Naphthylphthalamic acid associates with and inhibits PIN auxin transporters.
ABSTRACT: N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) is a key inhibitor of directional (polar) transport of the hormone auxin in plants. For decades, it has been a pivotal tool in elucidating the unique polar auxin transport-based processes underlying plant growth and development. Its exact mode of action has long been sought after and is still being debated, with prevailing mechanistic schemes describing only indirect connections between NPA and the main transporters responsible for directional transport, namely PIN auxin exporters. Here we present data supporting a model in which NPA associates with PINs in a more direct manner than hitherto postulated. We show that NPA inhibits PIN activity in a heterologous oocyte system and that expression of NPA-sensitive PINs in plant, yeast, and oocyte membranes leads to specific saturable NPA binding. We thus propose that PINs are a bona fide NPA target. This offers a straightforward molecular basis for NPA inhibition of PIN-dependent auxin transport and a logical parsimonious explanation for the known physiological effects of NPA on plant growth, as well as an alternative hypothesis to interpret past and future results. We also introduce PIN dimerization and describe an effect of NPA on this, suggesting that NPA binding could be exploited to gain insights into structural aspects of PINs related to their transport mechanism.
Project description:The transport of auxin controls the rate, direction and localization of plant growth and development. The course of auxin transport is defined by the polar subcellular localization of the PIN proteins, a family of auxin efflux transporters. However, little is known about the composition and regulation of the PIN protein complex. Here, using blue-native PAGE and quantitative mass spectrometry, we identify native PIN core transport units as homo- and heteromers assembled from PIN1, PIN2, PIN3, PIN4 and PIN7 subunits only. Furthermore, we show that endogenous flavonols stabilize PIN dimers to regulate auxin efflux in the same way as does the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). This inhibitory mechanism is counteracted both by the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid and by phosphomimetic amino acids introduced into the PIN1 cytoplasmic domain. Our results lend mechanistic insights into an endogenous control mechanism which regulates PIN function and opens the way for a deeper understanding of the protein environment and regulation of the polar auxin transport complex.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Abundance and distribution of the plant hormone auxin play important roles in plant development. Besides other metabolic processes, various auxin carriers control the cellular level of active auxin and, hence, are major regulators of cellular auxin homeostasis. Despite the developmental importance of auxin transporters, a simple medium-to-high throughput approach to assess carrier activities is still missing. Here we show that carrier driven depletion of cellular auxin correlates with reduced nuclear auxin signaling in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cell cultures. RESULTS: We developed an easy to use transient single-cell-based system to detect carrier activity. We use the relative changes in signaling output of the auxin responsive promoter element DR5 to indirectly visualize auxin carrier activity. The feasibility of the transient approach was demonstrated by pharmacological and genetic interference with auxin signaling and transport. As a proof of concept, we provide visual evidence that the prominent auxin transport proteins PIN-FORMED (PIN)2 and PIN5 regulate cellular auxin homeostasis at the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively. Our data suggest that PIN2 and PIN5 have different sensitivities to the auxin transport inhibitor 1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Also the putative PIN-LIKES (PILS) auxin carrier activity at the ER is insensitive to NPA in our system, indicating that NPA blocks intercellular, but not intracellular auxin transport. CONCLUSIONS: This single-cell-based system is a useful tool by which the activity of putative auxin carriers, such as PINs, PILS and WALLS ARE THIN1 (WAT1), can be indirectly visualized in a medium-to-high throughput manner. Moreover, our single cell system might be useful to investigate also other hormonal signaling pathways, such as cytokinin.
Project description:Polar subcellular localization of the PIN exporters of the phytohormone auxin is a key determinant of directional, intercellular auxin transport and thus a central topic of both plant cell and developmental biology. Arabidopsis mutants lacking PID, a kinase that phosphorylates PINs, or the MAB4/MEL proteins of unknown molecular function display PIN polarity defects and phenocopy pin mutants, but mechanistic insights into how these factors convey PIN polarity are missing. Here, by combining protein biochemistry with quantitative live-cell imaging, we demonstrate that PINs, MAB4/MELs, and AGC kinases interact in the same complex at the plasma membrane. MAB4/MELs are recruited to the plasma membrane by the PINs and in concert with the AGC kinases maintain PIN polarity through limiting lateral diffusion-based escape of PINs from the polar domain. The PIN-MAB4/MEL-PID protein complex has self-reinforcing properties thanks to positive feedback between AGC kinase-mediated PIN phosphorylation and MAB4/MEL recruitment. We thus uncover the molecular mechanism by which AGC kinases and MAB4/MEL proteins regulate PIN localization and plant development.
Project description:The plant hormone auxin and its directional intercellular transport play a major role in diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The establishment of auxin gradients requires the asymmetric distribution of members of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family to the plasma membrane. An endocytic pathway regulates the recycling of PIN proteins between the plasma membrane and endosomes, providing a mechanism for dynamic localisation. N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor adaptor protein receptors (SNAP receptors, SNAREs) mediate fusion between vesicles and target membranes and are classed as Q- or R-SNAREs based on their sequence. We analysed gain- and loss-of-function mutants, dominant-negative transgenics and localisation of the Arabidopsis R-SNARE VAMP714 protein to understand its function. We demonstrate that VAMP714 is essential for the insertion of PINs into the plasma membrane, for polar auxin transport, root gravitropism and morphogenesis. VAMP714 gene expression is upregulated by auxin, and the VAMP714 protein co-localises with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles and with PIN proteins at the plasma membrane. It is proposed that VAMP714 mediates the delivery of PIN-carrying vesicles to the plasma membrane, and that this forms part of a positive regulatory loop in which auxin activates a VAMP714-dependent PIN/auxin transport system to control development.
Project description:Cell polarity is crucial for the coordinated development of all multicellular organisms. In plants, this is exemplified by the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers of the phytohormone auxin: The polar subcellular localization of the PINs is instructive to the directional intercellular auxin transport, and thus to a plethora of auxin-regulated growth and developmental processes. Despite its importance, the regulation of PIN polar subcellular localization remains poorly understood. Here, we have employed advanced live-cell imaging techniques to study the roles of microtubules and actin microfilaments in the establishment of apical polar localization of PIN2 in the epidermis of the Arabidopsis root meristem. We report that apical PIN2 polarity requires neither intact actin microfilaments nor microtubules, suggesting that the primary spatial cue for polar PIN distribution is likely independent of cytoskeleton-guided endomembrane trafficking.
Project description:Plant growth flexibly adapts to environmental conditions, implying cross-talk between environmental signalling and developmental regulation. Here, we show that the PIN auxin efflux carrier family possesses three highly conserved putative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) sites adjacent to the phosphorylation sites of the well-characterised AGC kinase PINOID, which regulates the polar localisation of PINs and directional auxin transport, thereby underpinning organ growth. The conserved sites of PIN1 are phosphorylated in vitro by two environmentally activated MAPKs, MPK4 and MPK6. In contrast to AGC kinases, MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of PIN1 at adjacent sites leads to a partial loss of the plasma membrane localisation of PIN1. MAPK-mediated modulation of PIN trafficking may participate in environmental adjustment of plant growth.
Project description:Plant development and physiology are widely determined by the polar transport of the signaling molecule auxin. This process is controlled on the cellular efflux level catalyzed by members of the PIN (pin-formed) and ABCB (ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B)/P-glycoprotein family that can function independently and coordinately. In this study, we have identified by means of chemical genomics a novel auxin transport inhibitor (ATI), BUM (2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]benzoic acid), that efficiently blocks auxin-regulated plant physiology and development. In many respects, BUM resembles the functionality of the diagnostic ATI, 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA), but it has an IC(50) value that is roughly a factor 30 lower. Physiological analysis and binding assays identified ABCBs, primarily ABCB1, as key targets of BUM and NPA, whereas PIN proteins are apparently not directly affected. BUM is complementary to NPA by having distinct ABCB target spectra and impacts on basipetal polar auxin transport in the shoot and root. In comparison with the recently identified ATI, gravacin, it lacks interference with ABCB membrane trafficking. Individual modes or targets of action compared with NPA are reflected by apically shifted root influx maxima that might be the result of altered BUM binding preferences or affinities to the ABCB nucleotide binding folds. This qualifies BUM as a valuable tool for auxin research, allowing differentiation between ABCB- and PIN-mediated efflux systems. Besides its obvious application as a powerful weed herbicide, BUM is a bona fide human ABCB inhibitor with the potential to restrict multidrug resistance during chemotherapy.
Project description:Development in multicellular organisms depends on the ability of individual cells to coordinate their behavior by means of small signaling molecules to form correctly patterned tissues. In plants, a unique mechanism of directional transport of the signaling molecule auxin between cells connects cell polarity and tissue patterning and thus is required for many aspects of plant development. Direction of auxin flow is determined by polar subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux transporters. Dynamic PIN polar localization results from the constitutive endocytic cycling to and from the plasma membrane, but it is not well understood how this mechanism connects to regulators of cell polarity. The Rho family small GTPases ROPs/RACs are master regulators of cell polarity, however their role in regulating polar protein trafficking and polar auxin transport has not been established. Here, by analysis of mutants and transgenic plants, we show that the ROP interactor and polarity regulator scaffold protein ICR1 is required for recruitment of PIN proteins to the polar domains at the plasma membrane. icr1 mutant embryos and plants display an a array of severe developmental aberrations that are caused by compromised differential auxin distribution. ICR1 functions at the plasma membrane where it is required for exocytosis but does not recycle together with PINs. ICR1 expression is quickly induced by auxin but is suppressed at the positions of stable auxin maxima in the hypophysis and later in the embryonic and mature root meristems. Our results imply that ICR1 is part of an auxin regulated positive feedback loop realized by a unique integration of auxin-dependent transcriptional regulation into ROP-mediated modulation of cell polarity. Thus, ICR1 forms an auxin-modulated link between cell polarity, exocytosis, and auxin transport-dependent tissue patterning.
Project description:The auxin receptor ABP1 directly regulates plasma membrane activities including the number of PIN-formed (PIN) proteins and auxin efflux transport. Red light (R) mediated by phytochromes regulates the steady-state level of ABP1 and auxin-inducible growth capacity in etiolated tissues but, until now, there has been no genetic proof that ABP1 and phytochrome regulation of elongation share a common mechanism for organ elongation. In far red (FR)-enriched light, hypocotyl lengths were larger in the abp1-5 and abp1/ABP1 mutants, but not in tir1-1, a null mutant of the TRANSPORT-INHIBITOR-RESPONSE1 auxin receptor. The polar auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) decreased elongation in the low R:FR light-enriched white light (WL) condition more strongly than in the high red:FR light-enriched condition WL suggesting that auxin transport is an important condition for FR-induced elongation. The addition of NPA to hypocotyls grown in R- and FR-enriched light inhibited hypocotyl gravitropism to a greater extent in both abp1 mutants and in phyB-9 and phyA-211 than the wild-type hypocotyl, arguing for decreased phytochrome action in conjunction with auxin transport in abp1 mutants. Transcription of FR-enriched light-induced genes, including several genes regulated by auxin and shade, was reduced 3-5-fold in abp1-5 compared with Col and was very low in abp1/ABP1. In the phyB-9 mutant the expression of these reporter genes was 5-15-fold lower than in Col. In tir1-1 and the phyA-211 mutants shade-induced gene expression was greatly attenuated. Thus, ABP1 directly or indirectly participates in auxin and light signalling.
Project description:The development and morphology of vascular plants is critically determined by synthesis and proper distribution of the phytohormone auxin. The directed cell-to-cell distribution of auxin is achieved through a system of auxin influx and efflux transporters. PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are proposed auxin efflux transporters, and auxin fluxes can seemingly be predicted based on the--in many cells--asymmetric plasma membrane distribution of PINs. Here, we show in a heterologous Xenopus oocyte system as well as in Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems that PIN-mediated auxin transport is directly activated by D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) and PINOID (PID)/WAG kinases of the Arabidopsis AGCVIII kinase family. At the same time, we reveal that D6PKs and PID have differential phosphosite preferences. Our study suggests that PIN activation by protein kinases is a crucial component of auxin transport control that must be taken into account to understand auxin distribution within the plant.