Angiopoietin-2 Combined with Radiochemotherapy Impedes Glioblastoma Recurrence by Acting in an Autocrine and Paracrine Manner: A Preclinical Study.
ABSTRACT: (1) We wanted to assess the impact of Ang2 in RCT-induced changes in the environment of glioblastoma. (2) The effect of Ang2 overexpression in tumor cells was studied in the GL261 syngeneic immunocompetent model of GB in response to fractionated RCT. (3) We showed that RCT combined with Ang2 led to tumor clearance for the GL261-Ang2 group by acting on the tumor cells as well as on both vascular and immune compartments. (4) In vitro, Ang2 overexpression in GL261 cells exposed to RCT promoted senescence and induced robust genomic instability, leading to mitotic death. (5) Coculture experiments of GL261-Ang2 cells with RAW 264.7 cells resulted in a significant increase in macrophage migration, which was abrogated by the addition of soluble Tie2 receptor. (6) Together, these preclinical results showed that, combined with RCT, Ang2 acted in an autocrine manner by increasing GB cell senescence and in a paracrine manner by acting on the innate immune system while modulating the vascular tumor compartment. On this preclinical model, we found that an ectopic expression of Ang2 combined with RCT impedes tumor recurrence.
Project description:Glioblastomas (GBMs) rapidly become refractory to anti-VEGF therapies. We previously demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) compromises the benefits of anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) treatment in murine GBM models and that circulating Ang-2 levels in GBM patients rebound after an initial decrease following cediranib (a pan-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) administration. Here we tested whether dual inhibition of VEGFR/Ang-2 could improve survival in two orthotopic models of GBM, Gl261 and U87. Dual therapy using cediranib and MEDI3617 (an anti-Ang-2-neutralizing antibody) improved survival over each therapy alone by delaying Gl261 growth and increasing U87 necrosis, effectively reducing viable tumor burden. Consistent with their vascular-modulating function, the dual therapies enhanced morphological normalization of vessels. Dual therapy also led to changes in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Inhibition of TAM recruitment using an anti-colony-stimulating factor-1 antibody compromised the survival benefit of dual therapy. Thus, dual inhibition of VEGFR/Ang-2 prolongs survival in preclinical GBM models by reducing tumor burden, improving normalization, and altering TAMs. This approach may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome the limitations of anti-VEGFR monotherapy in GBM patients by integrating the complementary effects of anti-Ang2 treatment on vessels and immune cells.
Project description:Preclinical models that reliably recapitulate the immunosuppressive properties of human gliomas are essential to assess immune-based therapies. GL261 murine glioma cells are widely used as a syngeneic animal model of glioma, however, it has become common practice to transfect these cells with luciferase for fluorescent tumor tracking. The aim of this study was to compare the survival of mice injected with fluorescent or non-fluorescent GL261 cells and characterize the differences in their tumor microenvironment. Mice were intracranially implanted with GL261, GL261 Red-FLuc or GL261-Luc2 cells at varying doses. Cytokine profiles were evaluated by proteome microarray and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to determine survival differences. Median survival for mice implanted with 5?×?104 GL261 cells was 18 to 21 days. The GL261 Red-FLuc implanted mice cells did not reach median survival at any tumor dose. Mice injected with 3?×?105 GL261-Luc2 cells reached median survival at 23 days. However, median survival was significantly prolonged to 37 days in mice implanted with 5?×?104 GL261-Luc2 cells. Additionally, proteomic analyses revealed significantly elevated inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of the GL261 Red-FLuc cells and GL261-Luc2 cells. Our data suggest that GL261 Red-FLuc and GL261-Luc2 murine models elicit an anti-tumor immune response by increasing pro-inflammatory modulators.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Membrane heat shock protein 70 (mHsp70) is indicative of high-risk tumors and serves as a tumor-specific target for natural killer (NK) cells stimulated with Hsp70 peptide (TKD) and Interleukin(IL)-2. Radiochemotherapy (RCT), mHsp70-targeting NK cells, and programmed death(PD)-1 inhibition were combined to improve the efficacy of tumor-specific immune cells in a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patient. PATIENT:Following simultaneous RCT (64.8?Gy), a patient with inoperable NSCLC (cT4, cN3, cM0, stage IIIb) was treated with 4 cycles of autologous ex vivo TKD/IL-2-activated NK cells and the PD-1 antibody nivolumab as a second-line therapy. Blood samples were taken for immunophenotyping during the course of therapy. RESULTS:Adoptive transfer of ex vivo TKD/IL-2-activated NK cells after RCT combined with PD-1 blockade is well tolerated and results in superior overall survival (OS). No viable tumor cells but a massive immune cell infiltration in fibrotic tissue was detected after therapy. Neither tumor progression nor distant metastases were detectable by CT scanning 33 months after diagnosis. Therapy response was associated with significantly increased CD3-/NKG2D+/CD94+ NK cell counts, elevated CD8+ to CD4+ T cell and CD3-/CD56bright to CD3-/CD56dim NK cell ratios, and significantly reduced regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the peripheral blood. CONCLUSION:A combined therapy consisting of RCT, mHsp70-targeting NK cells, and PD-1 antibody inhibition is well tolerated, induces anti-tumor immunity, and results in long-term tumor control in one patient with advanced NSCLC. Further, randomized studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this combination therapy.
Project description:Inhibition of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) can slow tumor growth, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Because Ang2 is expressed in growing blood vessels and promotes angiogenesis driven by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we asked whether the antitumor effect of Ang2 inhibition results from reduced sprouting angiogenesis and whether the effect is augmented by inhibition of VEGF from tumor cells. Using Colo205 human colon carcinomas in nude mice as a model, we found that selective inhibition of Ang2 by the peptide-Fc fusion protein L1-7(N) reduced the number of vascular sprouts by 46% and tumor growth by 62% over 26 days. Strikingly, when the Ang2 inhibitor was combined with a function-blocking anti-VEGF antibody, the number of sprouts was reduced by 82%, tumor vascularity was reduced by 67%, and tumor growth slowed by 91% compared with controls. The reduction in tumor growth was accompanied by decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. We conclude that inhibition of Ang2 slows tumor growth by limiting the expansion of the tumor vasculature by sprouting angiogenesis, in a manner that is complemented by concurrent inhibition of VEGF and leads to reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells.
Project description:Immunotherapy approaches currently make their way into the clinics to improve the outcome of standard radiochemotherapy (RCT). The programed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) is one possible target that, upon blockade, allows T cell-dependent antitumor immune responses to be executed. To date, it is unclear which RCT protocol and which fractionation scheme leads to increased PD-L1 expression and thereby renders blockade of this immune suppressive pathway reasonable. We therefore investigated the impact of radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT), and RCT on PD-L1 surface expression on tumor cells of tumor entities with differing somatic mutation prevalence. Murine melanoma (B16-F10), glioblastoma (GL261-luc2), and colorectal (CT26) tumor cells were treated with dacarbazine, temozolomide, and a combination of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and fluorouracil, respectively. Additionally, they were irradiated with a single dose [10?Gray (Gy)] or hypo-fractionated (2?×?5?Gy), respectively, norm-fractionated (5?×?2?Gy) radiation protocols were used. PD-L1 surface and intracellular interferon (IFN)-gamma expression was measured by flow cytometry, and IL-6 release was determined by ELISA. Furthermore, tumor cell death was monitored by AnnexinV-FITC/7-AAD staining. For first in vivo analyses, the B16-F10 mouse melanoma model was chosen. In B16-F10 and GL261-luc2 cells, particularly norm-fractionated and hypo-fractionated radiation led to a significant increase of surface PD-L1, which could not be observed in CT26 cells. Furthermore, PD-L1 expression is more pronounced on vital tumor cells and goes along with increased levels of IFN-gamma in the tumor cells. In melanoma cells CT was the main trigger for IL-6 release, while in glioblastoma cells it was norm-fractionated RT. In vivo, fractionated RT only in combination with dacarbazine induced PD-L1 expression on melanoma cells. Our results suggest a tumor cell-mediated upregulation of PD-L1 expression following in particular chemoradiation that is not only dependent on the somatic mutation prevalence of the tumor entity.
Project description:Cyclophosphamide administered on an intermittent metronomic schedule induces strong immune-dependent regression in several glioma models. Here we investigate whether this immunogenic chemotherapy can be potentiated by combination with the immune stimulatory TLR9 agonist CpG-1826. CpG-1826 treatment of GL261 gliomas implanted in immune competent mice induced tumor growth delay associated with increased tumor recruitment of macrophages and B cells. Anti-tumor responses varied between individuals, with CpG-1826 inducing robust tumor growth delay in ~50% of treated mice. Both high and low CpG-1826-responsive mice showed striking improvements when CpG-1826 was combined with cyclophosphamide treatment. Tumor-associated macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells, and cytotoxic T cells were increased, T regulatory cells were not induced, and long-term GL261 glioma regression with immune memory was achieved when CpG-1826 was combined with either single cyclophosphamide dosing (90?mg/kg) or metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment (two cycles at 45?mg/kg, spaced 12-days apart). B16F10 melanoma, a low immunogenic tumor model, also showed enhanced immune and anti-tumor responses to cyclophosphamide/CpG-1826 chemoimmunotherapy, but unlike GL261 tumors, did not regress. TLR9-based immunotherapy can thus be effectively combined with immunogenic cyclophosphamide treatment to enhance immune-based anti-tumor responses, even in poorly immunogenic cancer models.
Project description:Preclinical studies show that inhibition of aurora kinases in melanoma tumors induces senescence and reduces tumor growth, but does not cause tumor regression. Additional preclinical models are needed to identify agents that will synergize with aurora kinase inhibitors to induce tumor regression.We combined treatment with an aurora kinase A inhibitor, MLN8237, with agents that activate death receptors (Apo2L/TRAIL or death receptor 5 agonists) and monitored the ability of this treatment to induce tumor apoptosis and melanoma tumor regression using human cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models.We found that this combined treatment led to apoptosis and markedly reduced cell viability. Mechanistic analysis showed that the induction of tumor cell senescence in response to the AURKA inhibitor resulted in a decreased display of Apo2L/TRAIL decoy receptors and increased display of one Apo2L/TRAIL receptor (death receptor 5), resulting in enhanced response to death receptor ligand/agonists. When death receptors were activated in senescent tumor cells, both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were induced independent of BRAF, NRAS, or p53 mutation status. Senescent tumor cells exhibited BID-mediated mitochondrial depolarization in response to Apo2L/TRAIL treatment. In addition, senescent tumor cells had a lower apoptotic threshold due to decreased XIAP and survivin expression. Melanoma tumor xenografts of one human cell line and one PDX displayed total blockage of tumor growth when treated with MLN8237 combined with DR5 agonist antibody.These findings provide a strong rationale for combining senescence-inducing therapeutics with death receptor agonists for improved cancer treatment.
Project description:Purpose:Anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are increasing in frequency across the developed world. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with locally-advanced disease is approximately 60% after primary radiochemotherapy (RCT). There is a strong rationale for combining immunotherapy with RCT in patients with ASCC due to its association with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Methods/design:RADIANCE is an investigator initiated, prospective, multicenter, randomized phase II trial testing the addition of Durvalumab, a PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, to standard RCT in 178 patients with locally advanced ASCC (T2 ? 4 cm Nany, cT3-4 and/or cN+). In the control arm, patients will be treated with standard mitomycin C (MMC)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based RCT. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) will be applied as follows: PTV_A (primary tumor) T1-T2 < 4 cm N+: 28 × 1.9 Gy = 53.2 Gy; or T2 ? 4 cm, T3-4 Nany: 31 × 1.9 Gy = 58.9 Gy; PTV_N (involved node): 28 × 1.8 Gy = 50.4 Gy ; and PTV_Elec (elective node): 28 × 1.43 Gy = 40.0 Gy over a period of 5,5-6 weeks. Concomitant chemotherapy will be administered using MMC with 5-FU during weeks 1 and 5 of radiotherapy (MMC 12 mg/m2, day 1 [maximum single dose 20 mg]; 5-FU 1000 mg/m2 days 1-4 and 29-32). In the experimental arm, Durvalmab (1500 mg absolute dose, intravenously) will be combined with the same RCT as in the control arm. Immunotherapy with Durvalumab will start 14 days before initiation of standard RCT, administered every four weeks (q4w) thereafter for a total of twelve doses. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival (DFS) after 3 years. Discussion:As ASCC is considered an immunogenically "hot" tumor due to its association with HPV infection, the combination of RCT with Durvalumab may improve tumor control and long-term clinical outcome in this patient collective compared to RCT alone.