6 and circulating cell-free mtDNA levels may serve as markers of Parkinson's disease state and progression, respectively. Finally, our study suggests that targeting the immune system with anti-inflammatory medication holds the potential to influence the disease course of Parkinson's disease, at least in this subset of patients.
Project description:The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a mitochondrial kinase, and pink1 mutations cause early onset Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans. Loss of pink1 in Drosophila leads to defects in mitochondrial function, and genetic data suggest that another PD-related gene product, Parkin, acts with pink1 to regulate the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy). Consequently, pink1 mutants show an accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria, but it is unclear if other factors are involved in pink1 function in vivo and contribute to the mitochondrial morphological defects seen in specific cell types in pink1 mutants. To explore the molecular mechanisms of pink1 function, we performed a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila and identified aconitase (acon) as a dominant suppressor of pink1. Acon localizes to mitochondria and harbors a labile iron-sulfur [4Fe-4S] cluster that can scavenge superoxide to release hydrogen peroxide and iron that combine to produce hydroxyl radicals. Using Acon enzymatic mutants, and expression of mitoferritin that scavenges free iron, we show that [4Fe-4S] cluster inactivation, as a result of increased superoxide in pink1 mutants, results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial swelling. We show that [4Fe-4S] inactivation acts downstream of pink1 in a pathway that affects mitochondrial morphology, but acts independently of parkin. Thus our data indicate that superoxide-dependent [4Fe-4S] inactivation defines a potential pathogenic cascade that acts independent of mitophagy and links iron toxicity to mitochondrial failure in a PD-relevant model.