Treatment delays and in-hospital outcomes in acute myocardial infarction during the COVID-19 pandemic: A nationwide study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Delayed admission of myocardial infarction (MI) patients is an important prognostic factor. In the present nationwide registry (TURKMI-2), we evaluated the treatment delays and outcomes of patients with acute MI during the Covid-19 pandemic and compaired with a recentpre-pandemic registry (TURKMI-1). METHODS:The pandemic and pre-pandemic studies were conducted prospectively as 15-day snapshot registries in the same 48 centers. The inclusion criteria for both registries were aged ?18 years and a final diagnosis of acute MI (AMI) with positive troponin levels. The only difference between the 2 registries was that the pre-pandemic (TURKMI-1) registry (n=1872) included only patients presenting within the first 48 hours after symptom-onset. TURKMI-2 enrolled all consecutive patients (n=1113) presenting with AMI during the pandemic period. RESULTS:A comparison of the patients with acute MI presenting within the 48-hour of symptom-onset in the pre-pandemic and pandemic registries revealed an overall 47.1% decrease in acute MI admissions during the pandemic. Median time from symptom-onset to hospital-arrival increased from 150 min to 185 min in patients with ST elevation MI (STEMI) and 295 min to 419 min in patients presenting with non-STEMI (NSTEMI) (p-values <0.001). Door-to-balloon time was similar in the two periods (37 vs. 40 min, p=0.448). In the pandemic period, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) decreased, especially in the NSTEMI group (60.3% vs. 47.4% in NSTEMI, p<0.001; 94.8% vs. 91.1% in STEMI, p=0.013) but the decrease was not significant in STEMI patients admitted within 12 hours of symptom-onset (94.9% vs. 92.1%; p=0.075). In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were significantly increased during the pandemic period [4.8% vs. 8.9%; p<0.001; age- and sex-adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI) 1.96 (1.20-3.22) for NSTEMI, p=0.007; and 2.08 (1.38-3.13) for STEMI, p<0.001]. CONCLUSION:The present comparison of 2 nationwide registries showed a significant delay in treatment of patients presenting with acute MI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although PCI was performed in a timely fashion, an increase in treatment delay might be responsible for the increased risk of MACE. Public education and establishing COVID-free hospitals are necessary to overcome patients' fear of using healthcare services and mitigate the potential complications of AMI during the pandemic. (Anatol J Cardiol 2020; 24: 334-42).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Atypical clinical presentation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients is not uncommon; most studies suggest that it is associated with unfavorable prognosis. HYPOTHESIS:Long-term clinical impact differs according to predominant symptom presentation (typical chest pain, atypical chest pain, syncope, cardiac arrest, or dyspnea) in AMI patients. METHODS:FAST-MI 2010, a nationwide French registry, included 4169 patients with AMI in 213 centers at the end of 2010 (76% of active centers). Demographics, medical history, hospital management, and outcomes were compared according to predominant symptom presentation. RESULTS:Typical chest pain with no other symptom was reported in 3020 patients (68% in STEMI patients, 76% in NSTEMI patients). Atypical chest pain, dyspnea, syncope, and cardiac arrest were reported in 11%, 11%, 5%, and 1%, respectively. Patients with atypical clinical presentation had a higher cardiovascular risk profile and received fewer medications and a less invasive strategy. Using Cox multivariate analysis, atypical chest pain was not associated with higher death rate at 3 years (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.69-1.33, P = 0.78), whereas cardiac arrest (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.00-5.97, P = 0.05), syncope (HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.18-2.46, P = 0.005), and dyspnea (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.31-2.10, P < 0.001) were associated with higher long-term mortality compared with patients with typical isolated chest pain. Similar trends were observed in STEMI and NSTEMI populations. CONCLUSIONS:Atypical clinical presentation is observed in about 20% of AMI patients. Cardiac arrest, dyspnea, and syncope represent independent predictors of long-term mortality in STEMI and NSTEMI populations.
Project description:Background The study sought to assess the prognostic impact of acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ) with and without ST -segment-elevation myocardial infarction ( STEMI and NSTEMI ) in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest ( SCA ) on admission. Methods and Results A large retrospective registry was used including all consecutive patients presenting with ventricular tachycardia ( VT ), fibrillation ( VF ), and sudden cardiac arrest ( SCA ) on admission from 2002 to 2016. AMI versus non- AMI and STEMI versus NSTEMI were compared applying multivariable Cox regression models and propensity-score matching for evaluation of the primary prognostic end point defined as long-term all-cause mortality at 2.5 years. Secondary end points were 30 days all-cause mortality, cardiac death at 24 hours, in hospital death, and recurrent percutaneous coronary intervention (re- PCI ) at 2.5 years. In 2813 unmatched high-risk patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias and SCA , AMI was present in 29% (10% STEMI , 19% NSTEMI ) with higher rates of VF (54% versus 31%) and SCA (35% versus 26%), whereas VT rates were higher in non- AMI (56% versus 30%) ( P < 0.05). AMI -related VT ?48 hours was associated with higher mortality (log rank P = 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression models revealed non- AMI (hazard ratio = 1.458; P = 0.001) and NSTEMI (hazard ratio = 1.460; P = 0.036) associated with increasing long-term all-cause mortality at 2.5 years, which was also proven after propensity-score matching (non- AMI versus AMI : 55% versus 43%, log rank P = 0.001, hazard ratio = 1.349; NSTEMI versus STEMI : 45% versus 34%, log rank P = 0.047, hazard ratio = 1.372). Secondary end points including 30 days and in-hospital mortality, as well as re- PCI were higher in non- AMI patients. Conclusions In high-risk patients presenting with ventricular tachyarrhythmias and SCA , non- AMI revealed higher mortality than AMI , respectively NSTEMI than STEMI , alongside AMI -related VT ?48 hours.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies of sex-based differences in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have yielded mixed results. We, therefore, sought to evaluate sex-based differences in presentation characteristics, treatments, functional impairments, and in-hospital complications in a large, well-characterized population of older adults (?75 years) hospitalized with AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS:We analyzed data from participants enrolled in SILVER-AMI (Comprehensive Evaluation of Risk Factors in Older Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction)-a prospective observational study consisting of 3041 older patients (44% women) hospitalized for AMI. Participants were stratified by AMI subtype (ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-STEMI [NSTEMI]) and subsequently evaluated for sex-based differences in clinical presentation, functional impairments, management, and in-hospital complications. Among the study sample, women were slightly older than men (NSTEMI: 82.1 versus 81.3, P<0.001; STEMI: 82.2 versus 80.6, P<0.001) and had lower rates of prior coronary disease. Women in the NSTEMI subgroup presented less frequently with chest pain as their primary symptom. Age-associated functional impairments at baseline were more common in women in both AMI subgroups (cognitive impairment, NSTEMI: 20.6% versus 14.3%, P<0.001; STEMI: 20.6% versus 12.4%, P=0.001; activities of daily living disability, NSTEMI: 19.7% versus 11.4%, P<0.001; STEMI: 14.8% versus 6.4%, P<0.001; impaired functional mobility, NSTEMI: 44.5% versus 30.7%, P<0.001; STEMI: 39.4% versus 22.0%, P<0.001). Women with AMI had lower rates of obstructive coronary disease (NSTEMI: P<0.001; STEMI: P=0.02), driven by lower rates of 3-vessel or left main disease than men (STEMI: 38.8% versus 58.7%; STEMI: 24.3% versus 32.1%), and underwent revascularization less commonly (NSTEMI: 55.6% versus 63.6%, P<0.001; STEMI: 87.3% versus 93.3%, P=0.01). Rates of bleeding were higher among women with STEMI (26.2% versus 15.6%, P<0.001) but not NSTEMI (17.8% versus 15.7%, P=0.21). Women had a higher frequency of bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention with both NSTEMI (11.0% versus 7.8%, P=0.04) and STEMI (22.6% versus 14.8%, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Among older adults hospitalized with AMI, women had a higher prevalence of age-related functional impairments and, among the STEMI subgroup, a higher incidence of overall bleeding events, which was driven by higher rates of nonmajor bleeding events and bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention. These differences may have important implications for in-hospital and posthospitalization needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Guidelines recommend using risk stratification tools in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to assist decision-making. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score for Secondary Prevention (TRS-2P) has been recently developed to characterize long-term risk in patients with MI. HYPOTHESIS:We aimed to assess the TRS-2P in the French Registry of Acute ST Elevation or non-ST elevation MI registries. METHODS:We used data from three 1-month French registries, conducted 5 years apart, from 2005 to 2015, including 13 130 patients with AMI (52% ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]). Atherothrombotic risk stratification was performed using the TRS-2P score. Patients were divided in to three categories: G1 (low-risk, TRS-2P = 0/1); G2 (intermediate-risk, TRS-2P = 2); and G3 (high-risk, TRS-2P ≥ 3). Baseline characteristics and outcomes were analyzed according to TRS-2P categories. RESULTS:A total of 12 715 patients (in whom TRS-2P was available) were included. Prevalence of G1, G2, and G3 was 43%, 24%, and 33% respectively. Clinical characteristics and management significantly differed according to TRS-2P categories. TRS-2P successfully defined residual risk of death at 1 year (C-statistic 0.78): 1-year survival was 98% in G1, 94% in G2, and 78.5% in G3 (P < 0.001). Using Cox multivariate analysis, G3 was independently associated with higher risk of death at 1 year (hazard ratio [HR] 4.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.61-5.89), as G2 (HR 2.08; 95% CI: 1.62-2.65) compared with G1. The score appeared robust and correlated well with mortality in STEMI and NSTEMI populations, as well as in each cohort separately. CONCLUSIONS:The TRS-2P appears to be a robust risk score, identifying patients at high risk after AMI irrespective of the type of MI and historical period.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 70% patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) presented without ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram. Patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) often presented with atypical symptoms, which may be related to pre-hospital delay and increased risk of mortality. However, up to date few studies reported detailed symptomatology of NSTEMI, particularly among Asian patients. The objective of this study was to describe and compare symptoms and presenting characteristics of NSTEMI vs. STEMI patients. METHODS:We enrolled 21,994 patients diagnosed with AMI from China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) Registry between January 2013 and September 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to ST-segment elevation: ST-segment elevation (STEMI) group and NSTEMI group. We extracted data on patients' characteristics and detailed symptomatology and compared these variables between two groups. RESULTS:Compared with patients with STEMI (N?=?16,315), those with NSTEMI (N?=?5679) were older, more often females and more often have comorbidities. Patients with NSTEMI were less likely to present with persistent chest pain (54.3% vs. 71.4%), diaphoresis (48.6% vs. 70.0%), radiation pain (26.4% vs. 33.8%), and more likely to have chest distress (42.4% vs. 38.3%) than STEMI patients (all P?<?0.0001). Patients with NSTEMI were also had longer time to hospital. In multivariable analysis, NSTEMI was independent predictor of presentation without chest pain (odds ratio: 1.974, 95% confidence interval: 1.849-2.107). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with NSTEMI were more likely to present with chest distress and pre-hospital patient delay compared with patients with STEMI. It is necessary for both clinicians and patients to learn more about atypical symptoms of NSTEMI in order to rapidly recognize myocardial infarction. TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.clinicaltrials.gov (No. NCT01874691).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prior acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registries in Saudi Arabia might not have accurately described the true demographics and cardiac care of patients with ACS. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of a representative sample of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS:We conducted a 1-month snap-shot, prospective, multi-center registry study in 50 hospitals from various health care sectors in Saudi Arabia. We followed patients for 1 month and 1 year after hospital discharge. Patients with AMI included those with or without ST-segment elevation (STEMI or NSTEMI, respectively). This program survey will be repeated every 5 years. RESULTS:Between May 2015 and January 2017, we enrolled 2233 patients with ACS (mean age was 56 [standard deviation = 13] years; 55.6% were Saudi citizens, 85.7% were men, and 65.9% had STEMI). Coronary artery disease risk factors were high; 52.7% had diabetes mellitus and 51.2% had hypertension. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) was utilized in only 5.2% of cases. Revascularization for patients with STEMI included thrombolytic therapy (29%), primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); (42.5%), neither (29%), or a pharmaco-invasive approach (3%). Non-Saudis with STEMI were less likely to undergo primary PCI compared to Saudis (35.8% vs. 48.7%; respectively, p <0.001), and women were less likely than men to achieve a door-to-balloon time of <90 min (42% vs. 65%; respectively, p = 0.003). Around half of the patients with NSTEMI did not undergo a coronary angiogram. All-cause mortality rates were 4%, 5.8%, and 8.1%, in-hospital, at 1 month, and at 1 year, respectively. These rates were significantly higher in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS:There is an urgent need for primary prevention programs, improving the EMS infrastructure and utilization, and establishing organized ACS network programs. AMI care needs further improvement, particularly for women and non-Saudis.
Project description:Recent initiatives have focused on primary prevention to delay time to first myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in risk factor profile over time in patients without known cardiovascular disease presenting with first MI.In the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease national registry, 100,884 patients without known cardiovascular disease presenting with acute MI from 408 hospitals were evaluated between 2002 and 2008. The time trends of the proportion of patients with cardiovascular risk factors (nonmodifiable: age >45 years for men or >55 years for women, male sex, modifiable: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use) were analyzed. Analyses were stratified by non-ST-segment elevation MI (NSTEMI) versus ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI).The proportion of patients with ?3 of 6 traditional risk factors slightly decreased over time in the NSTEMI (69.5%-66.8%, P < .0001) and STEMI (68.9%-66.4%, P < .0001) cohorts. The proportion of patients with ?2 of 4 modifiable risk factors increased from 52% to 59% and then declined to 52.1% (P < .0001) in the NSTEMI cohort but declined slightly in the STEMI cohort (50.9%-47.3%, P < .0001). After adjusting for age and gender, the time trend of proportion with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and tobacco use declined in both cohorts. However, the proportion of patients with hyperlipidemia remained similar.Although risk factor profiles in patients presenting with first MI have shown improvements over time, the changes are modest.
Project description:Comparable data on trends of hospitalization rates for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) remain unavailable in representative Asian populations.To examine the temporal trends of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and its subtypes in Beijing.Patients hospitalized for AMI in Beijing from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012 were identified from the validated Hospital Discharge Information System. Trends in hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and hospitalization costs were analyzed by regression models for total AMI and for STEMI and NSTEMI separately. In total, 77,943 patients were admitted for AMI in Beijing during the 6 years, among whom 67.5% were males and 62.4% had STEMI. During the period, the rate of AMI hospitalization per 100,000 population increased by 31.2% (from 55.8 to 73.3 per 100,000 population) after age standardization, with a slight decrease in STEMI but a 3-fold increase in NSTEMI. The ratio of STEMI to NSTEMI decreased dramatically from 6.5:1.0 to 1.3:1.0. The age-standardized in-hospital mortality decreased from 11.2% to 8.6%, with a significant decreasing trend evident for STEMI in males and females (P?<?0.001) and for NSTEMI in males (P?=?0.02). The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention increased from 28.7% to 55.6% among STEMI patients. The total cost for AMI hospitalization increased by 56.8% after adjusting for inflation, although the LOS decreased by 1 day.The hospitalization burden for AMI has been increasing in Beijing with a transition from STEMI to NSTEMI. Diverse temporal trends in AMI subtypes from the unselected "real-world" data in Beijing may help to guide the management of AMI in China and other developing countries.
Project description:Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels form the cornerstone approach of cardiovascular risk reduction, and a higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) is thought to be protective. However, in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, higher admission LDL-C and TG levels have been shown to be associated with better clinical outcomes - termed the 'lipid paradox'. We studied the relationship between lipid profile obtained within 72?hours of presentation, and all-cause mortality (during hospitalization, at 30-days and 12-months), and rehospitalization for heart failure and non-fatal AMI at 12-months in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We included 11543 STEMI and 8470 NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI in the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry between 2008-2015. NSTEMI patients were older (60.3 years vs 57.7 years, p?<?0.001) and more likely to be female (22.4% vs 15.0%, p?<?0.001). In NSTEMI, a lower LDL-C was paradoxically associated with worse outcomes for death during hospitalization, within 30-days and within 12-months (all p?<?0.001), but adjustment eliminated this paradox. In contrast, the paradox for LDL-C persisted for all primary outcomes after adjustment in STEMI. For NSTEMI patients, a lower HDL-C was associated with a higher risk of death during hospitalization but in STEMI patients a lower HDL-C was paradoxically associated with a lower risk of death during hospitalization. For this endpoint, the interaction term for HDL-C and type of MI was significant even after adjustment. An elevated TG level was not protective after adjustment. These observations may be due to differing characteristics and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in NSTEMI and STEMI.
Project description:To assess temporal trends of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) enrolled in the Swiss nationwide registry (AMIS Plus) over the last 20 years with regard to gender, age and in-hospital treatment.All patients with AMI from 1997 to 2016 were stratified according to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and gender using logistic regression analyses.Among 51?725 patients, 30?398 (59%) had STEMI and 21?327 (41%) had NSTEMI; 73% were men (63.9±12.8 years) and 27% were women (71.7±12.5 years). Over 20 years, crude in-hospital STEMI mortality decreased from 9.8% to 5.5% in men and from 18.3% to 6.9% in women. In patients with NSTEMI, it decreased from 7.1% to 2.1% in men and from 11.0% to 3.6% in women. After adjustment for age, mortality decreased per additional admission year by 3% in men with STEMI (OR 0.97, 95%?CI 0.96 to 0.98, P<0.001), by 5% in women with STEMI (OR 0.95, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.96, P<0.001), by 6% in men with NSTEMI (OR 0.94, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.96, P<0.001) and by 5% in women with NSTEMI (OR 0.95, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.97, P<0.001). In patients <60 years, a decrease in mortality was seen in women with STEMI (OR 0.94, 95%?CI 0.90 to 0.99, P=0.025) and NSTEMI (OR 0.87, 95%?CI 0.80 to 0.94, P<0.001) but not in men with STEMI (OR 1.01, 95%?CI 0.98 to 1.04, P=0.46) and NSTEMI (OR 0.98, 95%?CI 0.94 to 1.03, P=0.41). The mortality decrease in patients with AMI was closely associated with the increase in reperfusion therapy.From 1997 to 2016, in-hospital mortality of patients with AMI in Switzerland has halved and was more pronounced in women, particularly in the age category <60 years.NCT01305785; Results.