Connectome-Based Model Predicts Deep Brain Stimulation Outcome in Parkinson's Disease.
ABSTRACT: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective invasive treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) at present. Due to the invasiveness and cost of operations, a reliable tool is required to predict the outcome of therapy in the clinical decision-making process. This work aims to investigate whether the topological network of functional connectivity states can predict the outcome of DBS without medication. Fifty patients were recruited to extract the features of the brain related to the improvement rate of PD after STN-DBS and to train the machine learning model that can predict the therapy's effect. The functional connectivity analyses suggested that the GBRT model performed best with Pearson's correlations of r = 0.65, p = 2.58E-07 in medication-off condition. The connections between middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) contribute most in the GBRT model.
Project description:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). We aim to evaluate the efficacy of GPi (globus pallidus internus), STN (subthalamic nucleus)-DBS and medical therapy for PD. We conducted a systematic review and multiple-treatments meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of neurostimulation and medical therapy for PD patients. Sixteen eligible studies were included in this analysis. We pooled the whole data and found obvious difference between GPi-DBS versus medical therapy and STN-DBS versus medical therapy in terms of UPDRS scores (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale). Meanwhile, we found GPi-DBS had the similar efficacy on the UPDRS scores when compared with STN-DBS. What is more, quality of life, measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's disease Questionnaire) showed greater improvement after GPi-DBS than STN-DBS. Five studies showed STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Overall, either GPi-DBS or STN-DBS was an effective technique to control PD patients' symptoms and improved their functionality and quality of life. Meanwhile, the UPDRS scores measuring parkinsonian symptoms revealed no significant difference between GPi-DBS and STN-DBS. STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Alternatively, GPi-DBS was more effective for improving the PDQ-39 score than STN-DBS.
Project description:Objective: Deep brain stimulation of the Subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a safe and well-established therapy for the management of refractory motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Marked improvement in axial symptoms has been reported in the short term with STN-DBS but questions remain regarding the long-term efficacy of this intervention. We assessed the acute ON and OFF effects of STN-DBS in PD patients who have been treated with STN-DBS for over a decade. Methods: We assessed 11 patients with early-onset PD (9 men, 2 women; mean age, 57.1 ± 7.2 y; mean age at illness onset, 38.9 ± 7.5 y) managed with long-term bilateral STN-DBS (mean treatment duration, 13.4 ± 1.3 y). Motor symptoms were assessed by means of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and Hoehn-Yahr scale. Motor assessments in the medication ON and OFF states with stimulation ON and OFF conditions were documented and video recorded. Results: Patients showed a significant improvement in motor symptoms both in the off-medication and on-medication state by a 54% reduction (off-medication/on-stimulation vs. off-medication/off-stimulation) and a 48% reduction (on-medication/on-stimulation vs. on-medication/off-stimulation) in the total UPDRS-III score. Specifically, improvement in axial symptoms (off-medication: 51% reduction; on-medication: 44% reduction), including gait but not posture. Similarly, STN-DBS reduced TUG scores (off-medication: 70% reduction; on-medication: 47% reduction). Conclusions: On stimulation long-term, bilateral STN-DBS can improve appendicular and axial symptoms of patients with early-onset PD in the acute setting.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The use of alternate frequencies, amplitudes, and pulse widths to manage motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is of clinical interest, but currently lacks systematic evidence.<h4>Objective/hypothesis</h4>Systematically review whether alternate STN-DBS settings influence the therapy's efficacy for managing PD motor symptoms.<h4>Methods</h4>Systematic searches identified studies that; involved bilateral STN-DBS PD patients; manipulated???1 STN-DBS parameter (e.g., amplitude); assessed???1 motor symptom (e.g., tremor); and contrasted the experimental and chronic stimulation settings. A Mantel-Haenszel random-effects meta-analysis compared the UPDRS-III sub-scores at low (60-Hz) and high frequencies (???130?Hz). Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed with the Cohen's ?<sup>2</sup> and I<sup>2</sup> index, while the standard GRADE evidence assessment examined strength of evidence.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 21 included studies, 17 investigated the effect of alternate stimulation frequencies, five examined alternate stimulation amplitudes, and two studied changes in pulse width. Given the available data, meta-analyses were only possible for alternate stimulation frequencies. Analysis of the heterogeneity amongst the included studies indicated significant variability between studies and, on the basis of the GRADE framework, the pooled evidence from the meta-analysis studies was of very low quality due to the significant risks of bias.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The meta-analysis reported a very low quality of evidence for the efficacy of low-frequency STN-DBS for managing PD motor symptoms. Furthermore, it highlighted that lower amplitudes lead to the re-emergence of motor symptoms and further research is needed to understand the potential benefits of alternate STN-DBS parameters for PD patients.
Project description:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). The STN may represent an important relay station not only in the motor but also the associative cortico-striato-thalamocortical pathway. Therefore, STN stimulation may alter cognitive functions, such as working memory (WM). We examined cortical effects of STN-DBS on WM in early PD patients using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The effects of dopaminergic medication on WM were also examined. Lateral frontal activity during WM maintenance was greater when patients were taking dopaminergic medication. STN-DBS led to a trend-level worsening of WM performance, accompanied by increased lateral frontal activity during WM maintenance. These findings suggest that STN-DBS in PD might lead to functional modifications of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical pathway during WM maintenance.
Project description:Impulsivity and compulsivity are prominent non-motor problems in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite 20 years of research, there is still an ongoing debate as to whether subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) for PD exacerbates or improves these symptoms. Here, we review how STN DBS affects clinical symptoms and neurocognitive aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity. When comparing patients post- to pre-surgery, in the majority of studies STN DBS for PD is associated with a decrease in clinically diagnosed impulse-control disorders and disorders of compulsivity. To avoid confounds, such as post-surgical decreases in dopaminergic medication doses, comparisons can also be made between DBS “On” versus “Off” conditions. These experimentally assayed effects of STN DBS with respect to neurocognitive aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity are more mixed. STN DBS improves behavioral flexibility without impairing negative feedback learning, delay discounting, or inhibitory control, as long as stimulation is restricted to the dorsal STN. However, STN DBS may drive impulsive actions when a subject is faced with competing choices. We discuss how motivated responses may be either enhanced or impaired by STN DBS depending on engagement of dorsal or ventral STN-mediated circuits. Future studies should combine structural and functional circuit measures with behavioral testing in PD patients on and off medication and stimulation. A more sophisticated understanding of how to modulate cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops will increase the likelihood that these circuit manipulation techniques can successfully be applied to a wider range of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Following STN-DBS, speech intelligibility can deteriorate, limiting its beneficial effect. Here we prospectively examined the short- and long-term speech response to STN-DBS in a consecutive series of patients to identify clinical and surgical factors associated with speech change.<h4>Methods</h4>Thirty-two consecutive patients were assessed before surgery, then 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after STN-DBS in 4 conditions on- and off-medication with on- and off-stimulation using established and validated speech and movement scales. Fifteen of these patients were followed up for 3 years. A control group of 12 patients with PD were followed up for 1 year.<h4>Results</h4>Within the surgical group, speech intelligibility significantly deteriorated by an average of 14.2%±20.15% off-medication and 16.9%±21.8% on-medication 1 year after STN-DBS. The medical group deteriorated by 3.6%±5.5% and 4.5%±8.8%, respectively. Seven patients showed speech amelioration after surgery. Loudness increased significantly in all tasks with stimulation. A less severe preoperative on-medication motor score was associated with a more favorable speech response to STN-DBS after 1 year. Medially located electrodes on the left STN were associated with a significantly higher risk of speech deterioration than electrodes within the nucleus. There was a strong relationship between high voltage in the left electrode and poor speech outcome at 1 year.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The effect of STN-DBS on speech is variable and multifactorial, with most patients exhibiting decline of speech intelligibility. Both medical and surgical issues contribute to deterioration of speech in STN-DBS patients.<h4>Classification of evidence</h4>This study provides Class III evidence that STN-DBS for PD results in deterioration in speech intelligibility in all combinations of medication and stimulation states at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year compared to baseline and to control subjects treated with best medical therapy.
Project description:Levodopa and, later, deep brain stimulation (DBS) have become the mainstays of therapy for motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Although these therapeutic options lead to similar clinical outcomes, the neural mechanisms underlying their efficacy are different. Therefore, investigating the differential effects of DBS and levodopa on functional brain architecture and associated motor improvement is of paramount interest. Namely, we expected changes in functional brain connectivity patterns when comparing levodopa treatment with DBS. Clinical assessment and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed before and after implanting electrodes for DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in 13 PD patients suffering from severe levodopa-induced motor fluctuations and peak-of-dose dyskinesia. All measurements were acquired in a within subject-design with and without levodopa treatment, and with and without DBS. Brain connectivity changes were computed using eigenvector centrality (EC) that offers a data-driven and parameter-free approach-similarly to Google's PageRank algorithm-revealing brain regions that have an increased connectivity to other regions that are highly connected, too. Both levodopa and DBS led to comparable improvement of motor symptoms as measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score (UPDRS-III). However, this similar therapeutic effect was underpinned by different connectivity modulations within the motor system. In particular, EC revealed a major increase of interconnectedness in the left and right motor cortex when comparing DBS to levodopa. This was accompanied by an increase of connectivity of these motor hubs with the thalamus and cerebellum. We observed, for the first time, significant functional connectivity changes when comparing the effects of STN DBS and oral levodopa administration, revealing different treatment-specific mechanisms linked to clinical benefit in PD. Specifically, in contrast to levodopa treatment, STN DBS was associated with increased connectivity within the cortico-thalamo-cerebellar network. Moreover, given the favorable effects of STN DBS on motor complications, the changes in the patients' clinical profile might also contribute to connectivity changes associated with STN-DBS. Understanding the observed connectivity changes may be essential for enhancing the effectiveness of DBS treatment, and for better defining the pathophysiology of the disrupted motor network in PD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There appears to be an overlap between the limbic system, which is modulated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD), and the brain network that mediates theory of mind (ToM). Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of STN DBS on ToM of PD patients and to correlate ToM modifications with changes in glucose metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To this end, we conducted (18)FDG-PET scans in 13 PD patients in pre- and post-STN DBS conditions and correlated changes in their glucose metabolism with modified performances on the Eyes test, a visual ToM task requiring them to describe thoughts or feelings conveyed by photographs of the eye region. Postoperative PD performances on this emotion recognition task were significantly worse than either preoperative PD performances or those of healthy controls (HC), whereas there was no significant difference between preoperative PD and HC. Conversely, PD patients in the postoperative condition performed within the normal range on the gender attribution task included in the Eyes test. As far as the metabolic results are concerned, there were correlations between decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in several cortical areas: the bilateral cingulate gyrus (BA 31), right middle frontal gyrus (BA 8, 9 and 10), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), temporal lobe (fusiform gyrus, BA 20), bilateral parietal lobe (right BA 3 and right and left BA 7) and bilateral occipital lobe (BA 19). There were also correlations between increased cerebral glucose metabolism and impaired ToM in the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 13 and BA 47) and right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47). All these structures overlap with the brain network that mediates ToM. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results seem to confirm that STN DBS hinders the ability to infer the mental states of others and modulates a distributed network known to subtend ToM.
Project description:Purpose. To investigate the impact of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) and levodopa intake on vowel articulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Vowel articulation was assessed in seven Quebec French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who underwent STN DBS. Assessments were conducted on- and off-medication, first prior to surgery and then 1 year later. All recordings were made on-stimulation. Vowel articulation was measured using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio. Results. Compared to the period before surgery, vowel articulation was reduced after surgery when patients were off-medication, while it was better on-medication. The impact of levodopa intake on vowel articulation changed with STN DBS: before surgery, levodopa impaired articulation, while it no longer had a negative effect after surgery. Conclusions. These results indicate that while STN DBS could lead to a direct deterioration in articulation, it may indirectly improve it by reducing the levodopa dose required to manage motor symptoms. These findings suggest that, with respect to speech production, STN DBS and levodopa intake cannot be investigated separately because the two are intrinsically linked. Along with motor symptoms, speech production should be considered when optimizing therapeutic management of patients with PD.
Project description:The mechanisms behind weight gain following deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery seem to be multifactorial and suspected depending on the target, either the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Decreased energy expenditure following motor improvement and behavioral and/or metabolic changes are possible explanations. Focusing on GPi target, our objective was to analyze correlations between changes in brain metabolism (measured with PET) and weight gain following GPi-DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Body mass index was calculated and brain activity prospectively measured using 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose PET four months before and four months after the start of GPi-DBS in 19 PD patients. Dopaminergic medication was included in the analysis to control for its possible influence on brain metabolism. Body mass index increased significantly by 0.66 ± 1.3 kg/m2 (p = 0.040). There were correlations between weight gain and changes in brain metabolism in premotor areas, including the left and right superior gyri (Brodmann area, BA 6), left superior gyrus (BA 8), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right middle gyrus, BAs 9 and 46), and the left and right somatosensory association cortices (BA 7). However, we found no correlation between weight gain and metabolic changes in limbic and associative areas. Additionally, there was a trend toward a correlation between reduced dyskinesia and weight gain (r = 0.428, p = 0.067). These findings suggest that, unlike STN-DBS, motor improvement is the major contributing factor for weight gain following GPi-DBS PD, confirming the motor selectivity of this target.