Transcriptomic Leaf Profiling Reveals Differential Responses of the Two Most Traded Coffee Species to Elevated [CO2].
ABSTRACT: As atmospheric [CO2] continues to rise to unprecedented levels, understanding its impact on plants is imperative to improve crop performance and sustainability under future climate conditions. In this context, transcriptional changes promoted by elevated CO2 (eCO2) were studied in genotypes from the two major traded coffee species: the allopolyploid Coffea arabica (Icatu) and its diploid parent, C. canephora (CL153). While Icatu expressed more genes than CL153, a higher number of differentially expressed genes were found in CL153 as a response to eCO2. Although many genes were found to be commonly expressed by the two genotypes under eCO2, unique genes and pathways differed between them, with CL153 showing more enriched GO terms and metabolic pathways than Icatu. Divergent functional categories and significantly enriched pathways were found in these genotypes, which altogether supports contrasting responses to eCO2. A considerable number of genes linked to coffee physiological and biochemical responses were found to be affected by eCO2 with the significant upregulation of photosynthetic, antioxidant, and lipidic genes. This supports the absence of photosynthesis down-regulation and, therefore, the maintenance of increased photosynthetic potential promoted by eCO2 in these coffee genotypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In higher plants, the inhibition of photosynthetic capacity under drought is attributable to stomatal and non-stomatal (i.e., photochemical and biochemical) effects. In particular, a disruption of photosynthetic metabolism and Rubisco regulation can be observed. Several studies reported reduced expression of the RBCS genes, which encode the Rubisco small subunit, under water stress. RESULTS: Expression of the RBCS1 gene was analysed in the allopolyploid context of C. arabica, which originates from a natural cross between the C. canephora and C. eugenioides species. Our study revealed the existence of two homeologous RBCS1 genes in C. arabica: one carried by the C. canephora sub-genome (called CaCc) and the other carried by the C. eugenioides sub-genome (called CaCe). Using specific primer pairs for each homeolog, expression studies revealed that CaCe was expressed in C. eugenioides and C. arabica but was undetectable in C. canephora. On the other hand, CaCc was expressed in C. canephora but almost completely silenced in non-introgressed ("pure") genotypes of C. arabica. However, enhanced CaCc expression was observed in most C. arabica cultivars with introgressed C. canephora genome. In addition, total RBCS1 expression was higher for C. arabica cultivars that had recently introgressed C. canephora genome than for "pure" cultivars. For both species, water stress led to an important decrease in the abundance of RBCS1 transcripts. This was observed for plants grown in either greenhouse or field conditions under severe or moderate drought. However, this reduction of RBCS1 gene expression was not accompanied by a decrease in the corresponding protein in the leaves of C. canephora subjected to water withdrawal. In that case, the amount of RBCS1 was even higher under drought than under unstressed (irrigated) conditions, which suggests great stability of RBCS1 under adverse water conditions. On the other hand, for C. arabica, high nocturnal expression of RBCS1 could also explain the accumulation of the RBCS1 protein under water stress. Altogether, the results presented here suggest that the content of RBCS was not responsible for the loss of photosynthetic capacity that is commonly observed in water-stressed coffee plants. CONCLUSION: We showed that the CaCe homeolog was expressed in C. eugenioides and non-introgressed ("pure") genotypes of C. arabica but that it was undetectable in C. canephora. On the other hand, the CaCc homeolog was expressed in C. canephora but highly repressed in C. arabica. Expression of the CaCc homeolog was enhanced in C. arabica cultivars that experienced recent introgression with C. canephora. For both C. canephora and C. arabica species, total RBCS1 gene expression was highly reduced with WS. Unexpectedly, the accumulation of RBCS1 protein was observed in the leaves of C. canephora under WS, possibly coming from nocturnal RBCS1 expression. These results suggest that the increase in the amount of RBCS1 protein could contribute to the antioxidative function of photorespiration in water-stressed coffee plants.
Project description:Coffea canephora is the commonly cultivated coffee species in the world along with Coffea arabica. Different pests and pathogens affect the production and quality of the coffee. Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone which plays an important role in plants growth, development, and defense mechanisms, particularly against insect pests. The key enzymes involved in the production of JA are lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase, allene oxide cyclase, and 12-oxo-phytodienoic reductase. There is no report on the genes involved in JA pathway in coffee plants.We made an attempt to identify and analyze the genes coding for these enzymes in C. canephora.First, protein sequences of jasmonate pathway genes from model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were identified in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. These protein sequences were used to search the web-based database Coffee Genome Hub to identify homologous protein sequences in C. canephora genome using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST).Homologous protein sequences for key genes were identified in the C. canephora genome database. Protein sequences of the top matches were in turn used to search in NCBI database using BLAST tool to confirm the identity of the selected proteins and to identify closely related genes in species. The protein sequences from C. canephora database and the top matches in NCBI were aligned, and phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA6 software and identified the genetic distance of the respective genes. The study identified the four key genes of JA pathway in C. canephora, confirming the conserved nature of the pathway in coffee. The study expected to be useful to further explore the defense mechanisms of coffee plants.JA is a plant hormone that plays an important role in plant defense against insect pests. Genes coding for the 4 key enzymes involved in the production of JA viz., LOX, AOS, AOC, and OPR are identified in C. canephora (robusta coffee) by bioinformatic approaches confirming the conserved nature of the pathway in coffee. The findings are useful to understand the defense mechanisms of C. canephora and coffee breeding in the long run.JA is a plant hormone that plays an important role in plant defense against insect pests. Genes coding for the 4 key enzymes involved in the production of JA viz., LOX, AOS, AOC and OPR were identified and analyzed in C. canephora (robusta coffee) by in silico approach. The study has confirmed the conserved nature of JA pathway in coffee; the findings are useful to further explore the defense mechanisms of coffee plants. Abbreviations used:C. canephora: Coffea canephora; C. arabica: Coffea arabica; JA: Jasmonic acid; CGH: Coffee Genome Hub; NCBI: National Centre for Biotechnology Information; BLAST: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; A. thaliana: Arabidopsis thaliana; LOX: Lipoxygenase, AOS: Allene oxide synthase; AOC: Allene oxide cyclase; OPR: 12 oxo phytodienoic reductase.
Project description:Coffee is one of the most valuable agricultural commodities and the plants' leaves are the primary site of infection for most coffee diseases, such as the devastating coffee leaf rust. Therefore, the use of bacterial microbiota that inhabits coffee leaves to fight infections could be an alternative agricultural method to protect against coffee diseases. Here, we report the leaf-associated bacteria in three coffee genotypes over the course of a year, with the aim to determine the diversity of bacterial microbiota. The results indicate a prevalence of Enterobacteriales in Coffea canephora, Pseudomonadales in C. arabica 'Obatã', and an intriguing lack of bacterial dominance in C. arabica 'Catuaí'. Using PERMANOVA analyses, we assessed the association between bacterial abundance in the coffee genotypes and environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, and mineral nutrients in the leaves. We detected a close relationship between the amount of Mn and the abundance of Pseudomonadales in 'Obatã' and the amount of Ca and the abundance of Enterobacteriales in C. canephora. We suggest that mineral nutrients can be key drivers that shape leaf microbial communities.
Project description:The flavor and health benefits of coffee (Coffea spp.) are derived from the metabolites that accumulate in the mature bean. However, the chemical profiles of many C. canephora genotypes remain unknown, even as the production of these coffee types increases globally. Therefore, we used Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry to determine the chemical composition of C. canephora genotypes in Nigeria-those conserved in germplasm repositories and those cultivated by farmers. GC-MS revealed 340 metabolites in the ripe beans, with 66 metabolites differing (p-value < 0.05) across the represented group. Univariate and multivariate approaches showed that the 'Niaouli' genotypes could be clearly distinguished from 'Kouillou' and 'Java' genotypes, while there was almost no distinction between 'Kouillou' and 'Java,'. Varietal genotyping based on bean metabolite profiling was synchronous with that based on genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism analysis. Across genotypes, the sucrose-to-caffeine ratio was low, a characteristic indicative of low cup quality. The sucrose-to-caffeine ratio was also highly correlated, indicative of common mechanisms regulating the accumulation of these compounds. Nevertheless, this strong correlative link was broken within the 'Niaouli' group, as caffeine and sucrose content were highly variable among these genotypes. These 'Niaouli' genotypes could therefore serve as useful germplasm for starting a Nigerian C. canephora quality improvement breeding program.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the world's most important crops; it is consumed worldwide and plays a significant role in the economy of producing countries. Coffea arabica and C. canephora are responsible for 70 and 30% of commercial production, respectively. C. arabica is an allotetraploid from a recent hybridization of the diploid species, C. canephora and C. eugenioides. C. arabica has lower genetic diversity and results in a higher quality beverage than C. canephora. Research initiatives have been launched to produce genomic and transcriptomic data about Coffea spp. as a strategy to improve breeding efficiency. RESULTS: Assembling the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. arabica and C. canephora produced by the Brazilian Coffee Genome Project and the Nestlé-Cornell Consortium revealed 32,007 clusters of C. arabica and 16,665 clusters of C. canephora. We detected different GC3 profiles between these species that are related to their genome structure and mating system. BLAST analysis revealed similarities between coffee and grape (Vitis vinifera) genes. Using KA/KS analysis, we identified coffee genes under purifying and positive selection. Protein domain and gene ontology analyses suggested differences between Coffea spp. data, mainly in relation to complex sugar synthases and nucleotide binding proteins. OrthoMCL was used to identify specific and prevalent coffee protein families when compared to five other plant species. Among the interesting families annotated are new cystatins, glycine-rich proteins and RALF-like peptides. Hierarchical clustering was used to independently group C. arabica and C. canephora expression clusters according to expression data extracted from EST libraries, resulting in the identification of differentially expressed genes. Based on these results, we emphasize gene annotation and discuss plant defenses, abiotic stress and cup quality-related functional categories. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive genome-wide transcript profile study of C. arabica and C. canephora, which can be freely assessed by the scientific community at http://www.lge.ibi.unicamp.br/coffea. Our data reveal the presence of species-specific/prevalent genes in coffee that may help to explain particular characteristics of these two crops. The identification of differentially expressed transcripts offers a starting point for the correlation between gene expression profiles and Coffea spp. developmental traits, providing valuable insights for coffee breeding and biotechnology, especially concerning sugar metabolism and stress tolerance.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Galactomannans act as storage reserves for the seeds in some plants, such as guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora). In coffee, the galactomannans can represent up to 25 % of the mass of the mature green coffee grain, and they exert a significant influence on the production of different types of coffee products. The objective of the current work was to isolate and characterize cDNA encoding proteins responsible for galactomannan synthesis in coffee and to study the expression of the corresponding transcripts in the developing coffee grain from C. arabica and C. canephora, which potentially exhibit slight galactomannan variations. Comparative gene expression analysis was also carried out for several other tissues of C. arabica and C. canephora. METHODS: cDNA banks, RACE-PCR and genome walking were used to generate full-length cDNA for two putative coffee mannan synthases (ManS) and two galactomannan galactosyl transferases (GMGT). Gene-specific probe-primer sets were then generated and used to carry out comparative expression analysis of the corresponding genes in different coffee tissues using quantitative RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS: Two of the putative galactomannan biosynthetic genes, ManS1 and GMGT1, were demonstrated to have very high expression in the developing coffee grain of both Coffea species during endosperm development, consistent with our proposal that these two genes are responsible for the production of the majority of the galactomannans found in the grain. In contrast, the expression data presented indicates that the ManS2 gene product is probably involved in the synthesis of the galactomannans found in green tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of genes implicated in galactomannan synthesis in coffee are presented. The data obtained will enable more detailed studies on the biosynthesis of this important component of coffee grain and contribute to a better understanding of some functional differences between grain from C. arabica and C. canephora.
Project description:The understanding of acclimation strategies to low temperature and water availability is decisive to ensure coffee crop sustainability, since these environmental conditions determine the suitability of cultivation areas. In this context, the impacts of single and combined exposure to drought and cold were evaluated in three genotypes of the two major cropped species, Coffea arabica cv. Icatu, Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, and the hybrid Obatã. Crucial traits of plant resilience to environmental stresses have been examined: photosynthesis, lipoperoxidation and the antioxidant response. Drought and/or cold promoted leaf dehydration, which was accompanied by stomatal and mesophyll limitations that impaired leaf C-assimilation in all genotypes. However, Icatu showed a lower impact upon stress exposure and a faster and complete photosynthetic recovery. Although lipoperoxidation was increased by drought (Icatu) and cold (all genotypes), it was greatly reduced by stress interaction, especially in Icatu. In fact, although the antioxidative system was reinforced under single drought and cold exposure (e.g., activity of enzymes as Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, APX, glutathione reductase and catalase, CAT), the stronger increases were observed upon the simultaneous exposure to both stresses, which was accompanied with a transcriptional response of some genes, namely related to APX. Complementary, non-enzyme antioxidant molecules were promoted mostly by cold and the stress interaction, including ?-tocopherol (in C. arabica plants), ascorbate (ASC), zeaxanthin, and phenolic compounds (all genotypes). In general, drought promoted antioxidant enzymes activity, whereas cold enhanced the synthesis of both enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidants, the latter likely related to a higher need of antioxidative capability when enzyme reactions were probably quite repressed by low temperature. Icatu showed the wider antioxidative capability, with the triggering of all studied antioxidative molecules by drought (except CAT), cold, and, particularly, stress interaction (except ASC), revealing a clear stress cross-tolerance. This justified the lower impacts on membrane lipoperoxidation and photosynthetic capacity under stress interaction conditions, related to a better ROS control. These findings are also relevant to coffee water management, showing that watering in the cold season should be largely avoided.
Project description:Coffee species such as Coffea canephora P. (Robusta) and C. arabica L. (Arabica) are important cash crops in tropical regions around the world. C. arabica is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) originating from a hybridization event of the two diploid species C. canephora and C. eugenioides (2n = 2x = 22). Interestingly, these progenitor species harbour a greater level of genetic variability and are an important source of genes to broaden the narrow Arabica genetic base. Here, we describe the development, evaluation and use of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for coffee trees. A total of 8580 unique and informative SNPs were selected from C. canephora and C. arabica sequencing data, with 40% of the SNP located in annotated genes. In particular, this array contains 227 markers associated to 149 genes and traits of agronomic importance. Among these, 7065 SNPs (~82.3%) were scorable and evenly distributed over the genome with a mean distance of 54.4 Kb between markers. With this array, we improved the Robusta high-density genetic map by adding 1307 SNP markers, whereas 945 SNPs were found segregating in the Arabica mapping progeny. A panel of C. canephora accessions was successfully discriminated and over 70% of the SNP markers were transferable across the three species. Furthermore, the canephora-derived subgenome of C. arabica was shown to be more closely related to C. canephora accessions from northern Uganda than to other current populations. These validated SNP markers and high-density genetic maps will be useful to molecular genetics and for innovative approaches in coffee breeding.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Phosphate (Pi) is one of the most limiting nutrients for agricultural production in Brazilian soils due to low soil Pi concentrations and rapid fixation of fertilizer Pi by adsorption to oxidic minerals and/or precipitation by iron and aluminum ions. The objectives of this study were to quantify phosphorus (P) uptake and use efficiency in cultivars of the species Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora L., and group them in terms of efficiency and response to Pi availability. METHODS:Plants of 21 cultivars of C. arabica and four cultivars of C. canephora were grown under contrasting soil Pi availabilities. Biomass accumulation, tissue P concentration and accumulation and efficiency indices for P use were measured. KEY RESULTS:Coffee plant growth was significantly reduced under low Pi availability, and P concentration was higher in cultivars of C. canephora. The young leaves accumulated more P than any other tissue. The cultivars of C. canephora had a higher root/shoot ratio and were significantly more efficient in P uptake, while the cultivars of C. arabica were more efficient in P utilization. Agronomic P use efficiency varied among coffee cultivars and E16 Shoa, E22 Sidamo, Iêmen and Acaiá cultivars were classified as the most efficient and responsive to Pi supply. A positive correlation between P uptake efficiency and root to shoot ratio was observed across all cultivars at low Pi supply. These data identify Coffea genotypes better adapted to low soil Pi availabilities, and the traits that contribute to improved P uptake and use efficiency. These data could be used to select current genotypes with improved P uptake or utilization efficiencies for use on soils with low Pi availability and also provide potential breeding material and targets for breeding new cultivars better adapted to the low Pi status of Brazilian soils. This could ultimately reduce the use of Pi fertilizers in tropical soils, and contribute to more sustainable coffee production.
Project description:Lipids, including the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, are key compounds that contribute to the quality of coffee beverages. We determined total lipid content and cafestol and kahweol concentrations in green beans and genotyped 107 Coffea arabica accessions, including wild genotypes from the historical FAO collection from Ethiopia. A genome-wide association study was performed to identify genomic regions associated with lipid, cafestol and kahweol contents and cafestol/kahweol ratio. Using the diploid Coffea canephora genome as a reference, we identified 6,696 SNPs. Population structure analyses suggested the presence of two to three groups (K?=?2 and K?=?3) corresponding to the east and west sides of the Great Rift Valley and an additional group formed by wild accessions collected in western forests. We identified 5 SNPs associated with lipid content, 4 with cafestol, 3 with kahweol and 9 with cafestol/kahweol ratio. Most of these SNPs are located inside or near candidate genes related to metabolic pathways of these chemical compounds in coffee beans. In addition, three trait-associated SNPs showed evidence of directional selection among cultivated and wild coffee accessions. Our results also confirm a great allelic richness in wild accessions from Ethiopia, especially in accessions originating from forests in the west side of the Great Rift Valley.