Being Mindful at University: A Pilot Evaluation of the Feasibility of an Online Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Support Program for Students.
ABSTRACT: University study can be a life period of heightened psychological distress for many students. The development of new preventive and intervention programs to support well-being in university students is a fundamental challenge for mental health professionals. We designed an 8-week online mindfulness-based program (eMBP) combining a face-to-face approach, text, audio, video components, and support psychotherapy principles with a unique intensive reminder system using the Facebook Messenger and Slack applications in two separate runs (N = 692). We assessed the program's effect on mindful experiencing, perceived stress, emotion regulation strategies, self-compassion, negative affect, and quality of life. The results of the presented pilot study confirmed that eMBP is a feasible and effective tool in university students' mental health support. The students who completed the eMBP reported a reduction of perceived stress with a large effect size ( p ?2 = 0.42) as well as a decrease of negative affect experience frequency and intensity ( p ?2 = 0.31), an increase of being mindful in their life (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire subscales: p ?2 = 0.21, 0.27, 0.25, 0.28, 0.28), and a higher rate of self-compassion ( p ?2 = 0.28) with a medium effect size. A small effect size was found in the frequency of using a cognitive reappraisal strategy ( p ?2 = 0.073). One new result is the observation of an eMBP effect ( p ?2 = 0.27) on the decrease in attributed importance to the quality-of-life components replicated in two consecutive runs of the program. The study affirms that mindfulness-based interventions can be effectively delivered in an eHealth form to university students.
Project description:Objectives:Self-critical behavior is especially relevant for university students who face academic and non-academic stressors, leading to negative outcomes such as mental distress and psychopathologies. To address this behavior, mindfulness and compassion are important factors to decrease self-criticism and ensure positive outcomes. This study examined the psychological and physiological effects of an intervention, the Mindful Lovingkindness Compassion Program (MLCP), on highly self-critical university students in South Korea. Methods:Thirty-eight university students with a high level of self-criticism were assigned to an MLCP group (n = 18) or waitlist (WL) group (n = 20). Self-report measures of self-criticism, self-reassurance, psychological distress, and other mental health variables were completed, and the physiological measure of heart rate variability (HRV) was conducted before and after the intervention with both groups. In addition, 1- and 3-month follow-up assessments were conducted using self-report measurements. Results:Compared to the WL group, participants in the MLCP group experienced significantly greater reductions in self-criticism and psychological distress, and a greater increase in self-reassurance, mental health, and HRV. The improvements in the self-report measures were maintained when assessed 1 and 3 months later. Conclusions:MLCP could be a promising intervention for alleviating self-criticism and increasing self-reassurance among self-critical individuals.
Project description:CONTEXT:Breast cancer (BC) requires a significant psychological adaptation once treatment is finished. There is growing evidence of how compassion training enhances psychological and physical well-being, however, there are very few studies analyzing the efficacy of compassion-based Interventions on BC survivors. OBJECTIVE:To study the efficacy of the Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT) protocol in a BC survivor sample on quality of life, psychological well-being, fear of cancer recurrence, self-compassion, and compassion domains and mindfulness facets. Furthermore, enrollment, adherence, and satisfaction with the intervention were also analyzed. METHODS:A randomized clinical trial was designed. Participants (n = 56) were randomly assigned to CBCT (n = 28) or a treatment-as-usual control group (TAU; n = 28). Pre-post intervention and 6-month follow-up measures took place to evaluate health-related quality of life, psychological well-being; psychological stress, coping strategies, and triggering cognitions; self-compassion and compassion; and mindfulness in both intervention and wait-list groups. RESULTS:Accrual of eligible participants was high (77%), and the drop-out rate was 16%. Attendance to CBCT sessions was high and practice off sessions exceeded expectations). CBCT was effective in diminishing stress caused by FCR, fostering self-kindness and common humanity, and increasing overall self-compassion scores, mindful observation, and acting with awareness skillsets. CONCLUSION:CBCT could be considered a promising and potentially useful intervention to diminish stress caused by FCR and enhance self-kindness, common humanity, overall self-compassion, mindful observation, and acting with awareness skillsets. Nevertheless, future randomized trials are needed and a process of deeper cultural adaptation required.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mindfulness-based interventions, self-compassion training, and cognitive behavioral therapy have garnered much evidence in its salutary effects on mental health. With increasing application of smartphone and mobile technology on health promotion, this study investigated the efficacy and possible moderators of mindfulness, self-compassion, and cognitive behavioral psychoeducation training mobile apps in the improvement of mental health. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of 3 mobile app-based programs: mindfulness-based program, self-compassion program, and cognitive behavioral psychoeducation program in improving mental well-being and reducing psychological distress. Changes in mindful awareness and self-compassion were also assessed. To further delineate the suitability of each program for different types of individuals, individual difference variables (ie, discomfort with emotions and tolerance for ambiguity) were explored for potential moderation. METHODS:This study was a 3-arm, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial examining the efficacy of mindfulness-based program, self-compassion program, and cognitive behavioral psychoeducation. Participants were randomized into either 1 of the 3 conditions. Throughout the 4-week, 28-session program, participants spent 10-15 min daily reviewing the course content and practicing various related exercises. At preprogram, postprogram, and 3-month follow-up, participants also completed Web-based measures of mental well-being, psychological distress, mindful-awareness, and self-compassion as well as the proposed moderators. RESULTS:Among the 2161 study participants, 508 and 349 completed the post- and 3-month follow-up assessment, respectively. All 3 conditions (mindfulness-based program: N=703; cognitive behavioral psychoeducation: N=753; self-compassion program: N=705) were found to be efficacious in improving mental well-being and reducing psychological distress. All conditions enhanced mindful awareness at postprogram. Significant interaction effect was found on self-compassion; cognitive behavioral psychoeducation and self-compassion program, but not mindfulness-based program, significantly enhanced self-compassion at postprogram. No significant differences regarding usage and users' satisfaction were found among the 3 conditions. None of the proposed moderators were found to be significant. CONCLUSIONS:Mindfulness-based, self-compassion, and cognitive behavioral psychoeducation mobile apps were efficacious in improving mental well-being and reducing psychological distress among adults at postprogram and 3-month follow-up. Future app-based psychological training programs should consider gamification and personalization of content or feedback to enhance engagement and mitigate the high attrition rates that are common in app-based health promotion programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR-TRC-13003468; http://www.chictr.org.cn/hvshowproject.aspx?id=6220 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/734PlOz50).
Project description:<b>Objectives: </b>The present study aimed to compare the psychological effects of meditation- and breathing-focused yoga practice in undergraduate students.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>A 12-weeks yoga intervention was conducted among a group of undergraduate students enrolled in four yoga classes at an academically prestigious university in Beijing, China. Four classes were randomized to meditation-focused yoga or breathing-focused yoga. A total of 86 participants finished surveys before and after the 12-weeks intervention, measuring work intention, mindfulness, and perceived stress. The repeated-measure multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) followed by univariate analyses were conducted to examine the differences in work intention, mindfulness, and stress between the two yoga intervention groups over the semester, after controlling for age and gender.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The repeated-measure MANCOVA revealed significant group differences with a median effect size [Wilks' lambda, ? = 0.90, <i>F</i>(3, 80) = 3.10, <i>p</i> = 0.031, ?<sup>2</sup> = 0.104]. Subsequent univariate analyses showed that students in the breathing-focused yoga group had significant higher work intentions [<i>F</i> <sub>(1, 82)</sub> = 5.22; <i>p</i> = 0.025; ?<sup>2</sup> <sub><i>p</i></sub> = 0.060] and mindfulness [<i>F</i> <sub>(1, 82)</sub> = 6.33; <i>p</i> = 0.014; ?<sup>2</sup> <sub><i>p</i></sub> = 0.072] but marginally lower stress [<i>F</i> <sub>(1, 82)</sub> = 4.20; <i>p</i> = 0.044; ?<sup>2</sup> <sub><i>p</i></sub> = 0.049] than students in the meditation-focused yoga group.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>Yoga practice with a focus on breathing is more effective than that with a focus on meditation for undergraduates to retain energy for work, keep attention and awareness, and reduce stress.
Project description:Objectives:Health care professionals have elevated rates of burnout and compassion fatigue which are correlated with poorer quality of life and patient care, and inversely correlated with self-compassion. Primary studies have evaluated the extent to which mindfulness-based interventions increase self-compassion with contradictory findings. A meta-analytic review of the literature was conducted to quantitatively synthesize the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on self-compassion among health care professionals. Methods:Twenty-eight treatment outcome studies were identified eligible for inclusion. Five cumulative effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models to evaluate differences of changes in self-compassion for treatment and control groups. Within and between group comparisons were evaluated. Sub-group and moderator analyses were conducted to explore potential moderating variables. Results:Twenty-seven articles (k?=?29, N?=?1020) were utilized in the pre-post-treatment meta-analysis. Fifteen samples (52%) included health care professionals and fourteen (48%) professional health care students. Results showed a moderate effect size between pre-post-treatment comparisons (g?=?.61, 95% CI?=?.47 to .76) for self-compassion and a strong effect size for pre-treatment to follow-up (g?=?.76, 95% CI?=?.41 to 1.12). The effect size comparing post-treatment versus post-control was moderate. One exploratory moderator analysis was significant, with stronger effects for interventions with a retreat component. Conclusions:Findings suggest mindfulness-based interventions improve self-compassion in health care professionals. Additionally, a variety of mindfulness-based programs may be useful for employees and trainees. Future studies with rigorous methodology evaluating effects on self-compassion and patient care from mindfulness-based interventions are warranted to extend findings and explore moderators.
Project description:Looking inside ourselves-being present and attentive to our own and others' words and feelings-helps us communicate and interact with a mindful, open heart. Mindfulness and patient-centeredness help caregivers provide higher quality care. Historical background on a predecessor of mindfulness-the biopsychosocial model of health and disease, developed at the University of Rochester-provides context for the mindfulness "movement" in health care. A culture of mindfulness, supported by mindfulness and meditation training for physicians and other health care providers, helps practitioners show greater compassion, kindness, and humanity, all qualities that patients need and deserve. In the health care world, many organizations have been created that focus on aspects of mindfulness. Some have a more clinical emphasis and others focus on behavioral or neuroscience research as it relates to meditation, mindfulness, compassion, and kindness. Mindfulness is also being taught in business schools and corporations. Leaders who approach their teams with respect, integrity, honesty, and kindness are more effective leaders. Organizations like Google, Nike, and Aetna, among others, use the concept of mindfulness, as well as emotional and social intelligence, to build interpersonal competencies and create more people-centered workplaces. As medical libraries live in the health care environment and medical library leaders are key to libraries' present and future, there are strong reasons to address the concepts of mindfulness and kindness and put them to work in the medical library workplaces. A mindfulness meditation exercise closes the lecture, sending the attendees out into their day with calm and open minds and hearts.
Project description:This pilot study compared mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with a self-help guide based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for university students experiencing difficulties due to perfectionism. Participants were randomised to an MBCT intervention specifically tailored for perfectionism or pure CBT self-help. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, 8 weeks later (corresponding to the end of MBCT) and at 10-week follow-up. Post-intervention intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses identified that MBCT participants (n = 28) had significantly lower levels of perfectionism and stress than self-help participants (n = 32). There was significant MBCT superiority for changes in unhelpful beliefs about emotions, rumination, mindfulness, self-compassion and decentering. At 10-week follow-up, effects were maintained in the MBCT group, and analyses showed superior MBCT outcomes for perfectionism and daily impairment caused by perfectionism. Pre-post changes in self-compassion significantly mediated the group differences in pre-post changes in clinical perfectionism. Greater frequency of mindfulness practice was associated with larger improvements in self-compassion. MBCT is a promising intervention for perfectionist students, which may result in larger improvements than pure CBT self-help. The findings require replication with a larger sample.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dispositional mindfulness and self-compassion are shown to associate with less self-reported emotional distress. However, previous studies have indicated that dispositional self-compassion may be an even more important buffer against such distress than dispositional mindfulness. To our knowledge, no study has yet disentangled the relationship between dispositional self-compassion and mindfulness and level of psychophysiological flexibility as measured with vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV). The aim was thus to provide a first exploratory effort to expand previous research relying on self-report measures by including a psychophysiological measure indicative of emotional stress reactivity.<h4>Methods</h4>Fifty-three university students filled out the "Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire" (FFMQ) and the "Self-Compassion Scale" (SCS), and their heart rate was measured during a 5 min resting electrocardiogram. Linear hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the common and unique variance explained by the total scores of the FFMQ and the SCS on level of resting vmHRV.<h4>Results</h4>Higher SCS total scores associated significantly with higher levels of vmHRV also when controlling for the FFMQ total scores. The SCS uniquely explained 7% of the vmHRV. The FFMQ total scores did not associate with level of vmHRV.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results offer preliminary support that dispositional self-compassion associates with better psychophysiological regulation of emotional arousal above and beyond mindfulness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:College students experience high levels of stress. Mindfulness meditation delivered via a mobile app may be an appealing, efficacious way to reduce stress in college students. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to test the initial efficacy and sustained effects of an 8-week mindfulness meditation mobile app-Calm-compared to a wait-list control on stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion in college students with elevated stress. We also explored the intervention's effect on health behaviors (ie, sleep disturbance, alcohol consumption [binge drinking], physical activity, and healthy eating [fruit and vegetable consumption]) and the feasibility and acceptability of the app. METHODS:This study was a randomized, wait-list, control trial with assessments at baseline, postintervention (8 weeks), and at follow-up (12 weeks). Participants were eligible if they were current full-time undergraduate students and (1) at least 18 years of age, (2) scored ?14 points on the Perceived Stress Scale, (3) owned a smartphone, (4) were willing to download the Calm app, (5) were willing to be randomized, and (7) were able to read and understand English. Participants were asked to meditate using Calm at least 10 minutes per day. A P value ?.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:A total of 88 participants were included in the analysis. The mean age (SD) was 20.41 (2.31) years for the intervention group and 21.85 (6.3) years for the control group. There were significant differences in all outcomes (stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion) between the intervention and control groups after adjustment for covariates postintervention (all P<.04). These effects persisted at follow-up (all P<.03), except for the nonreacting subscale of mindfulness (P=.08). There was a significant interaction between group and time factors in perceived stress (P=.002), mindfulness (P<.001), and self-compassion (P<.001). Bonferroni posthoc tests showed significant within-group mean differences for perceived stress in the intervention group (P<.001), while there were no significant within-group mean differences in the control group (all P>.19). Similar results were found for mindfulness and self-compassion. Effect sizes ranged from moderate (0.59) to large (1.24) across all outcomes. A significant group×time interaction in models of sleep disturbance was found, but no significant effects were found for other health behaviors. The majority of students in the intervention group reported that Calm was helpful to reduce stress and stated they would use Calm in the future. The majority were satisfied using Calm and likely to recommend it to other college students. The intervention group participated in meditation for an average of 38 minutes/week during the intervention and 20 minutes/week during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Calm is an effective modality to deliver mindfulness meditation in order to reduce stress and improve mindfulness and self-compassion in stressed college students. Our findings provide important information that can be applied to the design of future studies or mental health resources in university programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03891810; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03891810.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The Mindful Self-Care and Resiliency (MSCR) programme is a brief psychosocial intervention designed to promote resilience among various occupational groups. The intervention is based on the principles of mindfulness and also incorporates an educational self-care component. The current paper presents the protocol for a pilot study that will evaluate the effectiveness of this programme among general practitioners working in rural Queensland, Australia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will measure the impact of the MSCR programme on levels of employee resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; State-Trait Assessment of Resilience STARS), compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue (Professional Quality of Life Scale), self-compassion (Self-Compassion Scale) and mood (Positive and Negative Affect Scale). We will also assess the impact of the programme on job satisfaction (The Abridged Job in General Scale), absenteeism/presenteeism (The WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) and general well-being (WHO Five Well-being Index). Repeated measures analysis of variance will be used to analyse the impact of the intervention on the outcome measures taken at pre, post, 1-month, 3-month and 6-month follow-ups. We will conduct individual interviews with participants to gather data on the feasibility and acceptability of the programme. Finally, we will conduct an initial cost-effectiveness analysis of the programme. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Approval for this study was obtained from the Curtin University Human Research ethics committee and the study has been registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry. Results will be published and presented at national and international congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12617001479392p; Pre-results.