In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Effectiveness of LASSBio-1386, an N-Acyl Hydrazone Derivative Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitor, Against Leishmania amazonensis.
ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis are group of neglected diseases with worldwide distribution that affect about 12 million people. The current treatment is limited and may cause severe adverse effects, and thus, the search for new drugs more effective and less toxic is relevant. We have previously investigated the immunomodulatory effects of LASSBio-1386, an N-acylhydrazone derivative. Here we investigated the in vitro and in vivo activity of LASSBio-1386 against L. amazonensis. LASSBio-1386 inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes of L. amazonensis (EC50 = 2.4 ± 0.48 µM), while presenting low cytotoxicity to macrophages (CC50 = 74.1 ± 2.9 µM). In vitro incubation with LASSBio-1386 reduced the percentage of Leishmania-infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites (EC50 = 9.42 ± 0.64 µM). Also, in vivo treatment of BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis resulted in a decrease of lesion size, parasitic load and caused histopathological alterations, when compared to vehicle-treated control. Moreover, LASSBio-1386 caused ultrastructural changes, arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase and did not alter the membrane mitochondrial potential of L. amazonensis. Aiming to its possible molecular interactions, we performed docking and molecular dynamics studies on Leishmania phosphodiesterase B1 (PDB code: 2R8Q) and LASSBio-1386. The computational analyses suggest that LASSBio-1386 acts against Leishmania through the modulation of leishmanial PDE activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that LASSBio-1386 is a promising candidate for the development of new leishmaniasis treatment.
Project description:Leishmaniasis, one of the most neglected diseases, is a serious public health problem in many countries, including Brazil. Currently available treatments require long-term use and have serious side effects, necessitating the development of new therapeutic interventions. Because translocator protein (TSPO) levels are reduced in Leishmania amazonensis-infected cells and because this protein participates in apoptosis and immunomodulation, TSPO represents a potential target for Leishmania chemotherapy. The present study evaluated PK11195, a ligand of this protein, as an anti-leishmanial agent.To evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of PK11195 against L. amazonensis in infected CBA mouse macrophages in vitro.The viability of axenic L. amazonensis, Leishmania major, and Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes was assessed after 48 h treatment with PK11195 (0.2-400 µM). Additionally, intracellular parasite viability was evaluated to determine IC50 values and the number of viable parasites in infected macrophages treated with PK11195 (50-100 µM). Infected macrophages were then treated with PK11195 (25-100 µM) to determine the percentage of L. amazonensis-infected cells and the number of parasites per infected cell. Electron microscopy was used to investigate morphological changes caused by PK11195. The production of free oxygen radicals, nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines was also evaluated in infected macrophages treated with PK11195 and primed or not primed with IFN-?.Median IC50 values for PK11195 were 14.2 µM for L. amazonensis, 8.2 µM for L. major, and 3.5 µM for L. braziliensis. The selective index value for L. amazonensis was 13.7, indicating the safety of PK11195 for future testing in mammals. Time- and dose-dependent reductions in the percentage of infected macrophages, the number of parasites per infected macrophage, and the number of viable intracellular parasites were observed. Electron microscopy revealed some morphological alterations suggestive of autophagy. Interestingly, MCP-1 and superoxide levels were reduced in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages treated with PK11195.PK11195 causes the killing of amastigotes in vitro by mechanisms independent of inflammatory mediators and causes morphological alterations within Leishmania parasites, suggestive of autophagy, at doses that are non-toxic to macrophages. Thus, this molecule has demonstrated potential as an anti-leishmanial agent.
Project description:A series of mononuclear coordination or organometallic Au<sup>I</sup> /Au<sup>III</sup> complexes (1-9) have been comparatively studied in?vitro for their antileishmanial activity against promastigotes and amastigotes, the clinically relevant parasite form, of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis. One of the cationic Au<sup>I</sup> bis-N-heterocyclic carbenes (3) has low EC<sub>50</sub> values (ca. 4??M) in promastigotes cells and no toxicity in host macrophages. Together with two other Au<sup>III</sup> complexes (6 and 7), the compound is also extremely effective in intracellular amastigotes from L.?amazonensis. Initial mechanistic studies include an evaluation of the gold complexes' effect on L.?amazonensis' plasma membrane integrity.
Project description:LASSBio-1135 is an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivative with high efficacy in screening models of nociception and inflammation, presumed as a weak COX-2 inhibitor. In order to tease out its mechanism of action, we investigated others possible target for LASSBio-1135, such as TNF-? and TRPV1, to better characterize it as a multitarget compound useful in the treatment of chronic pain. TRPV1 modulation was assessed in TRPV1-expressing Xenopus oocytes against capsaicin and low pH-induced current. Modulation of TNF-? production was evaluated in culture of macrophages stimulated with LPS. In vivo efficacy of LASSBio-1135 was investigated in carrageenan and partial sciatic ligation-induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Corroborating its previous demonstration of efficacy in a model of capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia, LASSBio-1135 blocks capsaicin-elicited currents in a non-competitive way with an IC50 of 580 nM as well as low pH-induced current at 50 µM. As an additional action, LASSBio-1135 inhibited TNF-? release in these cells stimulated by LPS with an IC50 of 546 nM by reducing p38 MAPK phosphorilation. Oral administration of 100 µmol x Kg(-1) LASSBio-1135 markedly reduced thermal hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, however at 10 µmol x Kg(-1) only a partial reduction was observed at the 4th h. Neutrophil recruitment and TNF-? production after carrageenan stimulus was also inhibited by the treatment with LASSBio-1135. Modulating TRPV1 and TNF-? production, two key therapeutic targets of neuropathic pain, 100 µmol x Kg(-1) LASSBio-1135 was orally efficacious in reversing thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia produced by partial sciatic ligation 7-11 days after surgery without provoking hyperthermia, a common side effect of TRPV1 antagonists. In conclusion LASSBio-1135, besides being a weak COX-2 inhibitor, is a non-competitive TRPV1 antagonist and a TNF-? inhibitor. As a multitarget compound, LASSBio-1135 is orally efficacious in a model of neuropathic pain without presenting hyperthermia.
Project description:The current therapies of leishmaniasis, the second most widespread neglected tropical disease, have limited effectiveness and toxic side effects. In this regard, natural products play an important role in overcoming the current need for new leishmanicidal agents. The present study reports a bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper pseudoarboreum against four species of Leishmania spp. promastigote forms, which afforded six known alkamides (1-6). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 were identified as the most promising ones, displaying higher potency against Leishmania spp. promastigotes (IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 µM) and amastigotes of L. amazonensis (IC50 values ranging from 8.2 to 9.1 µM) than the reference drug, miltefosine. The efficacy of (E)-piplartine (3) against L. amazonensis infection in an in vivo model for cutaneous leishmaniasis was evidenced by a significant reduction of the lesion size footpad and spleen parasite burden, similar to those of glucantime used as the reference drug. This study reinforces the therapeutic potential of (E)-piplartine as a promising lead compound against neglected infectious diseases caused by Leishmania parasites.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites from <i>Leishmania</i> genus. Currently, there are no effective vaccines available and the available therapies are far from ideal. In particular, the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the infection caused by <i>Leishmania amazonensis</i> could be considered desirable. Different plant-derived products have demonstrated antileishmanial activity, including the essential oil (EO) from <i>Artemisia absinthium</i> L. (EO-Aa), Asteraceae. <b>Methods:</b> In the present study, the EO-Aa formulated in nanocochleates (EO-Aa-NC) was investigated in vitro against intracellular amastigotes of <i>L. amazonensis</i> and non-infected macrophages from BALB/c mice. In addition, the EO-Aa-NC was also evaluated in vivo against on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, which body weight, lesion progression, and parasite load were determined. <b>Results:</b> EO-Aa-NC displayed IC<sub>50</sub> values of 21.5 ± 2.5 ?g/mL and 27.7 ± 5.6 ?g/mL against intracellular amastigotes of <i>L. amazonensis</i> and non-infected peritoneal macrophage, respectively. In the animal model, the EO-Aa-NC (30 mg/kg/intralesional route/every 4 days 4 times) showed no deaths or weight loss greater than 10%. In parallel, the EO-Aa-NC suppressed the infection in the murine model by approximately 50%, which was statistically superior (<i>p</i> < 0.05) than controls and mice treated with EO-Aa. In comparison with Glucantime<sup>®</sup>, EO-Aa-NC inhibited the progression of infection as efficiently (<i>p</i> > 0.05) as administration of the reference drug. <b>Conclusions:</b> Encochleation of EO-Aa resulted in a stable, tolerable, and efficacious antileishmanial formulation, facilitating systemic delivery of EO, with increased activity compared to administration of the free EO-Aa. This new formulation shows promising potential to future studies aimed at a new therapeutic strategy to treat leishmaniasis.
Project description:Leishmaniasis remains a major world health problem, and in particular, Algeria ranks second for the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Pulicaria inuloides is a well-known Arabian Peninsula medicinal plant. In the present study, the chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts from the roots of Pulicaria inuloides were analyzed for antioxidant activity and its correlation with the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The highest antioxidant activity using a DPPH assay was showed by the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 4.08 µg/mL), which also had the highest total phenolic content (307.12 µgAGE). Furthermore, P. inuloides root extracts were evaluated against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani. The results highlighted the chloroform extract as the most active one against both tested Leishmania strains. A bioguided fractionation of the chloroform extract led to the isolation of (8R:8S)-(75:25 er)-10-isobutyryloxy-8,9-epoxy-thymol isobutyrate as the main bioactive component, showing a potent leishmanicidal activity on L. amazonensis promatigote and amastigote stages (IC50 5.03 and 2.87 µM, respectively) and a good selectivity index on murine macrophages (CC50 19.37 µM). This study provides the first report of the antioxidant and leishmanicidal activities of P. inuloides root extracts and the results point to this species as a source of potential bioactive agents.
Project description:Herein, we evaluated in vitro the anti-leishmanial activity of betulin derivatives in Venezuelan isolates of <i>Leishmania amazonensis</i>, isolated from patients with therapeutic failure.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed promastigote in vitro susceptibility as well as the cytotoxicity and selectivity of the evaluated compounds. Additionally, the activity of selected compounds was determined in intracellular amastigotes. Finally, to gain hints on their potential mechanism of action, the effect of the most promising compounds on plasma and mitochondrial membrane potential, and nitric oxide and superoxide production by infected macrophages was determined.<h4>Results</h4>From the tested 28 compounds, those numbered <b>18</b> and <b>22</b> were chosen for additional studies. Both <b>18</b> and <b>22</b> were active (GI<sub>50</sub> ? 2 µM, cytotoxic CC<sub>50</sub> > 45 µM, SI > 20) for the reference strain LTB0016 and for patient isolates. The results suggest that <b>18</b> significantly depolarized the plasma membrane potential (<i>p</i> < 0.05) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (<i>p</i> < 0.05) when compared to untreated cells. Although neither <b>18</b> nor <b>22</b> induced nitric oxide production in infected macrophages, <b>18</b> induced superoxide production in infected macrophages.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest that due to their efficacy and selectivity against intracellular parasites and the potential mechanisms underlying their leishmanicidal effect, the compounds <b>18</b> and <b>22</b> could be used as tools for designing new chemotherapies against leishmaniasis.
Project description:Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania species. Leishmania amazonensis is a New World Leishmania species belonging to the Mexicana complex, which is able to cause all types of leishmaniasis infections. The L. amazonensis reference strain MHOM/BR/1973/M2269 was sequenced identifying 8,802 codifying sequences (CDS), most of them of hypothetical function. Comparative analysis using six Leishmania species showed a core set of 7,016 orthologs. L. amazonensis and Leishmania mexicana share the largest number of distinct orthologs, while Leishmania braziliensis presented the largest number of inparalogs. Additionally, phylogenomic analysis confirmed the taxonomic position for L. amazonensis within the "Mexicana complex", reinforcing understanding of the split of New and Old World Leishmania. Potential non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) were identified between L. amazonensis and Homo sapiens that could provide new drug targets for development.
Project description:Protozoan parasites belonging to genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma are the etiological agents of severe neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that cause enormous social and economic impact in many countries of tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In our screening program for new drug leads from natural sources, we found that the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Cochliobolus sp. (UFMGCB-555) could kill 90% of the amastigote-like forms of Leishmania amazonensis and inhibit by 100% Ellman's reagent reduction in the trypanothione reductase (TryR) assay, when tested at 20 microg mL(-1). UFMGCB-555 was isolated from the plant Piptadenia adiantoides J.F. Macbr (Fabaceae) and identified based on the sequence of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of its ribosomal DNA. The chromatographic fractionation of the extract was guided by the TryR assay and resulted in the isolation of cochlioquinone A and isocochlioquinone A. Both compounds were active in the assay with L. amazonensis, disclosing EC(50) values (effective concentrations required to kill 50% of the parasite) of 1.7 microM (95% confidence interval = 1.6 to 1.9 microM) and 4.1 microM (95% confidence interval = 3.6 to 4.7 microM), respectively. These compounds were not active against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, TK-10, and UACC-62), indicating some degree of selectivity towards the parasites. These results suggest that cochlioquinones are attractive lead compounds that deserve further investigation aiming at developing new drugs to treat leishmaniasis. The findings also reinforce the role of endophytic fungi as an important source of compounds with potential to enter the pipeline for drug development against NTDs.
Project description:. The effects of LASSBio 294, a new 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone, on vascular tonus were investigated in isolated rat aortic rings. 2. LASSBio 294 induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of intact rat aortic rings with an inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 74 microM (95% confidence limits: 59 - 92). The mechanical removal of the endothelium abolished this effect. 3. In aortic rings with intact endothelium the effect of 100 microM LASSBio 294 was not altered by the pharmacological inhibition of NOS and cyclo-oxygenase pathways with 500 microM L-NAME and 10 microM indomethacin, respectively. 4. LASSBio 294 (100 microM) was able to relax aortic rings pre-contracted with high extracellular K(+) (KCl 100 mM). 5. The relaxant effect of LASSBio 294 was fully reversed (and prevented) by the addition of 1 microM ODQ (1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one), a selective inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase. 6. LASSBio 294 (100 microM) had no direct effect on PDE3 and PDE4 activities, however, it increased by 150% cyclic GMP content in aortic rings pre-treated with 100 microM L-NAME and 10 microM indomethacin, as did 1 microM zaprinast, a selective PDE5 inhibitor. 7. In conclusion, LASSBio 294 induced relaxation of isolated rat aorta probably by directly increasing cyclic GMP content, possibly as a consequence of PDE5 inhibition.