Pharmacogenomic Assessment of Patients with Colorectal Cancer and Potential Treatments.
ABSTRACT: Evolving intensiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, including chemotherapeutics and targeted agents associations, in adjuvant and metastatic CRC (MCRC) settings, increased overall survival (OS) with individual variability of toxicity. Pharmacogenomic guidelines recommended pre-treatment identification of at-risk patients suggesting dose adjustment of fluoropyrimidines based on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), and irinotecan on UDP glucuronosyl-transferase 1 family polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) genetic variants, but they are poorly applied in clinical practice. This review highlighted clinically validated pharmacogenetic markers, to underline the need of their implementation in the multidisciplinary molecular board for individual CRC patients in clinical practice. Five clinically relevant DPYD variants with different prevalence impair enzymatic effectiveness and significantly increase toxicity: c.1236 G>A (c.1129-5923 C>G, HapB3), 4.1-4.8%; c.1679 T>G (DPYD*13), c.1905+1G>A (DPYD*2A), c.2846 A>T, c.2194 A>T (DPYD*6) 1% each. c.1679T>G and c.1905+1G>A are most deleterious on DPD effectiveness, moderately reduced in c.1236/HapB3 and c.2846A>T. Cumulatively, these variants explain approximately half of the estimated 10-15% fluoropyrimidine-related gastrointestinal and hematological toxicities due to DPD. Prevalent UGT1A1 gene [TA]7TAA promoter allelic variant UGT1A1*28, characterized by an extra TA repeat, is associated with low transcriptional and reduced enzymatic effectiveness, decreased SN38 active irinotecan metabolite glucuronidation, vs wild-type UGT1A1*1 [A(TA)6TAA]. Homozygote UGT1A1*28 alleles patients are exposed to higher hematological and gastrointestinal toxicities, even more than heterozygote, at >150 mg/m2 dose. Dose reduction is recommended for homozygote variant. Wild-type UGT1A1*28 alleles patients could tolerate increased doses, potentially affecting favorable outcomes. Implementation of up-front evaluation of the five validated DPYD variants and UGT1A1*28 in the multidisciplinary molecular tumor board, also including CRC genetic characterization, addresses potential treatments with fluoropyrimidines and irinotecan associations at proper doses and schedules, particularly for early CRC, MCRC patients fit for intensive regimens or unfit for conventional regimens, requiring treatment modulations, and also for patients who experience severe, unexpected toxicities. Integration of individual evaluation of toxicity syndromes (TS), specifically limiting TS (LTS), an innovative indicator of toxicity burden in individual patients, may be useful to better evaluate relationships between pharmacogenomic analyses with safety profiles and clinical outcomes.
Project description:AIMS:Triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan is a standard therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPYD and UGT1A1 influence fluoropyrimdines and irinotecan adverse events (AEs). Low frequency DPYD variants (c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T) are validated but more frequent ones (c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G and c.1896 T > C) are not. rs895819 T > C polymorphism in hsa-mir-27a is associated with reduced DPD activity. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of a pharmacogenetic panel for patients receiving triplet combinations. METHODS:Germline DNA was available from 64 CRC patients enrolled between 2008 and 2013 in two phase II trials of capecitabine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab or cetuximab. SNPs were determined by Real-Time PCR. We evaluated the functional variants in DPYD (rare: c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T; most common: c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C), hsa-mir-27a (rs895819) and UGT1A1 (*28) genes to assess their association with grade 3-4 AEs. RESULTS:None of the patients carried rare DPYD variants. We found DPYD c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C in heterozygosity in 19%, 5% and 8%, respectively, homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a in 9% and homozygous UGT1A1*28 in 8%. Grade 3-4 AEs were observed in 36% patients and were associated with DPYD c.496A > G (odds ratio (OR) 4.93, 95% CI 1.29, 18.87; P = 0.021) and homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a (OR 11.11, 95% CI 1.21, 102.09; P = 0.020). Carriers of DPYD c.1896 T > C and homozygous UGT1A1*28 showed an OR of 8.42 (95% CI 0.88, 80.56; P = 0.052). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent value for DPYD c.496A > G and c.1896 T > C. CONCLUSIONS:Concomitant assessment of DPYD variants and the UGT1A1*28 allele is a promising strategy needing further validation for dose personalization.
Project description:Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) is a highly polymorphic gene and classic deficient variants (i.e., c.1236G>A/HapB3, c.1679T>G, c.1905+1G>A and c.2846A>T) are characterized by impaired enzyme activity and risk of severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients treated with fluoropyrimidines. The identification of poor metabolizers by pre-emptive DPYD screening may reduce the rate of ADRs but many patients with wild-type genotype for classic variants may still display ADRs. Therefore, the search for additional DPYD polymorphisms associated with ADRs may improve the safety of treatment with fluoropyrimidines. This study included 1254 patients treated with fluoropyrimidine-containing regimens and divided into cohort 1, which included 982 subjects suffering from gastrointestinal G?2 and/or hematological G?3 ADRs, and cohort 2 (control group), which comprised 272 subjects not requiring dose reduction, delay or discontinuation of treatment. Both groups were screened for DPYD variants c.496A>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, c.1601G>A (DPYD*4), c.1627A>G (DPYD*5), c.1679T>G (DPYD*13), c.1896T>C, c.1905?+?1G>A (DPYD*2A), c.2194G>A (DPYD*6), and c.2846A>T to assess their association with toxicity. Genetic analysis in the two cohorts were done by Real-Time PCR of DNA extracted from 3?ml of whole blood. DPYD c.496A>G, c.1601G>A, c.1627A>G, c.1896T>C, and c.2194G>A variants were found in both cohort 1 and 2, while c.1905+1G>A and c.2846A>T were present only in cohort 1. DPYD c.1679T>G and c.1236G>A/HapB3 were not found. Univariate analysis allowed the selection of c.1905+1G>A, c.2194G>A and c.2846A>T alleles as significantly associated with gastrointestinal and hematological ADRs (p?<?0.05), while the c.496A>G variant showed a positive trend of association with neutropenia (p?=?0.06). In conclusion, c.2194G>A is associated with clinically-relevant ADRs in addition to the already known c.1905+1G>A and c.2846A>T variants and should be evaluated pre-emptively to reduce the risk of fluoropyrimidine-associated ADRs.
Project description:Our study addresses the issue of the clinical reliability of three candidate DPYD and one UGT single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicting 5-fluorouracil- and irinotecan-related adverse events. To this purpose, we took advantage of a large cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line 5-fluorouracil- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy regimens (i.e., FOLFIRI or FOLFOXIRI) plus bevacizumab in the randomized clinical trial TRIBE by GONO (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00719797), in which adverse events were carefully and prospectively collected at each treatment cycle. Here we show that patients bearing DPYD c.1905+1G/A and c.2846A/T genotypes, together with UGT1A1*28 variant carriers, have an increased risk of experiencing clinically relevant toxicities, including hematological AEs and stomatitis. No carrier of the DPYD c.1679T>G minor allele was identified. Present results support the preemptive screening of mentioned DPYD and UGT1A1 variants to identify patients at risk of clinically relevant 5-fluoruracil- and irinotecan-related AEs, in order to improve treatments' safety through a "genotype-guided" approach.
Project description:There is a large degree of variation in tumour response and host toxicities associated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer patients. We performed a complimentary pharmacogenetic study to investigate germline polymorphisms of genes involved in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan pathways and their potential association with clinical outcomes and toxicities from neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with rectal cancer treated in a prospective genotype-directed study.The germline DNA of 131 patients was genotyped for 10 variants in TYMS, MTHFR, DPYD, UGT1A1, ABCC1 and SLCO1B1 genes. Ninety-six patients were treated with 5-FU/radiotherapy (RT) and 35 received 5-FU/RT/irinotecan. Relationships between genetic variants and adverse events, tumour response, overall and disease-free survivals were assessed.MTHFR 1298A>C and MTHFR diplotypes (for 677C>T and 1298A>C) were associated with chemoradiation-related toxicity when 5-FU was used alone. MTHFR haplotypes (677C-1298C) and diplotypes (CA-TA and TA-TA) showed, respectively, a protective and a negative effect on the incidence of severe diarrhoea or mucositis. No association was observed between genetic markers and drug response.MTHFR polymorphisms can potentially predict toxicity in patients treated with 5-FU as a single chemotherapeutic drug.
Project description:An increased understanding of the biology of colorectal cancer (CRC) has fuelled identification of biomarkers with potential to drive a stratified precision medicine care approach in this common malignancy. We conducted a systematic review of health economic assessments of molecular biomarkers (MBMs) and their employment in patient stratification in CRC. Our analysis revealed scenarios where health economic analyses have been applied to evaluate the cost effectiveness of MBM-guided clinical interventions: (i) evaluation of Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) status to identify patients susceptible to 5-Fluouracil toxicity; (ii) determination of Uridine 5'-diphospho- glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 gene (UGT1A1) polymorphism status to help guide irinotecan treatment; (iii) assessment of RAS/RAF mutational status to stratify patients for chemotherapy or Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) therapy and (iv) multigene expression analysis (Oncotype Dx) to identify and spare non-responders the debilitating effects of particular chemotherapy interventions. Our findings indicate that Oncotype Dx is cost-effective in high income settings within specific price points, by limiting treatment toxicity in CRC patients. DPYD status testing may also be cost effective in certain settings to avoid specific 5-FU toxicities post treatment. In contrast, current research does not support UGT1A1 polymorphism status as a cost-effective guide to irinotecan dosing, while the health economic evidence to support testing of KRAS/NRAS mutational status and chemo/EGFR therapy choice was inconclusive, despite its widespread adoption in CRC treatment management. However, we also show that there is a paucity of high-quality cost-effectiveness studies to support clinical application of precision medicine approaches in CRC.
Project description:Severe (grade?3) adverse events (AEs) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy regimens can result in treatment delays or cessation, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening complications. Current genetic biomarkers for 5-FU toxicity prediction, however, account for only a small proportion of toxic cases. In the current study, we assessed DPYD variants suggested to correlate with 5-FU toxicity, a deep intronic variant (c.1129-5923 C>G), and four variants within a haplotype (hapB3) in 1953 stage III colon cancer patients who received adjuvant FOLFOX±cetuximab. Logistic regression was used to assess multivariable associations between DPYD variant status and AEs common to 5-FU (5FU-AEs). In our study cohort, 1228 patients (62.9%) reported any grade?3 AE (overall AE), with 638 patients (32.7%) reporting any grade?3 5FU-AE. Only 32 of 78 (41.0%) patients carrying DPYD c.1129-5923 C>G and the completely linked hapB3 variants c.1236 C>G and c.959-51 T>C showed at least one grade?3 5FU-AE, resulting in no statistically significant association (adjusted odds ratio=1.47, 95% confidence interval=0.90-2.43, P=0.1267). No significant associations were identified between c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 and overall grade?3 AE rate. Our results suggest that c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 have limited predictive value for severe toxicity to 5-FU-based combination chemotherapy.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters may affect irinotecan toxicity. Although genetic polymorphisms have been shown to influence the irinotecan toxicity, data are limited in Thai population. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the allele and genotype frequencies and the relationship between CYP3A4/5, DPYD, UGT1A1, ABCB1, and ABCC2 genetic variations and irinotecan-induced toxicity in Thai colorectal cancer patients. One hundred and thirty-two patients were genotyped, and the effect of genetic variations on irinotecan-induced toxicity was assessed in 66 patients who received irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Allele frequencies of ABCB1 c.1236C?>?T, ABCB1 c.3435C?>?T, ABCC2 c.3972C?>?T, ABCG2 c.421C?>?A, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A4*18, CYP3A5*3, DPYD*5, UGT1A1*28, and UGT1A1*6 were 0.67, 0.43, 0.23, 0.27, 0.01, 0.02, 0.64, 0.19, 0.16, and 0.09, respectively. DPYD*2A and DPYD c.1774C?>?T variants were not detected in our study population. The ABCC2 c.3972C?>?T was significantly associated with grade 1-4 neutropenia (P?<?0.012) at the first cycle. Patients carrying both UGT1A1*28 and *6 were significantly associated with severe neutropenia at the first (P?<?0.001) and second (P?=?0.017) cycles. In addition, patients carrying UG1A1*28 and *6 had significantly lower absolute neutrophil count (ANC) nadir at first (P?<?0.001) and second (P?=?0.001) cycles. This finding suggests that UGT1A1*28, *6, and ABCC2 c.3972C?>?T might be an important predictor for irinotecan-induced severe neutropenia.
Project description:Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%-30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients' homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies' results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer.
Project description:Many studies have demonstrated the impact of UGT1A1 on toxicity of irinotecan. In particular, patients bearing UGT1A1 28 (TA 7/7) have a higher risk of severe neutropenia and diarrhea. Based on this, prescribers of irinotecan are advised that patients with UGT1A1 28 (TA 7/7) should start with a reduced dose of irinotecan, although a particular dose is not specified. Research in Asian countries has shown a lower incidence of UGT1A1 28 (TA 7/7), while UGT1A1 6 (A/A) is more often found and is associated with severe irinotecan-related neutropenia. We report here a case of a metastatic colorectal cancer patient who is heterozygous for the UGT1A1 28 polymorphism (TA 6/7) as well as the UGT1A1 6 polymorphism (G/A). The patient was treated with FOLFIRI for 9 cycles and underwent two irinotecan dose reductions according to pharmacokinetic data regarding exposure to the active metabolite, SN-38. Simultaneous heterozygous UGT1A1 28 and UGT1A1 6 polymorphisms may produce higher exposure to SN-38 and a higher risk of adverse effects related to irinotecan. Additional studies will be necessary to determine the optimal starting dose of irinotecan for patients with both UGT1A1 28 and UGT1A1 6 polymorphisms.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Many cancer patients who receive chemotherapy experience adverse drug effects. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) has promise to personalize chemotherapy drug dosing to maximize efficacy and safety. Fluoropyrimidines and irinotecan have well-known germline PGx associations. At our institution, we have delivered PGx clinical decision support (CDS) based on preemptively obtained genotyping results for a large number of non-oncology medications since 2012, but have not previously evaluated the utility of this strategy for patients initiating anti-cancer regimens. We hypothesize that providing oncologists with preemptive germline PGx information along with CDS will enable individualized dosing decisions and result in improved patient outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with oncologic malignancies for whom fluoropyrimidine and/or irinotecan-inclusive therapy is being planned will be enrolled and randomly assigned to PGx and control arms. Patients will be genotyped in a clinical laboratory across panels that include actionable variants in <i>UGT1A1</i> and <i>DPYD</i>. For PGx arm patients, treating providers will be given access to the patient-specific PGx results with CDS prior to treatment initiation. In the control arm, genotyping will be deferred, and dosing will occur as per usual care. Co-primary endpoints are dose intensity deviation rate (the proportion of patients receiving dose modifications during the first treatment cycle), and grade ?3 treatment-related toxicities throughout the treatment course. Additional study endpoints will include cumulative drug dose intensity, progression-free survival, dosing of additional PGx supportive medications, and patient-reported quality of life and understanding of PGx.<h4>Discussion</h4>Providing a platform of integrated germline PGx information may promote personalized chemotherapy dosing decisions and establish a new model of care to optimize oncology treatment planning.