The complete mitogenome of the Arctic moss Aulacomnium turgidum (Wahlenb.) Schwaegr.
ABSTRACT: The Arctic moss Aulacomnium turgidum (Wahlenb.) Schwaegr. is distributed widely above the Arctic Circle and can regenerate successfully after 400 years of ice entombment. Here, we report the complete mitogenome sequence of A. turgidum (103,937 bp). The genome contains 3 ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs, and 40 protein-encoding genes. In a phylogenetic tree generated using the combined amino acid sequences of 32 mitochondrial genes from A. turgidum, 25 Bryophyta, and three Marchantiophyta, the phylogenetic position of A. turgidum (Rhizogoniales) is close to that of the Hypnales and Ptychomniales, forming a monophyletic clade with perfect supporting values.
Project description:<i>Syntrichia filaris</i> is one of the common mosses in the northern maritime Antarctic. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast genome of <i>S. filaris</i> (GenBank accession number MK852705) to provide a genetic resource for phylogenetic study on Bryophytes. It is of 136,227 bp length, containing 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 37 transfer RNA, and 85 protein-coding genes. The chloroplast genome structure and gene order were similar to other bryophytes. Phylogenetic tree based on combined amino acids sequences of 72 chloroplast genes common in <i>S. filaris</i>, 7 Bryophyta, 1 Anthocerotophyta, and 2 Marchantiophyta, was congruent with the traditional position of Pottiales in Bryophytes.
Project description:Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) are transcribed from protein non-coding genomic TAS loci and belong to a plant-specific class of endogenous small RNAs. These siRNAs have been found to regulate gene expression in most taxa including seed plants, gymnosperms, ferns and mosses. In this study, bioinformatic and experimental PCR-based approaches were used as tools to analyze TAS3 and TAS6 loci in transcriptomes and genomic DNAs from representatives of evolutionary distant non-vascular plant taxa such as Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta and Anthocerotophyta. We revealed previously undiscovered TAS3 loci in plant classes Sphagnopsida and Anthocerotopsida, as well as TAS6 loci in Bryophyta classes Tetraphidiopsida, Polytrichopsida, Andreaeopsida and Takakiopsida. These data further unveil the evolutionary pathway of the miR390-dependent TAS3 loci in land plants. We also identified charophyte alga sequences coding for SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3 (SGS3), which is required for generation of ta-siRNAs in plants, and hypothesized that the appearance of TAS3-related sequences could take place at a very early step in evolutionary transition from charophyte algae to an earliest common ancestor of land plants.
Project description:The present study reports the complete mitochondrial genome of <i>Myurella julacea</i> (Schwägr.) Schimp. (GenBank accession number MT850126); the genome size was 104,979 bp. The gene arrangement was found to be similar to that in other bryophytes, and the genome consisted of 40 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 3 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and 24 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). The phylogenic relationship was analyzed by construction of a phylogenetic tree based on the mitogenome of <i>M</i>. <i>julacea</i> and 25 other bryophytes publicly available in GenBank. The complete mitogenome of <i>M. julacea</i> is expected to provide insights into the evolution of species belonging to the order Hypnales.
Project description:Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes.
Project description:Crop reproduction is highly sensitive to water deficit and heat stress. The molecular networks of stress adaptation and grain development in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) are not well understood. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are important epigenetic regulators connecting the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks. This study presents the first multi-omics analysis of the sRNAome, transcriptome, and degradome in T. turgidum developing grains, under single and combined water deficit and heat stress. We identified 690 microRNAs (miRNAs), with 84 being novel, from 118 sRNA libraries. Complete profiles of differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) specific to genotypes, stress types, and different reproductive time-points are provided. The first degradome sequencing report for developing durum grains discovered a significant number of new target genes regulated by miRNAs post-transcriptionally. Transcriptome sequencing profiled 53,146 T. turgidum genes, swith differentially expressed genes (DEGs) enriched in functional categories such as nutrient metabolism, cellular differentiation, transport, reproductive development, and hormone transduction pathways. miRNA-mRNA networks that affect grain characteristics such as starch synthesis and protein metabolism were constructed on the basis of integrated analysis of the three omics. This study provides a substantial amount of novel information on the post-transcriptional networks in T. turgidum grains, which will facilitate innovations for breeding programs aiming to improve crop resilience and grain quality.
Project description:The genetic diversity of 177 accessions of Panicum turgidum Forssk, representing ten populations collected from four geographical regions in Saudi Arabia, was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A set of four primer-pairs with two/three selective nucleotides scored 836 AFLP amplified fragments (putative loci/genome landmarks), all of which were polymorphic. Populations collected from the southern region of the country showed the highest genetic diversity parameters, whereas those collected from the central regions showed the lowest values. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 78% of the genetic variability was attributable to differences within populations. Pairwise values for population differentiation and genetic structure were statistically significant for all variances. The UPGMA dendrogram, validated by principal coordinate analysis-grouped accessions, corresponded to the geographical origin of the accessions. Mantel's test showed that there was a significant correlation between the genetic and geographical distances (r = 0.35, P < 0.04). In summary, the AFLP assay demonstrated the existence of substantial genetic variation in P. turgidum. The relationship between the genetic diversity and geographical source of P. turgidum populations of Saudi Arabia, as revealed through this comprehensive study, will enable effective resource management and restoration of new areas without compromising adaptation and genetic diversity.
Project description:The tetraploid wheat species Triticum turgidum and Triticum timopheevii are morphologically similar, and misidentification of material collected from the wild is possible. We compared published sequences for the Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1 and Ppd-G1 genes from multiple accessions of T. turgidum and T. timopheevii and devised a set of four polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), two specific for Ppd-B1 and two for Ppd-G1. We used these PCRs with 51 accessions of T. timopheevii and 20 of T. turgidum. Sixty of these accessions gave PCR products consistent with their taxon identifications, but the other eleven accessions gave anomalous results: ten accessions that were classified as T. turgidum were identified as T. timopheevii by the PCRs, and one T. timopheevii accession was typed as T. turgidum. We believe that these anomalies are not due to errors in the PCR tests because the results agree with a more comprehensive analysis of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms, which similarly suggest that these eleven accessions have been misclassified. Our results therefore show that the accepted morphological tests for discrimination between T. turgidum and T. timopheevii might not be entirely robust, but that species identification can be made cheaply and quickly by PCRs directed at the Ppd-1 gene.
Project description:Here we report the complete genome sequence of the chemoorganotrophic, extremely thermophilic bacterium, <i>Dictyoglomus turgidum</i>, which is a Gram negative, strictly anaerobic bacterium. <i>D. turgidum</i> and <i>D. thermophilum</i> together form the <i>Dictyoglomi</i> phylum. The two <i>Dictyoglomus</i> genomes are highly syntenic, and both are distantly related to <i>Caldicellulosiruptor</i> spp. <i>D. turgidum</i> is able to grow on a wide variety of polysaccharide substrates due to significant genomic commitment to glycosyl hydrolases, 16 of which were cloned and expressed in our study. The GH5, GH10, and GH42 enzymes characterized in this study suggest that <i>D. turgidum</i> can utilize most plant-based polysaccharides except crystalline cellulose. The DNA polymerase I enzyme was also expressed and characterized. The pure enzyme showed improved amplification of long PCR targets compared to Taq polymerase. The genome contains a full complement of DNA modifying enzymes, and an unusually high copy number (4) of a new, ancestral family of polB type nucleotidyltransferases designated as MNT (minimal nucleotidyltransferases). Considering its optimal growth at 72°C, <i>D. turgidum</i> has an anomalously low G+C content of 39.9% that may account for the presence of reverse gyrase, usually associated with hyperthermophiles.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97%) were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR), one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP), and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL), including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH) hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of this map in the future study.
Project description:The complete mitochondrial genome of <i>Climacium dendroides</i> (GenBank accession number MN942036 was 104,860 base pairs in length, containing 40 protein-coding genes, 3 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and 24 transfer RNA (tRNA). The base composition was 29.6% A, 29.4% T, 21.0% G, and 19.8% C and its G + C content was 41.0%. The mitochondrial structure and gene order was similar to other Bryophytes. Phylogenetic tree based on the combined analysis of 33 protein-coding genes was well congruent with traditional species relationship of the moss order Hypnales.