Bowman-Birk Inhibitors: Insights into Family of Multifunctional Proteins and Peptides with Potential Therapeutical Applications.
ABSTRACT: Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) are found primarily in seeds of legumes and in cereal grains. These canonical inhibitors share a highly conserved nine-amino acids binding loop motif CTP1SXPPXC (where P1 is the inhibitory active site, while X stands for various amino acids). They are natural controllers of plants' endogenous proteases, but they are also inhibitors of exogenous proteases present in microbials and insects. They are considered as plants' protective agents, as their elevated levels are observed during injury, presence of pathogens, or abiotic stress, i.a. Similar properties are observed for peptides isolated from amphibians' skin containing 11-amino acids disulfide-bridged loop CWTP1SXPPXPC. They are classified as Bowman-Birk like trypsin inhibitors (BBLTIs). These inhibitors are resistant to proteolysis and not toxic, and they are reported to be beneficial in the treatment of various pathological states. In this review, we summarize up-to-date research results regarding BBIs' and BBLTIs' inhibitory activity, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial and insecticidal strength, as well as chemopreventive properties.
Project description:Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBIs) are cysteine-rich proteins with inhibitory activity against proteases that are widely distributed in monocot and dicot species. The expression of rice BBI from Oryza sativa is up-regulated and induced by pathogens or insects during germination of rice seeds. The rice BBI (RBTI) of molecular weight 15 kDa has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to the diffraction of rice BBI crystals at a resolution of 2.07 A, the unit cell belongs to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 74.37, b = 96.69, c = 100.36 A. Preliminary analysis indicates four BBI molecules in an asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 58.29%.
Project description:Aberrant functioning of serine proteases in inflammatory and carcinogenic processes within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has prompted scientists to investigate the potential of serine protease inhibitors, both natural and synthetic, as modulators of their proteolytic activities. Protease inhibitors of the Bowman-Birk type, a major protease inhibitor family in legume seeds, which inhibit potently and specifically trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteases, are currently being investigated as colorectal chemopreventive agents. Physiologically relevant amounts of Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) can reach the large intestine in active form due to their extraordinary resistance to extreme conditions within the GIT. Studies in animal models have proven that dietary BBI from several legume sources, including soybean, pea, lentil and chickpea, can prevent or suppress carcinogenic and inflammatory processes within the GIT. Although the therapeutic targets and the action mechanism of BBI have not yet been elucidated, the emerging evidence suggests that BBI exert their preventive properties via protease inhibition; in this sense, serine proteases should be considered as primary targets in early stages of carcinogenesis. The validation of candidate serine proteases as therapeutic targets together with the identification, within the wide array of natural BBI variants, of the most potent and specific protease inhibitors, are necessary to better understand the potential of this protein family as colorectal chemopreventive agents.
Project description:Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitors (BBIs) play important roles in animal and plant immunity, but how these protease inhibitors are involved in the immune system remains unclear. Here, we show that the rice (Oryza sativa) BBI protein APIP4 is a common target of a fungal effector and an NLR receptor for innate immunity. APIP4 exhibited trypsin inhibitor activity in vitro and in vivo. Knockout of APIP4 in rice enhanced susceptibility, and overexpression of APIP4 increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The M. oryzae effector AvrPiz-t interacted with APIP4 and suppressed APIP4 trypsin inhibitor activity. By contrast, the rice NLR protein Piz-t interacted with APIP4, enhancing APIP4 transcript and protein levels, and protease inhibitor activity. Our findings reveal a novel host defence mechanism in which a host protease inhibitor targeted by a fungal pathogen is protected by an NLR receptor.
Project description:The peptides from the ranacyclin family share similar active disulphide loop with plant-derived Bowman-Birk type inhibitors, some of which have the dual activities of trypsin inhibition and antimicrobial. Herein, a novel Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor of the ranacyclin family was identified from the skin secretion of broad-folded frog (Sylvirana latouchii) by molecular cloning method and named as SL-BBI. After chemical synthesis, it was proved to be a potent inhibitor of trypsin with a Ki value of 230.5 nM and showed weak antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms. Modified analogue K-SL maintains the original inhibitory activity with a Ki value of 77.27 nM while enhancing the antimicrobial activity. After the substitution of active P1 site to phenylalanine and P2' site to isoleucine, F-SL regenerated its inhibitory activity on chymotrypsin with a Ki value of 309.3 nM and exhibited antiproliferative effects on PC-3, MCF-7 and a series of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines without cell membrane damage. The affinity of F-SL for the ? subunits in the yeast 20S proteasome showed by molecular docking simulations enriched the understanding of the possible action mode of Bowman-Birk type inhibitors. Further mechanistic studies have shown that F-SL can activate caspase 3/7 in H157 cells and induce apoptosis, which means it has the potential to become an anticancer agent.
Project description:Anuran amphibian skin secretions are a rich source of peptides, many of which represent novel protease inhibitors and can potentially act as a source for protease inhibitor drug discovery. In this study, a novel bioactive Bowman-Birk type inhibitory hexadecapeptide of the Ranacyclin family from the defensive skin secretion of the Fukien gold-striped pond frog, Pelophlax plancyi fukienesis, was successfully isolated and identified, named PPF-BBI. The primary structure of the biosynthetic precursor was deduced from a cDNA sequence cloned from a skin-derived cDNA library, which contains a consensus motif representative of the Bowman-Birk type inhibitor. The peptide was chemically synthesized and displayed a potent inhibitory activity against trypsin (Ki of 0.17 µM), as well as an inhibitory activity against tryptase (Ki of 30.73 µM). A number of analogues of this peptide were produced by rational design. An analogue, which substituted the lysine (K) at the predicted P1 position with phenylalanine (F), exhibited a potent chymotrypsin inhibitory activity (Ki of 0.851 µM). Alternatively, a more potent protease inhibitory activity, as well as antimicrobial activity, was observed when P16 was replaced by lysine, forming K16-PPF-BBI. The addition of the cell-penetrating peptide Tat with a trypsin inhibitory loop resulted in a peptide with a selective inhibitory activity toward trypsin, as well as a strong antifungal activity. This peptide also inhibited the growth of two lung cancer cells, H460 and H157, demonstrating that the targeted modifications of this peptide could effectively and efficiently alter its bioactivity.
Project description:The first amphibian skin secretion-derived Bowman-Birk type chymotrypsin inhibitor is described here from the Asian green frog, Hylarana erythraea, and was identified by use of molecular cloning and tandem mass spectrometric amino acid sequencing. It was named Hylarana erythraea chymotrypsin inhibitor (HECI) and in addition to inhibition of chymotrypsin (Ki = 3.92 ± 0.35 μM), the peptide also inhibited the 20 S proteasome (Ki = 8.55 ± 1.84 μM). Additionally, an analogue of HECI, named K9-HECI, in which Phe9 was substituted by Lys9 at the P1 position, was functional as a trypsin inhibitor. Both peptides exhibited anti-proliferation activity against the human cancer cell lines, H157, PC-3 and MCF-7, up to a concentration of 1 mM and possessed a low degree of cytotoxicity on normal cells, HMEC-1. However, HECI exhibited higher anti-proliferative potency against H157. The results indicate that HECI, inhibiting chymotryptic-like activity of proteasome, could provide new insights in treatment of lung cancer.
Project description:Frog skin secretions contain complex peptidomes and peptidic protease inhibitors that are one of the biologically and structurally described groups of components. In the present study, by use of molecular 'shotgun' cloning and LC MS/MS fractionation sequencing, a novel Bowman-Birk-type heptadecapeptide (AALKGCWTKSIPPKPCF-amide), named Odorrana schmackeriTrypsin Inhibitor (OSTI), with a canonical Cys6-Cys16 disulfide bridge, was isolated and identified in piebald odorous frog (O. schmackeri) skin secretion. A synthetic replicate of OSTI-exhibited trypsin inhibitory activity with a Ki value of 0.3 ± 0.04 nM and also a tryptase inhibitory effect with a Ki of 2.5 ± 0.6 μM. This is the first time that this property has been reported for a peptide originating from amphibian sources. In addition, substituting lysine (K) with phenylalanine (F) at the presumed P1 position, completely abrogated the trypsin and tryptase inhibition, but produced a strong chymotrypsin inhibition with a Ki of 1.0 ± 0.1 μM. Thus, the specificity of this peptidic protease inhibitor could be optimized through modifying the amino acid residue at the presumed P1 position and this novel native OSTI, along with its analogue, [Phe9]-OSTI, have expanded the potential drug discovery and development pipeline directed towards alleviation of serine protease-mediated pathologies.
Project description:Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is a soybean-derived protease inhibitor that has anti-inflammation and anti-HIV effect. Here, we further investigated the anti-HIV action of BBI in macrophages, focusing on its effect on viral entry. We found that BBI could significantly block HIV entry into macrophages. Investigation of the mechanism(s) of the BBI action on HIV inhibition showed that BBI down-regulated the expression of CD4 receptor (as much as 80%) and induced the production of the CC chemokines (up to 60 folds at protein level) in macrophages. This inhibitory effect of BBI on HIV entry could be blocked by the neutralization antibodies to CC chemokines. These findings indicate that BBI may have therapeutic potential as a viral entry inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection.
Project description:Bioactive plant peptides have received considerable interest as potential antihypertensive agents with potentially fewer side effects than antihypertensive drugs. Here, the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor, BTCI, and its derived peptides, PepChy and PepTry, were investigated using normotensive (Wistar-WR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). BTCI inhibited the proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, respectively, at 6?µM and 40?µM, a 10-fold greater inhibition than observed with PepTry (60?µM) and PepChy (400?µM). These molecules also inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) with IC50 values of 54.6?±?2.9; 24.7?±?1.1; and 24.4?±?1.1?µM, respectively, occluding its catalytic site, as indicated by molecular docking simulation, mainly for PepChy and PepTry. Gavage administration of BTCI and the peptides promoted a decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and an increase of renal and aortic vascular conductance. These effects were more expressive in SHR than in WR. Additionally, BTCI, PepChy and PepTry promoted coronary vasodilation and negative inotropic effects in isolated perfused hearts. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor blunted the BTCI and PepChy, with no cardiac effects on PepTry. The findings of this study indicate a therapeutic potential of BTCI and its related peptides in the treatment of hypertension.
Project description:Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) has both insecticidal and anti-cancerous properties. It has been hypothesized that dietary BBI slows insect growth by inhibiting the catalytic activity of digestive enzymes trypsins and chyomotrypsins, resulting in the midgut having reduced access to amino acids needed for growth. In mammals, BBI was hypothesized to influence cellular energy metabolism. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that dietary BBI also impacts energy-associated pathways in the midgut of Drosophila melanogaster. We investigated the impact of dietary BBI on the following parameters in the midguts of third-instar Drosophila larvae: (i) cellular metabolites, (ii) global transcriptome response, (iii) putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) associated with the differentially expressed transcripts, and (iv) epithelial cellular structure. Dietary BBI caused: (i) a reduction of cellular DHAP, glucose, and succinate; and, (ii) increased Fructuse-6-phosphate; (ii) differential expression of genes associated with the glucose and fatty acid utilization; and, (iii) a shortening of midgut epithelial microvilli, a phenomenon previously associated with glucose starvation. Additionally, fifty seven percent of the putative TFBSs associated with the differentially expressed transcripts have previously been associated with glucose and insulin activities in mammalian studies. Collectively these results support the hypothesis that dietary BBI influences energy utilization in the Drosophila midgut. Experiment Overall Design: Two treatments (control vs BBI-fed), and three replicates were conducted. There were total six samples. There was no dye-swap.