BackgroundA validated evidence-based guideline was developed to reduce physical restraint use in home care. However, the implementation of guidelines in home care is challenging. Therefore, this study aims to systematically develop and evaluate a multicomponent program for the implementation of the guideline for reducing the use of physical restraints in home care.
MethodsIntervention Mapping was used to develop a multicomponent program. This method contains six steps. Each step comprises several tasks towards the design, implementation and evaluation of an intervention; which is theory and evidence informed, as well as practical. To ensure that the multicomponent program would support the implementation of the guideline in home care, a feasibility study of 8 months was organized in one primary care district in Flanders, Belgium. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to evaluate the multicomponent program consisting of a knowledge test, focus groups and an online survey.
ResultsThe Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior are the foundations of the multicomponent program. Based on modeling, active learning, guided practice, belief selection and resistance to social pressure, eight practical applications were developed to operationalize these methods. The key components of the program are: the ambassadors for restraint-free home care (n?=?15), the tutorials, the physical restraint checklist and the flyer. The results of the feasibility study show the necessity to select uniform terminology and definition for physical restraints, to involve all stakeholders from the beginning of the process, to take time for the implementation process, to select competent ambassadors and to collaborate with other home care providers.
ConclusionsThe multicomponent program shows promising results. Prior to future use, further research needs to focus on the last two steps of Intervention Mapping (program implementation plan and developing an evaluation plan), to guide implementation on a larger scale and to formally evaluate the effectiveness of the multicomponent program.