Transmission and Long-Term Colonization Patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in a Nursing Home.
ABSTRACT: Nursing homes might create an environment favorable for the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus because of the presence of hospitalized elderly, overcrowding and close contacts among people. We aimed at identifying risk factors for S. aureus colonization and determining the genetic relatedness of isolates demonstrating transmission among people. We investigated 736 swab samples from 92 residents and personnel for the presence of S. aureus. Swabs from anterior nares and throat were collected quarterly (2018) in a nursing home located in Poland. Genotyping was conducted using the multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats fingerprinting (MLVF) method. We observed high seasonal variation in the proportion of participants colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains (0% to 13.5%). A multivariate analysis revealed that residents aged more than 85 years old are at risk for becoming intermittent S. aureus carriers (p = 0.013). The MLVF analysis revealed a high genetic diversity among methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains and close genetic relatedness between MRSA strains. We proved the advanced aged were predisposed to intermittent S. aureus carriage. Genotyping revealed the transmission of S. aureus among the participants living in a closed environment. A high genetic relatedness among isolated MRSA suggests its clonal spread in the nursing home.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus poses a threat to elderly living in nursing homes. Studies focusing on the epidemiology of colonization may help in the design of infection control strategies.To identify factors associated with MRSA colonization and the dissemination of clones among nursing home residents.Nasal swabs were collected from 300 persons from nine nursing homes in the city of Bauru, Brazil. Resistance to methicillin was identified through amplification of the mecA gene. Strain typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis) and characterization of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette (SCC) mec was performed. Univariate and multivariable models were used to identify predictors of overall S. aureus and MRSA carriage.Rates of S. aureus and MRSA colonization were 17.7 and 3.7%, respectively. Age and recent admission to a hospital were independently associated with colonization with S. aureus. MRSA colonization was associated with living in small (<?15 residents) and medium-sized (15-49 residents) facilities, as well as with recent hospitalization. Most MRSA strains carried SCCmec types II or IV, and there was evidence of clonal spread within and among different facilities.MRSA may be introduced in nursing homes form hospitals or arise from the community setting. Screening for asymptomatic colonization may identify persons with greater risk for infection, and is advised for residents discharged from acute care hospitals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 is a livestock associated-bacterium that is most prevalent in Europe. Human-adapted MRSA ST398 was recently reported from China, but there is no data available yet for Taiwan. METHODS:To identify S. aureus ST398 isolates, we examined 6413?S. aureus isolates (5632 MRSA and 781 susceptible strains) that were collected in Taiwan between 1995 and 2017. If isolates could not be typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis upon Sma I digestion, we performed further characterization and complete genome sequencing. RESULTS:We identified 18 ST398 S. aureus isolates from 16 subjects (0.28%), including 6 sensitive and 12 resistant strains. Of these, 14 were colonizing isolates, 3 were clinical (infecting) isolates and one isolate was from a pork specimen. All 3 infecting isolates were MSSA strains identified in 2015 from two children with recurrent otitis media or sinusitis. The other 3 MSSA isolates were identified from workers handling pork (2) or pork meat (1) in 2015. The first 5 MRSA colonizing isolates were identified from residents in two nursing homes in 2012. Six MRSA isolates were identified from residents and foreign employees at a nursing home in 2016 and one MRSA from a foreign worker in 2017. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences indicated that all 12 local ST398 MRSA strains cluster together, human-adapted and phylogenetically related to a human MRSA strain identified in China in 2002. Two local MSSA isolates could be linked to isolates from livestock. The toxin profiles were similar for the MRSA and MSSA isolates. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that S. aureus ST398 was present in Taiwan in 2012 and potentially earlier. Although some isolates could be linked to livestock, most ST398 S. aureus isolates identified in Taiwan, particularly MRSA, represent human-adapted strains. Local transmission of human-adapted MRSA ST398 strains has occurred in nursing homes in Taiwan, possibly after import from China. Further surveillance is needed.
Project description:Nursing homes represent a unique and important methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) reservoir. Not only are strains imported from hospitals and the community, strains can be transported back into these settings from nursing homes. Since MRSA bacteria are prevalent in nursing homes and yet relatively poorly studied in this setting, a multicenter, regional assessment of the frequency and diversity of MRSA in the nursing home reservoir was carried out and compared to that of the MRSA from hospitals in the same region. The prospective study collected MRSA from nasal swabbing of residents of 26 nursing homes in Orange County, California, and characterized each isolate by spa typing. A total of 837 MRSA isolates were collected from the nursing homes. Estimates of admission prevalence and point prevalence of MRSA were 16% and 26%, respectively. The spa type genetic diversity was heterogeneous between nursing homes and significantly higher overall (77%) than the diversity in Orange County hospitals (72%). MRSA burden in nursing homes appears largely due to importation from hospitals. As seen in Orange County hospitals, USA300 (sequence type 8 [ST8]/t008), USA100 (ST5/t002), and a USA100 variant (ST5/t242) were the dominant MRSA clones in Orange County nursing homes, representing 83% of all isolates, although the USA100 variant was predominant in nursing homes, whereas USA300 was predominant in hospitals. Control strategies tailored to the complex problem of MRSA transmission and infection in nursing homes are needed in order to minimize the impact of this unique reservoir on the overall regional MRSA burden.
Project description:Residents in nursing homes (NHs) always represent potential reservoirs for Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). To our knowledge, there is no epidemiological information up till now that describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus in nursing home residents in Shanghai, China.Four hundred and ninety-one unique residents from 7 NHs were enrolled in this study. Specimens were collected among these residents including 491 nasal swabs, 487 axillary swabs and 119 skin swabs. S. aureus isolated and identified from the swabs was characterized according to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling, toxin gene prevalence, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa and SCCmec typing.Among the 491 residents screened, S. aureus was isolated in 109 residents from 90 nasal swabs (90/491, 18.3%), 29 axillary swabs (29/487, 6.0%), and 22 skin swabs (22/119, 18.5%). Sixty-eight MRSA isolates were detected in 52 residents from 41 nasal carriers, 15 axillary carriers and 12 skin carriers. The overall prevalence rate of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was 22.2% and 10.6% respectively. Ten residents presented S. aureus in all three sample types and 12 residents presented S. aureus in two of the three sample types collected. Molecular analysis revealed CC1 (29.1%) to be the dominant clone in this study, followed by CC398 (19.9%), CC188 (13.5%) and CC5 (12.8%). The most common spa type was t127 (22.0%), followed by t14383 (12.8%) and t002 (10.6%).A high prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA colonization was revealed in nursing home residents in Shanghai. CC1 was the most common clonal complex and t127 was the most common spa type among NH residents. The data provides an important baseline for future surveillance of S. aureus in NHs in Shanghai and other highly urbanized regions in China. Implementation of infection control strategies must be given high priority in NHs to fight such high prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA).
Project description:OBJECTIVES: A national survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) among nursing home residents in Belgium. METHODS: A random stratified, national prevalence survey was conducted in nursing home residents who were screened for carriage of ESBLE, MRSA and VRE by multisite enriched culture. Characteristics of nursing homes and residents were collected by a questionnaire survey and were analysed by multilevel logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 2791 screened residents in 60 participating nursing home, the weighted prevalence of ESBLE and MRSA carriage were 6.2% (range: 0 to 20%) and 12.2% (range: 0 to 36%), respectively. No cases of VRE were found. No relationship was found between ESBLE and MRSA prevalence rates within nursing homes and the rate of co-colonization was very low (0.8%). Geographical variations in prevalence of MRSA and ESBLE and in distribution of ESBL types in nursing home residents paralleled that of acute hospitals. Risk factors of ESBLE carriage included previously known ESBLE carriage, male gender, a low level of mobility and previous antibiotic exposure. Risk factors for MRSA colonization were: previously known MRSA carriage, skin lesions, a low functional status and antacid use. CONCLUSIONS: A low prevalence of ESBLE carriage was found in nursing home residents in Belgium. The prevalence of MRSA carriage decreased substantially in comparison to a similar survey conducted in 2005. A low functional status appeared as a common factor for ESBLE and MRSA carriage. Previous exposure to antibiotics was a strong predictor of ESBLE colonization while increased clustering of MRSA carriage suggested the importance of cross-transmission within nursing homes for this organism. These results emphasize the need for global coordination of the surveillance of MDRO within and between nursing homes and hospitals.
Project description:Nursing home residents are frequently colonized with various strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but the intra-facility dynamics of strain-specific MRSA remains poorly understood. We aimed at identifying and quantifying the associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains and their potential risk factors in community nursing homes using mathematical modeling.The data was collected during a longitudinal MRSA surveillance study in six nursing homes in South Central Wisconsin. MRSA cultures were obtained from subjects every 3 months for up to one year. MRSA isolates were subsequently strain-typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and their genetic similarity was established based on the Dice coefficients. Bayesian network analysis, logistic regression and elastic net were used to quantify the associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains discriminated at 80% and 95% strain similarity thresholds and potentially modifiable resident characteristics including previous antibiotic exposure, comorbidity, medical devices, chronic wounds, functional and cognitive status and recent hospitalizations.Absence of severe cognitive impairment as well as presence of a wound, device and severe comorbidity was associated with elevated probability of USA100 carriage although there was a variation based on the combination of those risk factors. Residents with severe comorbidity and cognitive status and presence of device and wound were identified as certain carriers of USA100 in our sample. Residents with a chronic wound were more likely to carry USA100 MRSA (OR?=?2.77, 95% CI?=?1.37-5.87). Functional status was identified as an important determinant of carriage of USA100 and USA300 strains. Comorbidity and cognitive status were the two factors associated with carriage of all clonal groups in the study (USA100, USA300 and USA1200).The combination of Bayesian network analysis, logistic regression and elastic net can be used to identify associations between acquisition and carriage of MRSA strains and their potential risk factors in the face of scarce data. The revealed associations may be used to generate hypothesis for further study of determinants of acquisition and carriage of selected MRSA subtypes and to better inform infection control efforts in community nursing homes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This was an observational study designed to estimate the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission to gowns and gloves worn by health care workers (HCWs) interacting with Veterans Affairs Community Living Center (VA nursing home) residents to inform MRSA prevention policies. METHODS:Participants included residents and HCWs from 7 VA nursing homes in 4 states and Washington, DC. Residents were cultured for MRSA at the anterior nares, perianal skin, and wound (if present). HCWs wore gowns and gloves during usual care activities. After each activity, a research coordinator swabbed the HCW's gown and gloves. Swabs were cultured for MRSA. RESULTS:There were 200 residents enrolled; 94 (46%) were MRSA colonized. Glove contamination was higher than gown contamination (20% vs 11%, respectively; P?<?.01). Transmission varied greatly by type of care from 0%-19% for gowns and 7%-37% for gloves. High-risk care activities (odds ratio [OR]?>?1.0, P?<?.05) for gown contamination included changing dressings (eg, wound), dressing, providing hygiene (eg, brushing teeth), and bathing. Low-risk care activities (OR?<?1.0, P?<?.05 or no transmission) for gown contamination included glucose monitoring, giving medications, and feeding. CONCLUSIONS:MRSA transmission from colonized residents to gloves was higher than transmission to gowns. Transmission to gloves varies by type of care, but all care had a risk of contamination, demonstrating the importance of hand hygiene after all care. Transmission to gowns was significantly higher with certain types of care. Optimizing gown and glove use by targeting high-risk care activities could improve resident-centered care for MRSA-colonized residents by promoting a home-like environment.
Project description:Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for the majority of S. aureus infections globally, and yet surprisingly little is known about its clonal evolution. We applied comparative whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses to epidemiologically and geographically diverse ST398-MSSA, a pandemic lineage affecting both humans and livestock. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis predicted divergence of human-associated ST398-MSSA ~40 years ago. Isolates from Midwestern pigs and veterinarians differed substantially from those in New York City (NYC). Pig ST398 strains contained a large region of recombination representing imports from multiple sequence types (STs). Phylogeographic analyses supported the spread of ST398-MSSA along local cultural and migratory links between parts of the Caribbean, North America, and France, respectively. Applying pairwise single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distances as a measure of genetic relatedness between isolates, we observed that ST398 not only clustered in households but also frequently extended across local social networks. Isolates collected from environmental surfaces reflected the full diversity of colonizing individuals, highlighting their potentially critical role as reservoirs for transmission and diversification. Strikingly, we observed high within-host SNP variability compared to our previous studies on the dominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone USA300. Our data indicate that the dynamics of colonization, persistence, and transmission differ substantially between USA300-MRSA and ST398-MSSA. Taken together, our study reveals local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone, indicating key impacts of recombination and mutation on genetic diversification and highlighting important ecological differences from epidemic USA300. Our study demonstrates extensive local and international routes of transmission for a major MSSA clone despite the lack of substantial antibiotic resistance. IMPORTANCE:Unlike methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), surprisingly little is known about the clonal evolution of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), although these strains account for the majority of S. aureus infections. To better understand how MSSA spreads and becomes established in communities, we applied comparative bacterial whole-genome sequencing to pandemic ST398-MSSA, a clone of clinical importance affecting humans and livestock in different geographic regions. Phylogeographic analyses identified that ST398-MSSA spread along local cultural and migratory links between parts of the Caribbean, North America, and France, respectively. We observed high within-host SNP variability compared to our previous studies on the dominant MRSA clone USA300. Our data indicate that the dynamics of colonization, persistence, and transmission differ substantially between USA300 MRSA and ST398 MSSA.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is endemic in many hospital settings, including nursing homes. It is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes mortality and an economic burden to patients, hospitals, and the community. The epidemiology of the bacteria in nursing homes is both hospital- and community-like. Transmission occurs via hands of health care workers (HCWs) and direct contacts among residents during social activities. In this work, mathematical modeling in both deterministic and stochastic frameworks is used to study dissemination of MRSA among residents and HCWs, persistence and prevalence of MRSA in a population, and possible means of controlling the spread of this pathogen in nursing homes. The model predicts that: (i) without strict screening and decolonization of colonized individuals at admission, MRSA may persist; (ii) decolonization of colonized residents, improving hand hygiene in both residents and HCWs, reducing the duration of contamination of HCWs, and decreasing the resident?staff ratio are possible control strategies; (iii) the mean time that a resident remains susceptible since admission may be prolonged by screening and decolonization treatment in colonized individuals; (iv) in the stochastic framework, the total number of colonized residents varies and may increase when the admission of colonized residents, the duration of colonization, the average number of contacts among residents, or the average number of contacts that each resident requires from HCWs increases; (v) an introduction of a colonized individual into an MRSA-free nursing home has a much higher probability of leading to a major outbreak taking off than an introduction of a contaminated HCW.
Project description:Population-based studies on Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization are scarce. We examined the prevalence, resistance, and molecular diversity of S. aureus in the general population in Northeast Germany. Nasal swabs were obtained from 3,891 adults in the large-scale population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND). Isolates were characterized using spa genotyping, as well as antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiling. We observed an S. aureus prevalence of 27.2%. Nasal S. aureus carriage was associated with male sex and inversely correlated with age. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 0.95% of the colonizing S. aureus strains. MRSA carriage was associated with frequent visits to hospitals, nursing homes, or retirement homes within the previous 24 months. All MRSA strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most MRSA isolates belonged to the pandemic European hospital-acquired MRSA sequence type 22 (HA-MRSA-ST22) lineage. We also detected one livestock-associated MRSA ST398 (LA-MRSA-ST398) isolate, as well as six livestock-associated methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (LA-MSSA) isolates (clonal complex 1 [CC1], CC97, and CC398). spa typing revealed a diverse but also highly clonal S. aureus population structure. We identified a total of 357 spa types, which were grouped into 30 CCs or sequence types. The major seven CCs (CC30, CC45, CC15, CC8, CC7, CC22, and CC25) included 75% of all isolates. Virulence gene patterns were strongly linked to the clonal background. In conclusion, MSSA and MRSA prevalences and the molecular diversity of S. aureus in Northeast Germany are consistent with those of other European countries. The detection of HA-MRSA and LA-MRSA within the general population indicates possible transmission from hospitals and livestock, respectively, and should be closely monitored.