L-lactate exerts a pro-proliferative effect on adult hippocampal precursor cells in vitro.
ABSTRACT: L-lactate has energetic and signaling properties, and its availability is modulated by activity-dependent stimuli, which also regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Studying the effects of L-lactate on neural precursor cells (NPCs) in vitro, we found that L-lactate is pro-proliferative and that this effect is dependent on the active lactate transport by monocarboxylate transporters. Increased proliferation was not linked to amplified mitochondrial respiration. Instead, L-lactate deviated glucose metabolism to the pentose phosphate pathway, indicated by increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity while glycolysis decreased. Knockout of Hcar1 revealed that the pro-proliferative effect of L-lactate was not dependent on receptor activity although phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt was increased following L-lactate treatment. Together, we show that availability of L-lactate is linked to the proliferative potential of NPCs and add evidence to the hypothesis that lactate influences cellular homeostatic processes in the adult brain, specifically in the context of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Project description:Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons in the adult brain, is important for memory formation and extinction. One of the most studied external interventions that affect the rate of adult neurogenesis is physical exercise. Physical exercise promotes adult neurogenesis via several factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here, we identified L-lactate, a physical exercise-induced metabolite, as a factor that promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis. While prolonged exposure to L-lactate promoted neurogenesis, no beneficial effect was exerted on cognitive learning and memory. Systemic pharmacological blocking of monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2), which transports L-lactate to the brain, prevented lactate-induced neurogenesis, while 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,5-DHBA), an agonist for the lactate-receptor hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCAR1), did not affect adult neurogenesis. These data suggest that L-lactate partially mediates the effect of physical exercise on adult neurogenesis, but not cognition, in a MCT2-dependent manner.
Project description:Adult neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a complex, but precisely controlled process. Dysregulation of this event contributes to multiple neurological disorders, including major depression. Thus, it is of considerable interest to investigate how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. Here, we present evidence for neogenin, a multifunctional transmembrane receptor, to regulate adult mouse hippocampal neurogenesis. Loss of neogenin in adult neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) impaired NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis, whereas increased their astrocytic differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed a role for neogenin to positively regulate Gli1, a crucial downstream transcriptional factor of sonic hedgehog, and expression of Gli1 into neogenin depleted NSCs/NPCs restores their proliferation. Further morphological and functional studies showed additional abnormities, including reduced dendritic branches and spines, and impaired glutamatergic neuro-transmission, in neogenin-depleted new-born DG neurons; and mice with depletion of neogenin in NSCs/NPCs exhibited depressive-like behavior. These results thus demonstrate unrecognized functions of neogenin in adult hippocampal NSCs/NPCs-promoting NSCs/NPCs proliferation and neurogenesis and preventing astrogliogenesis and depressive-like behavior, and suggest neogenin regulation of Gli1 signaling as a possible underlying mechanism.
Project description:Alterations in adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been observed in numerous neurological diseases that contain a neuroinflammatory component. Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that contributes to neuroinflammation in many CNS disorders. Our previous results reveal a severe reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis due to focal and chronic expression of IL-1? in a transgenic mouse model, IL-1?(XAT), that evokes a complex neuroinflammatory response. Other investigators have shown that IL-1? can bind directly to neural precursors to cause cell cycle arrest in vitro. In order to observe if IL-1 signaling is necessary in vivo, we conditionally knocked out MyD88, an adapter protein essential for IL-1 signaling, in nestin(+) neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the presence of IL-1?-dependent inflammation. Our results show that conditional knockout of MyD88 does not prevent IL-1?-induced reduction in neuroblasts using a genetic fate mapping model. Interestingly, MyD88 deficiency in nestin(+) NPCs causes an increase in the number of astrocytes in the presence of IL-1?, suggesting that MyD88-dependent signaling is important in limiting astroglial differentiation due to inflammation. MyD88 deficiency does not alter the fate of NPCs in the absence of inflammation. Furthermore, the inflammatory milieu due to IL-1? is not affected by the absence of MyD88 in nestin(+) NPCs. These results show that sustained IL-1? causes a reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis that is independent of MyD88-dependent signaling in nestin(+) NPCs, suggesting an indirect negative effect of IL-1? on neurogenesis.
Project description:Identifying the signaling mechanisms that regulate adult neurogenesis is essential to understanding how the brain may respond to neuro-inflammatory events. P2X7 receptors can regulate pro-inflammatory responses, and in addition to their role as cation channels they can trigger cell death and mediate phagocytosis. How P2X7 receptors may regulate adult neurogenesis is currently unclear. Here, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from adult murine hippocampal subgranular (SGZ) and cerebral subventricular (SVZ) zones were utilized to characterize the roles of P2X7 in adult neurogenesis, and assess the effects of high extracellular ATP, characteristic of inflammation, on NPCs. Immunocytochemistry found NPCs in vivo and in vitro expressed P2X7, and the activity of P2X7 in culture was demonstrated using calcium influx and pore formation assays. Live cell and confocal microscopy, in conjunction with flow cytometry, revealed P2X7<sup>+</sup> NPCs were able to phagocytose fluorescent beads, and this was inhibited by ATP, indicative of P2X7 involvement. Furthermore, P2X7 receptors were activated with ATP or BzATP, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) used to observe a dose-dependent decrease in NPC proliferation. A role for P2X7 in decreased NPC proliferation was confirmed using chemical inhibition and NPCs from P2X7<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Together, these data present three distinct roles for P2X7 during adult neurogenesis, depending on extracellular ATP concentrations: (a) P2X7 receptors can form transmembrane pores leading to cell death, (b) P2X7 receptors can regulate rates of proliferation, likely via calcium signaling, and (c) P2X7 can function as scavenger receptors in the absence of ATP, allowing NPCs to phagocytose apoptotic NPCs during neurogenesis. Stem Cells 2018;36:1764-1777.
Project description:In the adult brain, expression of the microtubule-associated protein Doublecortin (DCX) is associated with neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that give rise to new neurons in the dentate gyrus. Many studies quantify the number of DCX-expressing cells as a proxy for the level of adult neurogenesis, yet no study has determined the effect of removing DCX from adult hippocampal NPCs. Here, we use a retroviral and inducible mouse transgenic approach to either knockdown or knockout DCX from adult NPCs in the dentate gyrus and examine how this affects cell survival and neuronal maturation. Our results demonstrate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of DCX or Cre-mediated recombination in floxed DCX mice does not alter hippocampal neurogenesis and does not change the neuronal fate of the NPCs. Together these findings show that the survival and maturation of adult-generated hippocampal neurons does not require DCX.
Project description:Interleukin 17(A) (IL-17) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that acts as a central regulator of inflammatory response within the brain, but its physiological roles under non-inflammatory conditions remain elusive. Here we report that endogenous IL-17 ablates neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. Genetic deletion of IL-17 increased the number of adult-born neurons in the DG. Further, we found that IL-17 deletion altered cytokine network, facilitated basal excitatory synaptic transmission, enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability, and increased expression of proneuronal genes in neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs). Our findings suggest a profound role of IL-17 in the negative regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis under physiology conditions.
Project description:Proliferative neural progenitor cells (NPCs) maintain high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulation of ROS can cause oxidative DNA damage that may contribute to impaired neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is critical for hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. However, the functional consequences of oxidative base lesions on adult hippocampal neurogenesis remain largely unclear. Here, we found that DNA glycosylase Neil3 is required for the survival and physiological maturation of adult-born NPCs in the adult hippocampus. Impaired adult neurogenesis upon loss of Neil3 was correlated with reduced behavioral pattern separation. Interestingly this was not associated with decreased genomic integrity but with transcriptional regulation of GABAergic signaling. Our findings suggest that Neil3 acts as a positive regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and is essential for normal pattern separation. Targeting Neil3 may have therapeutic potential for reversing age-related hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive decline. Overall design: The mRNA profiles from hippocampus of WT and Neil3-/- C57BL/6 mice at 4 month of age were generated by RNA sequencing using Illumina Hiseq 2000
Project description:Presenilin 1 (PS1) regulates environmental enrichment (EE)-mediated neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. We now report that transgenic mice that ubiquitously express human PS1 variants linked to early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) neither exhibit EE-induced proliferation, nor neuronal lineage commitment of NPCs. Remarkably, the proliferation and differentiation of cultured NPCs from standard-housed mice expressing wild-type PS1 or PS1 variants are indistinguishable. On the other hand, wild-type NPCs cocultured with primary microglia from mice expressing PS1 variants exhibit impaired proliferation and neuronal lineage commitment, phenotypes that are recapitulated with mutant microglia conditioned media in which we detect altered levels of selected soluble signaling factors. These findings lead us to conclude that factors secreted from microglia play a central role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis, and argue for non-cell-autonomous mechanisms that govern FAD-linked PS1-mediated impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Project description:Injury and inflammation are potent regulators of adult neurogenesis. As the complement system forms a key immune pathway that may also exert critical functions in neural development and neurodegeneration, we asked whether complement receptors regulate neurogenesis. We discovered that complement receptor 2 (CR2), classically known as a coreceptor of the B-lymphocyte antigen receptor, is expressed in adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of the dentate gyrus. Two of its ligands, C3d and interferon-? (IFN-?), inhibited proliferation of wild-type NPCs but not NPCs derived from mice lacking Cr2 (Cr2(-/-)), indicating functional Cr2 expression. Young and old Cr2(-/-) mice exhibited prominent increases in basal neurogenesis compared with wild-type littermates, whereas intracerebral injection of C3d resulted in fewer proliferating neuroblasts in wild-type than in Cr2(-/-) mice. We conclude that Cr2 regulates hippocampal neurogenesis and propose that increased C3d and IFN-? production associated with brain injury or viral infections may inhibit neurogenesis.
Project description:Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is stimulated by chronic administration of antidepressants (ADs) and by voluntary exercise. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) that are capable of continuous proliferation and neuronal differentiation are the source of such structural plasticity. Here we report that mice lacking the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB in hippocampal NPCs have impaired proliferation and neurogenesis. When exposed to chronic ADs or wheel-running, no increase in proliferation or neurogenesis is observed. Ablation of TrkB also renders these mice behaviorally insensitive to antidepressive treatment in depression- and anxiety-like paradigms. In contrast, mice lacking TrkB only in differentiated DG neurons display typical neurogenesis and respond normally to chronic ADs. Thus, our data establish an essential cell-autonomous role for TrkB in regulating hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral sensitivity to antidepressive treatments, and support the notion that impairment of the neurogenic niche is an etiological factor for refractory responses to an antidepressive regimen.