Risks of poor asthma outcome in 14,405 children and young people in London.
ABSTRACT: This is a 12-month retrospective data analysis (2018/19) of asthma risk factors in 350 North West London general practices. Fourteen thousand four hundred and five of the 482,029 (40% female) children and young people (CYP) had diagnosed asthma. Exacerbations are as follows: (i) 749 (5%) CYP had 797 hospital admissions; 32 (<1%) had 2-6; (ii) 910 (6%) had 1168 recorded asthma attacks; 170 (1%) had 2-12; (iii) 1485 (10%) had 2123 oral corticosteroid courses; 408 (3%) had 2-11. Excess short-acting bronchodilators were prescribed in over half of the CYP. Of the 10,077 (70%) CYP prescribed inhaled corticosteroid preventers, 7279 (72%) were issued with <4 ICS inhaler prescriptions during the year; these CYP accounted for 11% of the admission spells. In all, 30% of CYP had poor symptom control. At least 10% of the CYP having had recent attacks are at risk and dashboards such as those available in North West London could easily facilitate recognition of risk and optimisation of care.
Project description:An asthma attack or exacerbation signals treatment failure. Most attacks are preventable and failure to recognize risk of asthma attacks are well recognized as risk factors for future attacks and even death. Of the 19 recommendations made by the United Kingdom National Review of Asthma Deaths (NRAD) (1) only one has been partially implemented-a National Asthma Audit; however, this hasn't reported yet. The Harrow Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) in London implemented a clinical asthma audit on 291 children and young people aged under 19 years (CYP) who had been treated for asthma attacks in 2016. This was funded as a Local Incentive Scheme (LIS) aimed at improving quality health care delivery. Two years after the publication of the NRAD report it is surprising that risks for future attacks were not recognized, that few patients were assessed objectively during attacks and only 10% of attacks were followed up within 2 days. However, it is encouraging that CYP hospital admissions following the audit were reduced by 16%, with clear benefit for patients, their families and the local health economy. This audit has provided an example of how clinicians can focus learning on patients who have had asthma attacks and utilize these events as a catalyst for active reflection in particular on modifiable risk factors. Through identification of these risks and active optimization of management, preventable asthma attacks could become 'never events'.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) may prevent wheezing/asthma attacks in preschoolers with recurrent wheeze when added to short-acting ?-agonist (SABA).<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this historical matched cohort study was to assess the effectiveness of these treatments for preventing wheezing/asthma attacks.<h4>Methods</h4>Electronic medical records from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database were used to characterize a UK preschool population (1-5 years old) with two or more episodes of wheezing during 1 baseline year before first prescription (index date) of ICS or LTRA, or repeat prescription of SABA. Children initiating ICS or LTRA on the index date were matched 1:4 to those prescribed only SABA for age, sex, year of index prescription, mean baseline SABA dose, baseline attacks, baseline antibiotic prescriptions, and eczema diagnosis. Wheezing/asthma attacks (defined as asthma-related emergency attendance, hospital admission, or acute oral corticosteroid prescription) during 1 outcome year were compared using conditional logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>Matched ICS and SABA cohorts included 990 and 3,960 children, respectively (61% male; mean [SD] age 3.2 [1.3] years), and matched LTRA and SABA cohorts included 259 and 1,036 children, respectively (65% male; mean [SD] age 2.6 [1.2] years). We observed no significant difference between matched cohorts in the odds of a wheezing/asthma attack: ICS vs SABA, OR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.85-1.19) and LTRA vs SABA, OR (95% CI) 1.28 (0.96-1.72).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We found no evidence that initiation of ICS or LTRA therapy is associated with fewer attacks during 1 outcome year than SABA alone for a heterogeneous group of preschool children with recurrent wheeze in the real-life clinical setting.
Project description:Background:The world's most catastrophic epidemic thunderstorm asthma event (ETSA) affected Melbourne in 2016. Little is known about the natural history of individuals affected by such extreme events. Objective:In this single center prospective 3-year longitudinal study, symptomatology and behaviors of individuals affected by ETSA were assessed. Methods:Standardized telephone questionnaire was used to evaluate frequency of asthma symptoms, inhaled corticosteroid preventer use, asthma action plan ownership, and healthcare utilization. Questionnaires were administered at 12, 24, and 36 months after 2016 ETSA. Subgroup analyses of the 'current', 'past', 'possible,' and 'no asthma' subgroups were also conducted. Results:Two hundred and eight, 164, and 112 completed questionnaires were analyzed in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively. Seventy to eighty five percent of respondents reported ongoing asthma symptoms in any given year, of which 20%-28% experienced weekly symptoms. Nearly 50% of respondents were prescribed preventers, with approximately 45% adherent at least 5 days a week. Less than 40% had an asthma action plan and 15%-20% sought urgent medical attention for asthma over the follow-up period. Among 106 individuals with 3 consecutive years of completed questionnaires, those with no prior doctor diagnosis of asthma were significantly more likely to be asymptomatic on follow-up than those with a prior doctor diagnosis of asthma (p = 0.02). Subgroup analyses suggest that large proportions of respondents with 'past' and 'no asthma' continue to remain symptomatic throughout the 36-month period. Conclusion:In individuals affected by ETSA, we found evidence of ongoing loss of asthma control in those with previously well controlled asthma, and the persistence of symptoms suggestive of asthma in those with no history or symptoms suggestive of prior asthma, even after 36 months from initial ETSA. Low rates of inhaler adherence and asthma action plan ownership may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality from future ETSA events. Further research is required to confirm these findings.
Project description:Initial use of inhaled corticosteroid therapy is common in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) A or B chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, contrary to GOLD guidelines. We investigated UK prescribing of inhaled corticosteroid therapy in these patients, to identify predictors of inhaled corticosteroid use in newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. A cohort of newly diagnosed GOLD A/B chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (June 2005-June 2015). Patients were classified by prescribed treatment, with those receiving inhaled corticosteroid-containing therapy compared with those receiving long-acting bronchodilators without inhaled corticosteroid. In all, 29,815 patients with spirometry-confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were identified. Of those prescribed maintenance therapy within 3 months of diagnosis, 63% were prescribed inhaled corticosteroid-containing therapy vs. 37% prescribed non-inhaled corticosteroid therapy. FEV<sub>1</sub>% predicted, concurrent asthma diagnosis, region, and moderate exacerbation were the strongest predictors of inhaled corticosteroid use in the overall cohort. When concurrent asthma patients were excluded, all other co-variates remained significant predictors. Other significant predictors included general practitioner practice, younger age, and co-prescription with short-acting bronchodilators. Trends over time showed that initial inhaled corticosteroid prescriptions reduced throughout the study, but still accounted for 47% of initial prescriptions in 2015. These results suggest that inhaled corticosteroid prescribing in GOLD A/B patients is common, with significant regional variation that is independent of FEV<sub>1</sub>% predicted.<h4>Early-stage chronic lung disease</h4>OVERUSE OF INHALED STEROIDS IN THE UK: Inhaled steroids are often prescribed to early-stage chronic lung disease patients in the UK despite guidelines to the contrary. Patients newly diagnosed with early-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should not be prescribed inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), because they carry an increased risk of side effects such as pneumonia and osteoporosis. ICS should be reserved for patients with severe COPD and frequent exacerbations. James Chalmers at the Scottish Centre for Respiratory Research, Dundee, and co-workers examined prescribed medication data from the UK spanning 10 years, to determine key predictors of ICS prescription during early-stage COPD. Of 29,815 patients identified, an average of 63% were prescribed ICS upon diagnosis, regardless of disease severity. Younger patients were more likely to receive ICS, possibly due to co-morbidity with chronic asthma, and particular UK regions and medical practices prescribed ICS more readily than others.
Project description:Background:Epidemic thunderstorm asthma (ETSA) severely affected Melbourne, Australia in November 2016. There is scant literature on the natural history of individuals affected by ETSA. Objective:A multicentre 12-month prospective observational study was conducted assessing symptomatology and behaviors of ETSA-affected individuals. Methods:We used a structured phone questionnaire to assess asthma symptom frequency, inhaled preventer use, asthma action plan ownership and healthcare utilization over 12 months since the ETSA. Analysis of results included subgroup analyses of the "current," "past," "probable," and "no asthma" subgroups defined according to their original 2016 survey responses. Results:Four hundred forty-two questionnaires were analyzed. Eighty percent of individuals reported ongoing asthma symptoms at follow-up, of which 28% were affected by asthma symptoms at least once a week. Risk of persistent asthma symptoms was significantly higher in those with prior asthma diagnosis, current asthma, and probable undiagnosed asthma (all p < 0.01). Of 442 respondents, 53% were prescribed inhaled preventers, of which 51% were adherent at least 5 days a week. Forty-two percent had a written asthma action plan and 16% had sought urgent medical attention for asthma in the preceding year. Conclusions:Following an episode of ETSA, patients experience a pivotal change in asthma trajectory with both loss of asthma control and persistence of de novo asthma. Suboptimal rates of inhaled preventer adherence and asthma action plan ownership may contribute to asthma exacerbation risk and susceptibility to future ETSA episodes. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine the extent and severity of this apparent change.
Project description:Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood worldwide, and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children and young people (CYP). Given the inherent dangers of a child experiencing even a single asthma attack, it is essential to identify and manage modifiable risk factors at every clinical opportunity. Following an attack, there is an opportunity to prevent future attacks by assessing compliance and optimizing asthma control. Careful questioning will allow physicians to identify asthma triggers, barriers to good asthma control, and health beliefs or socioeconomic obstacles that may have contributed to this attack. The vast majority of children with asthma can achieve good symptom control with appropriate use of low-dose inhaled corticosteroids.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The Children and Young People's Health Partnership (CYPHP) Evelina London Model of Care is a new approach to integrated care delivery for children and young people (CYP) with common health complaints and chronic conditions. CYPHP includes population health management (services shaped by data-driven understanding of population and individual needs, applied in this case to enable proactive case finding and tailored biopsychosocial care), specialist clinics with multidisciplinary health teams and training resources for professionals working with CYP. This complex health system strengthening programme has been implemented in South London since April 2018 and will be evaluated using a cluster randomised controlled trial with an embedded process evaluation. This protocol describes the within-trial and beyond-trial economic evaluation of CYPHP.<h4>Methods and analysis</h4>The economic evaluation will identify, measure and value resources and health outcome impacts of CYPHP compared with enhanced usual care from a National Health Service/Personal Social Service and a broader societal perspective. The study population includes 90 000 CYP under 16 years of age in 23 clusters (groups of general practitioner (GP) practices) to assess health service use and costs, with more detailed cost-effectiveness analysis of a targeted sample of 2138 CYP with asthma, eczema or constipation (tracer conditions). For the cost-effectiveness analysis, health outcomes will be measured using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) using the Child Health Utility 9 Dimensions (CHU-9D) measure. To account for changes in parental well-being, the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-being Scale will be integrated with QALYs in a cost-benefit analysis. The within-trial economic evaluation will be complemented by a novel long-term model that expands the analytical horizon to 10 years. Analyses will adhere to good practice guidelines and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence public health reference case.<h4>Ethics and dissemination</h4>The study has received ethical approval from South West-Cornwall and Plymouth Research Ethics Committee (REC Reference: 17/SW/0275). Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, made available in briefing papers for local decision-makers, and provided to the local community through website and public events. Findings will be generalisable to community-based models of care, especially in urban settings.<h4>Trial registration number</h4>NCT03461848.
Project description:Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) suppress eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma, but patients may not adhere to prescribed use. Mean adherence-averaging total doses taken over prescribed-fails to capture many aspects of adherence. Patients with difficult-to-treat asthma underwent electronic monitoring of ICS, with data collected over 50 days. These were used to calculate entropy (H) a measure of irregular inhaler use over this period, defined in terms of transitional probabilities between different levels of adherence, further partitioned into increasing (H<sub>inc</sub>) or decreasing (H<sub>dec</sub>) adherence. Mean adherence, time between actuations (Gap<sub>max</sub>), and cumulative time- and dose-based variability (area-under-the-curve) were measured. Associations between adherence metrics and 6-month asthma status and attacks were assessed. Only H and H<sub>dec</sub> were associated with poor baseline status and 6-month outcomes: H and H<sub>dec</sub> correlated negatively with baseline quality of life (H:Spearman r<sub>S</sub> = - 0·330, p = 0·019, H<sub>dec:</sub>r<sub>S</sub> = - 0·385, p = 0·006) and symptom control (H:r<sub>S</sub> = - 0·288, p = 0·041, H<sub>dec:</sub> r<sub>S</sub> = - 0·351, p = 0·012). H was associated with subsequent asthma attacks requiring hospitalisation (Wilcoxon Z-statistic = - 2.34, p = 0·019), and H<sub>dec</sub> with subsequent asthma attacks of other severities. Significant associations were maintained in multivariable analyses, except when adjusted for blood eosinophils. Entropy analysis may provide insight into adherence behavior, and guide assessment and improvement of adherence in uncontrolled asthma.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The overuse of short-acting β<sub>2</sub>-agonists (SABA) is associated with poor asthma control. However, data on SABA use in the Gulf region are limited. Herein, we describe SABA prescription practices and clinical outcomes in patients with asthma from the Gulf cohort of the SABA use IN Asthma (SABINA) III study.<h4>Methods</h4>In this cross-sectional study conducted at 16 sites across Kuwait, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates, eligible patients (aged ≥ 12 years) with asthma were classified based on investigator-defined disease severity guided by the 2017 Global Initiative for Asthma report and by practice type, i.e., respiratory specialist or primary care physician. Data on demographics, disease characteristics, and prescribed asthma treatments, including SABA, in the 12 months prior to a single, prospective, study visit were transcribed onto electronic case report forms (eCRFs). All analyses were descriptive in nature. Continuous variables were summarized by the number of non-missing values, given as mean (standard deviation [SD]) and median (range). Categorical variables were summarized by frequency counts and percentages.<h4>Results</h4>This study analyzed data from 301 patients with asthma, 54.5% of whom were treated by respiratory specialists. Most patients were female (61.8%), with a mean age of 43.9 years, and 84.4% were classified with moderate-to-severe disease, with a mean (SD) asthma duration of 14.8 (10.8) years. Asthma was partly controlled or uncontrolled in 51.2% of patients, with 41.9% experiencing ≥ 1 severe exacerbation in the 12 months preceding their study visit. Overall, 58.5% of patients were prescribed ≥ 3 SABA canisters, 19.3% were prescribed ≥ 10 canisters, and 13.3% purchased SABA over-the-counter (OTC) in the 12 months before the study visit. Most patients who purchased OTC SABA (92.5%) also received SABA prescriptions. Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β<sub>2</sub>-agonist combinations and oral corticosteroid bursts were prescribed to 87.7% and 22.6% of patients, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>SABA over-prescription was highly prevalent in the Gulf region, compounded by purchases of nonprescription SABA and suboptimal asthma-related outcomes. Increased awareness among policymakers and healthcare practitioners is needed to ensure implementation of current, evidence-based, treatment recommendations to optimize asthma management in this region.<h4>Trial registration</h4>NCT03857178 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
Project description:In asthmatic adults, monoclonals directed against Type 2 airway inflammation have led to major improvements in quality of life, reductions in asthma attacks and less need for oral corticosteroids. The paediatric evidence base has lagged behind. All monoclonals currently available for children are anti-eosinophilic, directed against the T helper (TH2) pathway. However, in children and in low and middle income settings, eosinophils may have important beneficial immunological actions. Furthermore, there is evidence that paediatric severe asthma may not be TH2 driven, phenotypes may be less stable than in adults, and adult biomarkers may be less useful. Children being evaluated for biologicals should undergo a protocolised assessment, because most paediatric asthma can be controlled with low dose inhaled corticosteroid if taken properly and regularly. For those with severe therapy resistant asthma, and refractory asthma which cannot be addressed, the two options if they have TH2 inflammation are omalizumab and mepolizumab. There is good evidence of efficacy for omalizumab, particularly in those with multiple asthma attacks, but only paediatric safety, not efficacy, data for mepolizumab. There is an urgent need for efficacy data in children, as well as data on biomarkers to guide therapy, if the right children are to be treated with these powerful new therapies.