Beyond the Influence of IDH Mutations: Exploring Epigenetic Vulnerabilities in Chondrosarcoma.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1 or IDH2) genes are common in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas, and lead to elevated levels of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate causing widespread changes in the epigenetic landscape of these tumors. With the use of a DNA methylation array, we explored whether the methylome is altered upon progression from IDH mutant enchondroma towards high-grade chondrosarcoma. High-grade tumors show an overall increase in the number of highly methylated genes, indicating that remodeling of the methylome is associated with tumor progression. Therefore, an epigenetics compound screen was performed in five chondrosarcoma cell lines to therapeutically explore these underlying epigenetic vulnerabilities. Chondrosarcomas demonstrated high sensitivity to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in both 2D and 3D in vitro models, independent of the IDH mutation status or the chondrosarcoma subtype. siRNA knockdown and RNA expression data showed that chondrosarcomas rely on the expression of multiple HDACs, especially class I subtypes. Furthermore, class I HDAC inhibition sensitized chondrosarcoma to glutaminolysis and Bcl-2 family member inhibitors, suggesting that HDACs define the metabolic state and apoptotic threshold in chondrosarcoma. Taken together, HDAC inhibition may represent a promising targeted therapeutic strategy for chondrosarcoma patients, either as monotherapy or as part of combination treatment regimens.
Project description:Enchondroma and chondrosarcoma are the most common benign and malignant cartilaginous neoplasms. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are present in the majority of these tumors. We performed RNA-seq analysis on chondrocytes from Col2a1Cre;Idh1LSL/+ animals and found that genes implied in cholesterol synthesis pathway were significantly upregulated in the mutant chondrocytes. We examined the phenotypic effect of inhibiting intracellular cholesterol biosynthesis on enchondroma formation by conditionally deleting SCAP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein), a protein activating intracellular cholesterol synthesis, in IDH1 mutant mice. We found fewer enchondromas in animals lacking SCAP. Furthermore, in chondrosarcomas, pharmacological inhibition of intracellular cholesterol synthesis significantly reduced chondrosarcoma cell viability in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, these data suggest that intracellular cholesterol synthesis is a potential therapeutic target for enchondromas and chondrosarcomas.
Project description:Histological distinction between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is difficult because of a lack of definitive biomarkers. Here, we found highly active transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in human chondrosarcomas compared with enchondromas by immunohistochemistry of phosphorylated SMAD3 and SMAD1/5. In contrast, the chondrogenic master regulator SOX9 was dramatically down-regulated in grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) was identified by microarray analysis as a gene overexpressed in chondrosarcoma SW1353 and Hs 819.T cells compared with C28/I2 normal chondrocytes, while TGF-?1 treatment, mimicking higher grade tumour conditions, suppressed PEG10 expression. Enchondroma samples exhibited stronger expression of PEG10 compared with chondrosarcomas, suggesting a negative association of PEG10 with malignant cartilage tumours. In chondrosarcoma cell lines, application of the TGF-? signalling inhibitor, SB431542, increased the protein level of PEG10. Reporter assays revealed that PEG10 repressed TGF-? and BMP signalling, which are both SMAD pathways, whereas PEG10 knockdown increased the level of phosphorylated SMAD3 and SMAD1/5/9. Our results indicate that mutually exclusive expression of PEG10 and phosphorylated SMADs in combination with differentially expressed SOX9 is an index to distinguish between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma, while PEG10 and TGF-? signalling are mutually inhibitory in chondrosarcoma cells.
Project description:Enchondromas are benign cartilage tumors and precursors to malignant chondrosarcomas. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are present in the majority of these tumor types. How these mutations cause enchondromas is unclear. Here, we identified the spectrum of IDH mutations in human enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and studied their effects in mice. A broad range of mutations was identified, including the previously unreported IDH1-R132Q mutation. These mutations harbored enzymatic activity to catalyze ?-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG). Mice expressing Idh1-R132Q in one allele in cells expressing type 2 collagen showed a disordered growth plate, with persistence of type X-expressing chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures from these animals or controls showed that there was an increase in proliferation and expression of genes characteristic of hypertrophic chondrocytes with expression of Idh1-R132Q or 2HG treatment. Col2a1-Cre;Idh1-R132Q mutant knock-in mice (mutant allele expressed in chondrocytes) did not survive after the neonatal stage. Col2a1-Cre/ERT2;Idh1-R132 mutant conditional knock-in mice, in which Cre was induced by tamoxifen after weaning, developed multiple enchondroma-like lesions. Taken together, these data show that mutant IDH or d-2HG causes persistence of chondrocytes, giving rise to rests of growth-plate cells that persist in the bone as enchondromas.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 or -2 are found in ~50% of conventional central chondrosarcomas and in up to 87% of their assumed benign precursors enchondromas. The mutant enzyme acquires the activity to convert α-ketoglutarate into the oncometabolite d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2-HG), which competitively inhibits α-ketoglutarate dependent enzymes such as histone- and DNA demethylases.We therefore evaluated the effect of IDH1 or -2 mutations on histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3), chromatin remodeler ATRX expression, DNA modifications (5-hmC and 5-mC), and TET1 subcellular localization in a genotyped cohort (IDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH)) of enchondromas and central chondrosarcomas (n = 101) using immunohistochemistry.IDH1 or -2 mutations were found in 60.8% of the central cartilaginous tumours, while mutations in FH and SDH were absent. The mutation status did not correlate with outcome. Chondrosarcomas are strongly positive for the histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, which was independent of the IDH1 or -2 mutation status. Two out of 36 chondrosarcomas (5.6%) show complete loss of ATRX. Levels of 5-hmC and 5-mC are highly variable in central cartilaginous tumours and are not associated with mutation status. In tumours with loss of 5-hmC, expression of TET1 was more prominent in the cytoplasm than the nucleus (p = 0.0001).In summary, in central chondrosarcoma IDH1 or -2 mutations do not affect immunohistochemical levels of 5-hmC, 5mC, trimethylation of H3K4, -K9 and K27 and outcome, as compared to wildtype.
Project description:We did whole genome analysis of enchondromas and chondrosarcomas of Maffucci patients. Since the disease is very rare, we had only three frozen tumour samples were available to continue with the expression array. Enchondromas of Maffucci syndrome did not show any loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or common copy number alterations (CNA) and we looked at the differentially expressed genes between Ollier high grade and Maffucci high grade tumours. There were no significant differentially expressed genes were found between these two groups. This might be due to the small sample size. We used Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array on enchondromas (n=4) and chondrosarcomas (n=2) and compared the results to a previously studied cohort of patients with Ollier disease (n = 37). We used Illumina expression array v3 chip on enchondroma (n=1) and chondrosarcomas (n=2) from Maffucci patients.
Project description:Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors that produce cartilaginous matrix. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes (IDH1/2) were recently described in several cancers including chondrosarcomas. The IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 abrogates the ability of mutant IDH1 to produce the oncometabolite D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) in gliomas. We sought to determine if treatment with AGI-5198 would similarly inhibit tumorigenic activity and D-2HG production in IDH1-mutant human chondrosarcoma cells. Two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and HT1080 with endogenous IDH1 mutations and a human chondrocyte cell line C28 with wild type IDH1 were employed in our study. Mutation analysis of IDH was performed by PCR-based DNA sequencing, and D-2HG was detected using tandem mass spectrometry. We confirmed that JJ012 and HT1080 harbor IDH1 R132G and R132C mutation, respectively, while C28 has no mutation. D-2HG was detectable in cell pellets and media of JJ012 and HT1080 cells, as well as plasma and urine from an IDH-mutant chondrosarcoma patient, which decreased after tumor resection. AGI-5198 treatment decreased D-2HG levels in JJ012 and HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and dramatically inhibited colony formation and migration, interrupted cell cycling, and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates anti-tumor activity of a mutant IDH1 inhibitor in human chondrosarcoma cell lines, and suggests that D-2HG is a potential biomarker for IDH mutations in chondrosarcoma cells. Thus, clinical trials of mutant IDH inhibitors are warranted for patients with IDH-mutant chondrosarcomas.
Project description:Chondrosarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant bone tumors that produce hyaline cartilaginous matrix. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes (IDH1/2) were recently described in several cancers, including conventional and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These mutations lead to the inability of IDH to convert isocitrate into ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG). Instead, ?-KG is reduced into D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite. IDH mutations and D-2HG are thought to contribute to tumorigenesis due to the role of D-2HG as a competitive inhibitor of ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases. However, the function of IDH mutations in chondrosarcomas has not been clearly defined. In this study, we knocked out mutant IDH1 (IDH1mut) in two chondrosarcoma cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We observed that D-2HG production, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration were significantly suppressed in the IDH1mut knockout cells. Loss of IDH1mut also led to a marked attenuation of chondrosarcoma formation and D-2HG production in a xenograft model. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis of IDH1mut knockout cells revealed downregulation of several integrin genes, including those of integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) and integrin beta 5 (ITGB5). We further demonstrated that deregulation of integrin-mediated processes contributed to the tumorigenicity of IDH1-mutant chondrosarcoma cells. Our findings showed that IDH1mut knockout abrogates chondrosarcoma genesis through modulation of integrins. This suggests that integrin molecules are appealing candidates for combinatorial regimens with IDH1mut inhibitors for chondrosarcomas that harbor this mutation.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are found in a subset of benign and malignant cartilage tumors, gliomas and leukaemias. The mutant enzyme causes the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), affecting CpG island and histone methylation. While mutations in IDH1/2 are early events in benign cartilage tumors, we evaluated whether these mutations play a role in malignant chondrosarcomas. Compared to IDH1/2 wildtype cell lines, chondrosarcoma cell lines harboring an endogenous IDH1 (n=3) or IDH2 mutation (n=2) showed up to a 100-fold increase in intracellular and extracellular D-2-HG levels. Specific inhibition of mutant IDH1 using AGI-5198 decreased levels of D-2-HG in a dose dependent manner. After 72 hours of treatment one out of three mutant IDH1 cell lines showed a moderate decrease in viability , while D-2-HG levels decreased >90%. Likewise, prolonged treatment (up to 20 passages) did not affect proliferation and migration. Furthermore, global gene expression, CpG island methylation as well as histone H3K4, -9, and -27 trimethylation levels remained unchanged. Thus, while IDH1/2 mutations cause enchondroma, malignant progression towards central chondrosarcoma renders chondrosarcoma growth independent of these mutations. Thus, monotherapy based on inhibition of mutant IDH1 appears insufficient for treatment of inoperable or metastasized chondrosarcoma patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:Chondrosarcomas are the second most common primary malignant bone tumors. Although histologic grade is the most important factor predicting the clinical outcome of chondrosarcoma, it is subject to interobserver variability. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 hotspot mutations were recently found to be frequently mutated in central chondrosarcomas. However, a few published articles have been controversial regarding the association between IDH1/IDH2 mutation status and clinical outcomes in chondrosarcomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We performed hotspot sequencing of IDH1 and IDH2 genes in 89 central chondrosarcomas and targeted next-generation sequencing in 54 of them, and then correlated the IDH1/IDH2 mutation status with the patient's clinical outcome. RESULTS:Although no association was discovered between IDH mutation status and the patient's overall survival, IDH1/IDH2 mutation was found to be associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas. Genomic profiling reveals TERT gene amplification and ATRX mutation, for the first time, in addition to TERT promoter mutation in a subset (6/30, 20%) of high-grade and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These abnormalities in telomere genes are concurrent with IDH1/IDH2 mutation and with CDKN2A/2B deletion or TP53 mutation, suggesting a possible association and synergy among these genes in chondrosarcoma progression. We found 21% of patients with chondrosarcoma also had histories of second malignancies unrelated to cartilaginous tumors, suggesting possible unknown genetic susceptibility to chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS:IDH1/IDH2 mutations are associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas, and they tend to co-occur with TERT mutations and with CDKN2A/2B and TP53 alterations in a subset of high-grade chondrosarcomas.
Project description:We determined differentially expressed genes between tumor samples with and without IDH1/2 mutations, and between tumors with IDH1/2 mutations and controls. A total of 21 tumours which include 6 enchondromas and 10 chondrosarcomas (3 grade I, 7 grade II) of Ollier disease, as well as 1 enchondroma and 4 chondrosarcomas grade II of solitary tumors, and 6 controls (growth plate and cartilage) were selected for expression analysis. Sample preparation, RNA isolation, synthesis of cDNA, cRNA amplification, hybridization of cRNA onto the Illumina Human-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChips, microarray data preprocessing, quality control, and detection of differential expression were performed as described previously (PMID: 21372215, PMID: 21584901). We determined differential expression between tumor samples without detectable IDH1 or IDH2 mutation (n=3) and samples with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations (n=18), and between samples with IDH1 or IDH2 mutation and controls (n=6). Probes with Benjamini and Hochberg False discovery rate-adjusted P-values (adjP) < 0.05 and a log fold change (logFC) > 0.1 were considered to be significantly differentially expressed.