ADAM15 Participates in Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Replication.
ABSTRACT: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a major tick-borne viral pathogen of humans, is known to cause neurological diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis. However, the life cycle and pathogenesis of TBEV are not well understood. Here, we show that the knockdown or knockout of ADAM15 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 15), a host protein involved in neuroblastoma diseases, leads to TBEV replication and assembly defects. We characterized the disintegrin domain in ADAM15 and found that the ADAM15 subcellular localization was changed following TBEV infection. RNA interference (RNAi) screen analysis confirmed ADAM's nonredundant functions and identified a specific role for ADAM15 in TBEV infection. An RNA-sequencing analysis was also conducted to understand the causal link between TBEV infection and the cellular endomembrane network, namely, the generation of replication organelles promoting viral genome replication and virus production. Our data demonstrated that TBEV infection changes ADAM15 cellular localization, which contributes to membrane reorganization and viral replication.IMPORTANCE Tick populations are increasing, and their geographic ranges are expanding. Increases in tick-borne disease prevalence and transmission are important public health issues. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) often results in meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis. TBEV causes clinical disease in more than 20,000 humans in Europe and Asia per year. An increased incidence of TBE has been noted in Europe and Asia, as a consequence of climate and socioeconomic changes. The need to investigate the mechanism(s) of interaction between the virus and the host factors is apparent, as it will help us to understand the roles of host factors in the life cycle of TBEV. The significance of our research is in identifying the ADAM15 for TBEV replication, which will greatly enhance our understanding of TBEV life cycle and highlight a target for pharmaceutical consideration.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Depending on geographic location, causes of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and meningitis vary substantially. We aimed to identify the most frequent causes, clinical presentation and long-term outcome of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and meningitis cases treated in the Inselspital University Hospital Bern, Switzerland.<h4>Methods</h4>In this monocentric, observational study, we performed a retrospective review of clinical patient records for all patients treated within a 3-year period. Patients were contacted for a telephone follow-up interview and to fill out questionnaires, especially related to disturbances of sleep and wakefulness.<h4>Results</h4>We included 258 patients with the following conditions: encephalitis (18%), nonbacterial meningoencephalitis (42%), nonbacterial meningitis (27%) and bacterial meningoencephalitis/meningitis (13%). Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was the most common cause of encephalitis (18%); tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) was the most common cause of nonbacterial meningoencephalitis (46%), enterovirus was the most common cause of nonbacterial meningitis (21%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common cause of bacterial meningoencephalitis/meningitis (49%). Overall, 35% patients remained without a known cause. After a median time of 16 months, 162 patients participated in the follow-up interview; 56% reported suffering from neurological long-term sequelae such as fatigue and/or excessive daytime sleepiness (34%), cognitive impairment and memory deficits (22%), headache (14%) and epileptic seizures (11%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In the Bern region, Switzerland, TBEV was the overall most frequently detected infectious cause, with a clinical manifestation of meningoencephalitis in the majority of cases. Long-term neurological sequelae, most importantly cognitive impairment, fatigue and headache, were frequently self-reported not only in encephalitis and meningoencephalitis survivors but also in viral meningitis survivors up to 40 months after acute infection.
Project description:Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transferred to humans by ticks. The virus causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) with symptoms such as meningitis and meningoencephalitis. About one third of the patients suffer from long-lasting sequelae after clearance of the infection. Studies of the immune response during TBEV-infection are essential to the understanding of host responses to TBEV-infection and for the development of therapeutics. Here, we studied in detail the primary CD8 T cell response to TBEV in patients with acute TBE. Peripheral blood CD8 T cells mounted a considerable response to TBEV-infection as assessed by Ki67 and CD38 co-expression. These activated cells showed a CD45RA-CCR7-CD127- phenotype at day 7 after hospitalization, phenotypically defining them as effector cells. An immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted TBEV epitope was identified and utilized to study the characteristics and temporal dynamics of the antigen-specific response. The functional profile of TBEV-specific CD8 T cells was dominated by variants of mono-functional cells as the effector response matured. Antigen-specific CD8 T cells predominantly displayed a distinct Eomes+Ki67+T-bet+ effector phenotype at the peak of the response, which transitioned to an Eomes-Ki67-T-bet+ phenotype as the infection resolved and memory was established. These transcription factors thus characterize and discriminate stages of the antigen-specific T cell response during acute TBEV-infection. Altogether, CD8 T cells responded strongly to acute TBEV infection and passed through an effector phase, prior to gradual differentiation into memory cells with distinct transcription factor expression-patterns throughout the different phases.
Project description:Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neurologic disease in Europe and Asia. Disease expression ranges from asymptomatic to severe neurological clinical pictures, involving meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and potentially fatal outcome. Humans mostly become infected with TBE virus (TBEV) by the bite of an infected tick. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in humans are mainly attributed to the first viremic phase of TBEV infection with unspecific symptoms and/or resulting from severe neurological impairment of the central nervous system (CNS). We used the subcutaneous TBEV-infection of C57BL/6 mice as a model to analyze GI complications of TBE. We observed the acute distension and segmental dilation of the intestinal tract in 10 of 22 subcutaneously infected mice. Histological analysis revealed an intramural enteric ganglioneuritis in the myenteric and submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine. The numbers of infiltrating macrophages and CD3<sup>+</sup> T lymphocytes correlated with the severity of ganglioneuritis, indicating an immune-mediated pathogenesis due to TBEV-infection of the enteric plexus. Our study demonstrates that the inflammation of enteric intramural ganglia presents to be a common feature in TBEV-infected mice. Accordingly, the results of this mouse model emphasize that GI disease manifestation and consequences for long-term sequelae should not be neglected for TBEV-infections in humans and require further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important human pathogen that can cause the serious illness tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Patients with clinical symptoms can suffer from severe meningoencephalitis with sequelae that include cognitive disorders and paralysis. While less than 30% of patients with clinical symptoms develop meningoencephalitis, the number of seropositive individuals in some regions indicates a much higher prevalence of TBEV infections, either with no or subclinical symptoms. The functional relevance of these subclinical TBEV infections and their influence on brain functions, such as learning and memory, has not been investigated so far. METHODS:To compare the effect of low and high viral replication in the brain, wildtype and Irf-7-/- mice were infected with Langat virus (LGTV), which belongs to the TBEV-serogroup. The viral burden was analyzed in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Open field, elevated plus maze, and Morris water maze experiments were performed to determine the impact on anxiety-like behavior, learning, and memory formation. Spine density of hippocampal neurons and activation of microglia and astrocytes were analyzed. RESULTS:In contrast to susceptible Irf-7-/- mice, wildtype mice showed no disease signs upon LGTV infection. Detection of viral RNA in the olfactory bulb revealed CNS infections in wildtype and Irf-7-/- mice. Very low levels of viral replication were detectable in the hippocampus of wildtype mice. Although wildtype mice develop no disease signs, they showed reduced anxiety-like behavior and impaired memory formation, whereas Irf-7-/- mice were not affected. This impairment was associated with a significant decrease in spine density of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region of wildtype mice. Microglia activation and astrogliosis were detected in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION:In this study, we demonstrate that subclinical infections by viruses from the TBEV-serogroup affected anxiety-like behavior. Virus replication in the olfactory bulb induced far-reaching effects on hippocampal neuron morphology and impaired hippocampus-dependent learning and memory formation.
Project description:Upon tick borne encephalitis virus exposure of brain-resident cells, astrocytes are important IFN-β producers that followed a biphasic response, which initially depends on MAVS- and later on MyD88/TRIF-signaling Overall design: Overall, there are 18 samples of primary astrocytes isolated from two mouse genotypes, C57BL/6 and B6.STOCK-Mavs(tm1Tsc) (MAVS -/-) either PBS treated or infected with tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). For each genotype, 3 uninfected, 3 TBEV infected 12 hpi and 3 TBEV infected 24hpi (3= biological replicates). RNA were extracted from the astrocytes cell lysates and sequenced on Illumina NovaSeq-6000 with 50 bp paired-end reads configuration.
Project description:Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV) are highly pathogenic tick-borne flaviviruses; TBEV causes neurological disease in humans, while OHFV causes a disease typically identified with hemorrhagic fever. Although TBEV and OHFV are closely related genetically, the viral determinants responsible for these distinct disease phenotypes have not been identified. In this study, chimeric viruses incorporating components of TBEV and OHFV were generated using infectious clone technology, and their pathological characteristics were analyzed in a mouse model to identify virus-specific determinants of disease. We found that only four amino acids near the C terminus of the NS5 protein were primarily responsible for the development of neurological disease. Mutation of these four amino acids had no effect on viral replication or histopathological features, including inflammatory responses, in mice. These findings suggest a critical role for NS5 in stimulating neuronal dysfunction and degeneration following TBEV infection and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of tick-borne flaviviruses.Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV) belong to the tick-borne encephalitis serocomplex, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. Although TBEV causes neurological disease in humans while OHFV causes a disease typically identified with hemorrhagic fever. In this study, we investigated the viral determinants responsible for the different disease phenotypes using reverse genetics technology. We identified a cluster of only four amino acids in nonstructural protein 5 primarily involved in the development of neurological disease in a mouse model. Moreover, the effect of these four amino acids was independent of viral replication property and did not affect the formation of virus-induced lesions in the brain directly. These data suggest that these amino acids may be involved in the induction of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in virus-infected neurons, ultimately leading to the neurological disease phenotype. These findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of tick-borne flavivirus pathogenesis.
Project description:Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. TBEV is transmitted to humans primarily from infected ticks. The virus causes tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), an acute viral disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Infection can lead to acute neurological symptoms of significant severity due to meningitis or meningo(myelo)encephalitis. TBE can cause long-term suffering and has been recognized as an increasing public health problem. TBEV-affected areas currently include large parts of central and northern Europe as well as northern Asia. Infection with TBEV triggers a humoral as well as a cell-mediated immune response. In contrast to the well-characterized humoral antibody-mediated response, the cell-mediated immune responses elicited to natural TBEV-infection have been poorly characterized until recently. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of the cell-mediated immune response to human TBEV-infection. A particular emphasis is devoted to studies of the response mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and CD8 T cells. The studies described include results revealing the temporal dynamics of the T cell- as well as NK cell-responses in relation to disease state and functional characterization of these cells. Additionally, we discuss specific immunopathological aspects of TBEV-infection in the CNS.
Project description:In response to virus infection, type I interferons (IFNs) induce several genes, most of whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM79?, is an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) product that specifically targets tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a Flavivirus that causes encephalitides in humans. TRIM79? restricts TBEV replication by mediating lysosome-dependent degradation of the flavivirus NS5 protein, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase essential for virus replication. NS5 degradation was specific to tick-borne flaviviruses, as TRIM79? did not recognize NS5 from West Nile virus (WNV) or inhibit WNV replication. In the absence of TRIM79?, IFN-? was less effective in inhibiting tick-borne flavivirus infection of mouse macrophages, highlighting the importance of a single virus-specific ISG in establishing an antiviral state. The specificity of TRIM79? for TBEV reveals a remarkable ability of the innate IFN response to discriminate between closely related flaviviruses.
Project description:There has been an emergence and expansion of tick-borne diseases in Europe, Asia and North America in recent years, including Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, and human anaplasmosis. The primary tick vectors implicated are hard ticks of the Ixodes genera. Although much is known about the host response to these bacterial and viral pathogens, there is limited knowledge of the cellular responses to infection within the tick vector. The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), is able to bypass apoptotic processes in ticks, enabling infection to proceed. However, the tick cellular responses to infection with the flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping ill virus (LIV), which cause tick-borne encephalitis and louping ill respectively, are less clear. Infection of an Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) tick cell line with the viruses LIV and TBEV, and the bacterium A. phagocytophilum, identified activation of common and distinct cellular pathways. In particular, commonly-upregulated genes included those that modulate apoptotic pathways (HSP70), putative anti-pathogen genes (FKBP and XBL1), and genes that influence the tick innate immune response, including selective activation of toll genes. These data provide an insight into potentially key genes involved in the tick cellular response to viral or bacterial infection. Overall design: Comparison of differential gene expression in infected tick cell lines (Ixodes scapularis [ISE6] and Ixodes ricinus [IRE/CTVM20]) at 7 days post-infection, following infection with tick-borne flaviviruses, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Differential gene expression determined through comparison with mock-treated (uninfected) cells.
Project description:In an effort to derive an efficacious live attenuated vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis, we generated a chimeric virus bearing the structural protein genes of a Far Eastern subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) on the genetic background of recombinant dengue 4 (DEN4) virus. Introduction of attenuating mutations into the TBEV envelope protein gene, as well as the DEN4 NS5 protein gene and 3' noncoding region in the chimeric genome, results in decreased neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness in mice, and restricted replication in mouse brain. Since TBEV and DEN4 viruses are transmitted in nature by ticks and mosquitoes, respectively, it was of interest to investigate the infectivity of the chimeric virus for both arthropod vectors. Therefore, parental and chimeric viruses were tested for growth in mosquito and tick cells and for oral infection in vivo. Although all chimeric viruses demonstrated moderate levels of replication in C6/36 mosquito cells, they were unable to replicate in ISE6 tick cells. Further, the chimeric viruses were unable to infect or replicate in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Ixodes scapularis tick larvae. The poor infectivity for both potential vectors reinforces the safety of chimeric virus-based vaccine candidates for the environment and for use in humans.