Controlled dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles produced by basic precipitation in solvothermal processes
ABSTRACT: Zinc oxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized under precipitation processes, using ZnSO4·7H2O as a Zn2+ precursor and K2CO3 used as a basic source, and hydrozincite was obtained as an intermediary, which was treated under two procedures; first procedure involved multiple stages to get final precipitated with NaOH, and in the second procedure the hydrozincite was straightforwardly dried at 220 °C. By both processes ZnO structures were obtained, which were turned into nanoparticles by a solvothermal treatment, for four hours in ethylene glycol at 200 °C. The final products for the first procedure was conglomerate of spherical nanoparticles with sizes ranged between 5–10 nm and dispersed ellipsoidal nanoparticles for the second procedure. Apart off the two procedures mentioned above, another synthesis was carried out with the same Zn2+ precursor but now using NaOH, and the solvothermal treatment produced ZnO mixed micro-structures which under ultrasonic cavitation disaggregated on mesoporous ZnO nanoplates of hexagonal shapes with nanopore sizes of approximately 0.35 nm. All ZnOs synthesized were structurally characterized with XRD, TEM and FT–IR techniques, and electronically with UV–Vis absorption and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies. zinc oxide nanoparticles; solvothermal treatment; precipitation; alkaline media; ultrasonic cavitation; ZnO mesoporous
Project description:ZnO nanoparticles can elicit a range of perturbed cell responses in vitro. The liver is a target for ZnO nanoparticle-, or Zn2+ released from ZnO nanoparticles-induced accumulation and/or impact in vitro and in vivo. The response of human hepatic stellate cells to ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been assessed. We aimed to determine whether the presence of surface coatings could protect human hepatic stellate cells from ZnO nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity. Primary human hepatic stellate cells were treated with one of two types of uncoated ZnO nanoparticles (Z-COTE or Nanosun), two types of coated ZnO nanoparticles (HP1, MAX), a mass equivalent of ZnSO4, or were left untreated. After 24 h, RNA was isolated and processed for whole genome transcriptional profiling, comparing the expresson profiles of treated cells to the untreated controls. Each treatment was prepared in duplicate.
Project description:ZnO nanoparticles can elicit a range of cytotoxic responses in different cells in vitro that may reflect either Zn2+ dissolution or nanoparticle-specific effects. Coating the ZnO nanoparticles may mitigate their cytotoxicity. We aimed to capture whole genome transcriptional profiles (up and down regulated) at time-points associated with distinct cytotoxic responses in cells treated with two types of uncoated (Nanosun, Z-COTE) or two types of coated (HP1, MAX) ZnO nanoparticles, compared to untreated cells. hONS cells were incubated with 25ug/ml ZnO nanoparticles (uncoated: Nanosun and Z-COTE; coated: MAX, HP1) for 2h and 6h and their expression profiles were compared to time-matched untreated cells.
Project description:Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄) represent the most promising materials in medical applications. To favor high-drug or enzyme loading on the nanoparticles, they are incorporated into mesoporous materials to form a hybrid support with the consequent reduction of magnetization saturation. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structures appears to be of interest. To this end, magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one pot co-precipitation reaction at room temperature in the presence of different bases, such as NaOH, KOH or (C₂H₅)₄NOH. Magnetite shows characteristics of superparamagnetism at room temperature and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value depending on both the crystal size and the degree of agglomeration of individual nanoparticles. Such agglomeration appears to be responsible for the formation of mesoporous structures, which are affected by the pH, the nature of alkali, the slow or fast addition of alkaline solution and the drying modality of synthesized powders.
Project description:This paper develops a novel ultrasonic spray-assisted solvothermal (USS) method to synthesize wrapped ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites with a Schottky junction for gas-sensing applications. The as-obtained ZnO/rGO-x samples with different graphene oxide (GO) contents (x = 0-1.5 wt %) are characterized by various techniques, and their gas-sensing properties for NO2 and other VOC gases are also evaluated. The results show that the USS-derived ZnO/rGO samples exhibit high NO2-sensing property at low operating temperatures (e.g., 70-130 °C) because of their high specific surface area and porous structures when compared with the ZnO/rGO sample obtained by the traditional precipitation method. The content of rGO shows an obvious effect on their NO2-sensing properties, and the ZnO/rGO-0.5 sample has a high response of 62 operating at 130 °C, three times that of pure ZnO. The detection limit of the ZnO/rGO-0.5 sensor to NO2 is as low as 10 ppb under the present test condition. In addition, the ZnO/rGO-0.5 sensor shows a highly selective response to NO2 gas when compared with organic vapors and other inflammable or toxic gases. The theoretical and experimental analyses indicate that the enhancement in NO2-sensing performance of the ZnO/rGO sensor is attributed to the formation of wrapped ZnO/rGO Schottky junctions.
Project description:For the first time, ordered mesoporous ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by a template method. The electroplating after chemical plating method was creatively used to form copper film on the surface of the prepared ZnO, and then a CuO film-decorated ordered porous ZnO composite (CuO/ZnO) was obtained by a high-temperature oxidation method. In2O3 was loaded into the prepared CuO film-ZnO by an ultrasonic-assisted method to sensitize the room temperature gas-sensing performance of the prepared CuO/ZnO materials. The doped In2O3 could effectively improve the gas-sensing properties of the prepared materials to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) at room temperature. The 1% In2O3 doped CuO/ZnO sample (1?wt% In2O3-CuO/ZnO) showed the best gas-sensing properties whose response to 100?ppm NO x reached 82%, and the detectable minimum concentration reached 1?ppm at room temperature. The prepared materials had a good selectivity, better response, very low detection limit, and high sensitivity to NO x gas at room temperature, which would have a great development space in the gas sensor field and a great research value.
Project description:Core-shell Zinc Oxide/Layered Double Hydroxide (ZnO@LDH) composite nanomaterials have been produced by a one-step continuous hydrothermal synthesis process, in an attempt to further enhance the application potential of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials. The synthesis involves two hydrothermal reactors in series with the first producing a ZnO core and the second producing the Mg2Al-CO3 shell. Crystal domain length of single phase ZnO and composite ZnO was 25 nm and 42 nm, respectively. The ZnO@LDH composite had a specific surface area of 76 m2 g-1, which was larger than ZnO or Mg2Al-CO3 when produced separately (53 m2 g-1 and 58 m2 g-1, respectively). The increased specific surface area is attributed to the structural arrangement of the Mg2Al-CO3 in the composite. Platelets are envisaged to nucleate on the core and grow outwards, thus reducing the face-face stacking that occurs in conventional Mg2Al-CO3 synthesis. The Mg/Al ratio in the single phase LDH was close to the theoretical ratio of 2, but the Mg/Al ratio in the composite was 1.27 due to the formation of Zn2Al-CO3 LDH from residual Zn2+ ions. NaOH concentration was also found to influence Mg/Al ratio, with lower NaOH resulting in a lower Mg/Al ratio. NaOH concentration also affected morphology and specific surface area, with reduced NaOH content in the second reaction stage causing a dramatic increase in specific surface area (> 250 m2 g-1). The formation of a core-shell composite material was achieved through continuous synthesis; however, the final product was not entirely ZnO@Mg2Al-CO3. The product contained a mixture of ZnO, Mg2Al-CO3, Zn2Al-CO3, and the composite material. Whilst further optimisation is required in order to remove other crystalline impurities from the synthesis, this research acts as a stepping stone towards the formation of composite materials via a one-step continuous synthesis.
Project description:Ultrasound is widely applied in medical diagnosis and therapy due to its safety, high penetration depth, and low cost. In order to improve the contrast of sonographs and efficiency of the ultrasound therapy, echogenic gas bodies or droplets (with diameters from 200 nm to 10 µm) are often used, which are not very stable in the bloodstream and unable to penetrate into target tissues. Recently, it was demonstrated that nanobubbles stabilized by nanoparticles can nucleate ultrasound responsive microbubbles under reduced acoustic pressures, which is very promising for the development of nanoscale (<100 nm) ultrasound agents. However, there is still very little understanding about the effects of nanoparticle properties on the stabilization of nanobubbles and nucleation of acoustic cavitation by these nanobubbles. Here, a series of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with sizes around 100 nm but with different morphologies were synthesized to understand the effects of nanoparticle porosity, surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and hydrophilic surface modification on acoustic cavitation inception by porous nanoparticles. The chemical analyses of the nanoparticles showed that, while the nanoparticles were prepared using the same silica precursor (TEOS) and surfactant (CTAB), they revealed varying amounts of carbon impurities, hydroxyl content, and degrees of silica crosslinking. Carbon impurities or hydrophobic modification with methyl groups is found to be essential for nanobubble stabilization by mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The acoustic cavitation experiments in the presence of ethanol and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) demonstrated that acoustic cavitation is predominantly nucleated by the nanobubbles stabilized at the nanoparticle surface not inside the mesopores. Finally, acoustic cavitation experiments with rough and smooth nanoparticles were suggested that a rough nanoparticle surface is needed to largely preserve surface nanobubbles after coating the surface with hydrophilic macromolecules, which is required for in vivo applications of nanoparticles.
Project description:Mesoporous Al-doped ZnO thin films incorporated with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were synthesized using a sol-gel and evaporation-induced self-assembly process. In this study, the complementary effects of Au NP incorporation and Al doping on the thermoelectric properties of mesoporous ZnO thin films were analysed. The incorporated Au NPs induced an increase in electrical conductivity but a detriment in the pore arrangement of the mesoporous ZnO thin film, which was accompanied by a decrease in porosity. However, the addition of the Al dopant minimized the pore structural collapse because of the inhibition of the grain growth in the ZnO skeletal structure, resulting in the enhancement of the pore arrangement and porosity. When the Au NPs and Al dopant were added at the same time, the degradation in the pore structure was minimized and the electrical conductivity was effectively increased, but the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient was decreased. However, as a result, the thermoelectric power factor was increased by 2.4 times compared to that of the pristine mesoporous ZnO thin film. It was found that co-introducing the Au NPs and Al doping to the mesoporous ZnO structure was effective in preserving the pore structure and increasing the electric conductivity, thereby enhancing the thermoelectric property of the mesoporous ZnO thin film.
Project description:Because of wide applications of surface-modified zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) in commercial sunscreens and their easiness of being released into water, concerns have been raised over their potential effects on aquatic organisms. This study compared physicochemical properties of silane-coated and uncoated ZnO-NPs to elucidate their toxic potencies toward three freshwater and three marine microalgae. Surfaces of ZnO-NPs (20?nm) were modified by coating with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (A-ZnO-NPs) that provides the particles with a more hydrophilic surface, or dodecyltrichlorosilane (D-ZnO-NPs) that turns the particles to hydrophobic. Uncoated ZnO-NPs formed larger aggregates and released more Zn2+ than did either of the two coated ZnO-NPs. The three nanoparticles formed larger aggregates but released less Zn2+ at pH 8 than at pH 7. Although sensitivities varied among algal species, A-ZnO-NPs and uncoated ZnO-NPs were more potent at inhibiting growth of algal cells than were D-ZnO-NPs after 96-h exposure to ZnO, uncoated ZnO-NPs, each of the coated ZnO-NPs or ZnSO4 at 10 concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100?mg/L. The marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana exposed to ZnO-NPs, A-ZnO-NPs or D-ZnO-NPs resulted in differential expressions of genes, suggesting that each of the coatings resulted in ZnO-NPs acting through different mechanisms of toxic action.
Project description:Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment surface, is likely to have a high potential exposure. Here we show that Zinc Oxide (ZnO) NPs are more toxic to H. azteca compared with the corresponding metal ion, Zn2+. Dissolution of ZnO NPs contributes about 50% of the Zn measured in the ZnO NP suspensions, and cannot account for the toxicity of these particles to H. azteca. However, gene expression analysis is unable to distinguish between the ZnO NP exposures and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4) exposures at equitoxic concentrations. These results lead us to hypothesize that ZnO NPs provide and an enhanced exposure route for Zn2+ uptake into H. azteca, and possibly other sediment dwelling organisms. Our study supports the prediction that sediment dwelling organisms are highly susceptible to the effects of ZnO NPs and should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanomaterials. This experiment included four different treatments and an untreated control. Each treatment or control, consisted of ten independent replicates of twenty Hyalella azteca. Of these, six were randomly chosen to be used for the microarray analysis.