Expanded roles of pyruvate-sensing PdhR in transcription regulation of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome: fatty acid catabolism and cell motility.
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor PdhR has been recognized as the master regulator of the pyruvate catabolism pathway in Escherichia coli, including both NAD-linked oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA by PDHc (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) and respiratory electron transport of NADH to oxygen by Ndh-CyoABCD enzymes. To identify the whole set of regulatory targets under the control of pyruvate-sensing PdhR, we performed genomic SELEX (gSELEX) screening in vitro. A total of 35 PdhR-binding sites were identified along the E. coli K-12 genome, including previously identified targets. Possible involvement of PdhR in regulation of the newly identified target genes was analysed in detail by gel shift assay, RT-qPCR and Northern blot analysis. The results indicated the participation of PdhR in positive regulation of fatty acid degradation genes and negative regulation of cell mobility genes. In fact, GC analysis indicated an increase in free fatty acids in the mutant lacking PdhR. We propose that PdhR is a bifunctional global regulator for control of a total of 16-23 targets, including not only the genes involved in central carbon metabolism but also some genes for the surrounding pyruvate-sensing cellular pathways such as fatty acid degradation and flagella formation. The activity of PdhR is controlled by pyruvate, the key node between a wide variety of metabolic pathways, including generation of metabolic energy and cell building blocks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many bacteria undergo transitions between environments with differing O? availabilities as part of their natural lifestyles and during biotechnological processes. However, the dynamics of adaptation when bacteria experience changes in O? availability are understudied. The model bacterium and facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli K-12 provides an ideal system for exploring this process. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Time-resolved transcript profiles of E. coli K-12 during the initial phase of transition from anaerobic to micro-aerobic conditions revealed a reprogramming of gene expression consistent with a switch from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. The changes in transcript abundance were matched by changes in the abundances of selected central metabolic proteins. A probabilistic state space model was used to infer the activities of two key regulators, FNR (O? sensing) and PdhR (pyruvate sensing). The model implied that both regulators were rapidly inactivated during the transition from an anaerobic to a micro-aerobic environment. Analysis of the external metabolome and protein levels suggested that the cultures transit through different physiological states during the process of adaptation, characterized by the rapid inactivation of pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL), a slower induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) activity and transient excretion of pyruvate, consistent with the predicted inactivation of PdhR and FNR. CONCLUSION:Perturbation of anaerobic steady-state cultures by introduction of a limited supply of O? combined with time-resolved transcript, protein and metabolite profiling, and probabilistic modeling has revealed that pyruvate (sensed by PdhR) is a key metabolic signal in coordinating the reprogramming of E. coli K-12 gene expression by working alongside the O? sensor FNR during transition from anaerobic to micro-aerobic conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The pyruvate dehydrogenase regulator protein (PdhR) of Escherichia coli acts as a transcriptional regulator in a pyruvate dependent manner to control central metabolic fluxes. However, the complete PdhR regulon has not yet been uncovered. To achieve an extended understanding of its gene regulatory network, we combined large-scale network inference and experimental verification of results obtained by a systems biology approach. RESULTS: 22 new genes contained in two operons controlled by PdhR (previously only 20 regulatory targets in eight operons were known) were identified by analysing a large-scale dataset of E. coli from the Many Microbes Microarray Database and novel expression data from a pdhR knockout strain, as well as a PdhR overproducing strain. We identified a regulation of the glycolate utilization operon glcDEFGBA using chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shift assays. We show that this regulation could be part of a cross-induction between genes necessary for acetate and pyruvate utilisation controlled through PdhR. Moreover, a link of PdhR regulation to the replication machinery of the cell via control of the transcription of the dcw-cluster was verified in experiments. This augments our knowledge of the functions of the PdhR-regulon and demonstrates its central importance for further cellular processes in E. coli. CONCLUSIONS: We extended the PdhR regulon by 22 new genes contained in two operons and validated the regulation of the glcDEFGBA operon for glycolate utilisation and the dcw-cluster for cell division proteins experimentally. Our results provide, for the first time, a plausible regulatory link between the nutritional status of the cell and cell replication mediated by PdhR.
Project description:Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a key enzyme in metabolism linking glycolysis to tricarboxylic acid cycle and its activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation catalyzed by four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms. PDKs are pharmacological targets for several human diseases including cancer, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, and inherited PDHC deficiency. We investigated the inhibitory activity of phenylbutyrate toward PDKs and found that PDK isoforms 1-to-3 are inhibited whereas PDK4 is unaffected. Moreover, docking studies revealed putative binding sites of phenylbutyrate on PDK2 and 3 that are located on different sites compared to dichloroacetate (DCA), a previously known PDK inhibitor. Based on these findings, we showed both in cells and in mice that phenylbutyrate combined to DCA results in greater increase of PDHC activity compared to each drug alone. These results suggest that therapeutic efficacy can be enhanced by combination of drugs increasing PDHC enzyme activity.
Project description:The pyruvate dehydrogenase regulator protein (PdhR) of Escherichia coli acts as a transcriptional regulator in a pyruvate dependent manner to control central metabolic fluxes. However, the complete PdhR regulon has not yet been uncovered. To achieve an extended understanding of its gene regulation network, we combined large-scale network inference and experimental verification of results obtained by a systems biology approach. We determined the gene expression of four different strains of E. coli on three different media. The four strains corresponded to the wild-type E. coli (LJ110), a PdhR knockout mutant (LJ110deltapdhR), a strain carrying an empty plasmid (LJ110/pTM30) and a PdhR overexpression strain (LJ110/pTM30PdhRhis). These strains were cultivated on Luria-Bertani broth (LBo), standard phosphate minimal medium supplemented with acetate and standard phosphate minimal medium supplemented with pyruvate. We obtained an overall 24 microarray experiments from two replicates of each of these cultivations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) deficiency is a common neurodegenerative disease associated with abnormal mitochondrial energy metabolism. The diagnosis of PDHC is difficult because of the lack of a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective clinical diagnostic method.<h4>Methods</h4>A 4-year-old boy was preliminarily diagnosed with putative Leigh syndrome based on the clinical presentation. PDHC activity in peripheral blood leukocytes and a corresponding gene analysis were subsequently undertaken. Sodium pyruvate 1-<sup>13</sup> C was used for the analysis of PDHC activity in peripheral leukocytes. The genes encoding PDHC were then scanned for mutations.<h4>Results</h4>The results showed that the corresponding PDHC activity was dramatically decreased to 10.5 nmol/h/mg protein as compared with that of healthy controls (124.6 ± 7.1 nmol/h/mg). The ratio of PDHC to citrate synthase was 2.1% (control: 425.3 ± 27.1). The mutation analysis led to the identification of a missense mutation, NM_000284.4:g214C>T, in exon 3 of PDHC.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The peripheral blood leukocyte PDHC activity assay may provide a practical enzymatic diagnostic method for PDHC-related mitochondrial diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of hepatic function resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Metabolic enzymes can translocate to the nucleus to regulate histone acetylation and gene expression. METHODS:Levels and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in nuclear fractions of livers of mice exposed to various hepatotoxins including CD95-antibody, ?-amanitin, and acetaminophen. Whole-genome gene expression profiling by RNA-seq was performed in livers of mice with acute liver failure and analyzed by gene ontology enrichment analysis. Cell viability was evaluated in cell lines knocked-down for PDHA1 or LDH-A and in cells incubated with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin after treatment with CD95-antibody. We evaluated whether the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol or galloflavin could reduce liver damage in mice with acute liver failure. RESULTS:Levels and activities of PDHC and LDH were increased in nuclear fractions of livers of mice with acute liver failure. The increase of nuclear PDHC and LDH was associated with increased concentrations of acetyl-CoA and lactate in nuclear fractions, and histone H3 hyper-acetylation. Gene expression in livers of mice with acute liver failure suggested that increased histone H3 acetylation induces the expression of genes related to damage response. Reduced histone acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol decreased liver damage and improved survival in mice with acute liver failure. Knock-down of PDHC or LDH improved viability in cells exposed to a pro-apoptotic stimulus. Treatment with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin that was also found to inhibit PDHC, reduced hepatic necrosis, apoptosis, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice with acute liver failure. Mice treated with galloflavin also showed a dose-response increase in survival. CONCLUSION:PDHC and LDH translocate to the nucleus, leading to increased nuclear concentrations of acetyl-CoA and lactate. This results in histone H3 hyper-acetylation and expression of damage response genes. Inhibition of PDHC and LDH reduces liver damage and improves survival in mice with acute liver failure. Thus, PDHC and LDH are targets for therapy of acute liver failure. LAY SUMMARY:Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of liver function resulting in high mortality. In experimental mouse models of acute liver failure, we found that two metabolic enzymes, namely pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactic dehydrogenase, translocate to the nucleus resulting in detrimental gene expression. Treatment with an inhibitor of these two enzymes was found to reduce liver damage and to improve survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although Escherichia coli is one of the best studied model organisms, a comprehensive understanding of its gene regulation is not yet achieved. There exist many approaches to reconstruct regulatory interaction networks from gene expression experiments. Mutual information based approaches are most useful for large-scale network inference.<h4>Results</h4>We used a three-step approach in which we combined gene regulatory network inference based on directed information (DTI) and sequence analysis. DTI values were calculated on a set of gene expression profiles from 19 time course experiments extracted from the Many Microbes Microarray Database. Focusing on influences between pairs of genes in which one partner encodes a transcription factor (TF) we derived a network which contains 878 TF - gene interactions of which 166 are known according to RegulonDB. Afterward, we selected a subset of 109 interactions that could be confirmed by the presence of a phylogenetically conserved binding site of the respective regulator. By this second step, the fraction of known interactions increased from 19% to 60%. In the last step, we checked the 44 of the 109 interactions not yet included in RegulonDB for functional relationships between the regulator and the target and, thus, obtained ten TF - target gene interactions. Five of them concern the regulator LexA and have already been reported in the literature. The remaining five influences describe regulations by Fis (with two novel targets), PhdR, PhoP, and KdgR. For the validation of our approach, one of them, the regulation of lipoate synthase (LipA) by the pyruvate-sensing pyruvate dehydrogenate repressor (PdhR), was experimentally checked and confirmed.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We predicted a set of five novel TF - target gene interactions in E. coli. One of them, the regulation of lipA by the transcriptional regulator PdhR was validated experimentally. Furthermore, we developed DTInfer, a new R-package for the inference of gene-regulatory networks from microarrays using directed information.
Project description:Bovine, human and porcine heart mitochondria and isolated porcine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) pyruvate-dependently form N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides from nitroso aromatic compounds, including carcinogenic 4-biphenyl and 2-fluorenyl derivatives. The PDHC-catalysed formation of N-hydroxyacetanilide (N-OH-AA) from nitrosobenzene (NOB), through a Ping Pong mechanism, is optimum at pH 6.8 and is accelerated by thiamin pyrophosphate, but is inhibited by thiamin thiazolone pyrophosphate and ATP. Km pyruvate in the reaction is independent of pH over the range tested, whereas KmNOB increases at lower pH, owing to ionization of an active-site functional group of pKa 6.3. The enzymic ionization decreases log (Vmax/KmNOB). Isolated pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), a constitutive enzyme of PDHC, forms N-OH-AA by itself and has comparable kinetic parameters to those of the PDHC-catalysed N-OH-AA formation. The catalytic efficiency of PDHC in the formation of N-hydroxy-N-arylacylamides, due to the steric limitation of the active site of E1, is lowered both by bulky alkyl groups of alpha-oxo acids and by p-substituents (but not an o-substituent) on nitrosobenzenes. These nitroso compounds serve as electrophiles in the reaction in which the reductive acetylation step is rate-limiting. The reaction mechanism and other factors affecting N-hydroxy-N-arylacylamide formation are discussed.
Project description:Lipoic acid is a covalently-bound enzyme cofactor required for central metabolism all three domains of life. In the last 20 years the pathway of lipoic acid synthesis and metabolism has been established in Escherichia coli. Expression of the genes of the lipoic acid biosynthesis pathway was believed to be constitutive. However, in 2010 Kaleta and coworkers (BMC Syst. Biol. 4:116) predicted a binding site for the pyruvate dehydrogenase operon repressor, PdhR (referred to lipA site 1) upstream of lipA, the gene encoding lipoic acid synthase and concluded that PdhR regulates lipA transcription. We report in vivo and in vitro evidence that lipA is not controlled by PdhR and that the putative regulatory site deduced by the prior workers is nonfunctional and physiologically irrelevant. E. coli PdhR was purified to homogeneity and used for electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The lipA site 1 of Kaleta and coworkers failed to bind PdhR. The binding detected by these workers is due to another site (lipA site 3) located far upstream of the lipA promoter. Relative to the canonical PdhR binding site lipA site 3 is a half-palindrome and as expected had only weak PdhR binding ability. Manipulation of lipA site 3 to construct a palindrome gave significantly enhanced PdhR binding affinity. The native lipA promoter and the version carrying the artificial lipA3 palindrome were transcriptionally fused to a LacZ reporter gene to directly assay lipA expression. Deletion of pdhR gave no significant change in lipA promoter-driven ?-galactosidase activity with either the native or constructed palindrome upstream sequences, indicating that PdhR plays no physiological role in regulation of lipA expression.
Project description:Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) functions as the main determinant of the respiro-fermentative balance because it converts pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which then enters the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle). PDC is repressed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex regulator (PdhR) in Escherichia coli. The deletion of the pdhR gene compromises fitness in aerobic environments. We evolve the E. coli pdhR deletion strain to examine its achievable growth rate and the underlying adaptive strategies. We find that (1) optimal proteome allocation to PDC is critical in achieving optimal growth rate; (2) expression of PDC in evolved strains is reduced through mutations in the Shine-Dalgarno sequence; (3) rewiring of the TCA flux and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense occur in the evolved strains; and (4) the evolved strains adapt to an efficient biomass yield. Together, these results show how adaptation can find alternative regulatory mechanisms for a key cellular process if the primary regulatory mode fails.