BackgroundHuman breast milk (HBM) contains optimal nutrients for infant growth. Probiotics are used to prevent disease and, when taken by the mother, they may affect infant microbiome as well as HBM. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of probiotic intake by the mother on HBM and infant microbiota at genus/species level. Therefore, we present a comprehensive analysis of paired HBM and infant feces (IF) microbiome samples before and after probiotic intake by HBM-producing mothers.
MethodsLactating mothers were administered with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n = 9) or Saccharomyces boulardii capsules (n = 9), for 2 months; or no probiotic (n = 7). Paired HBM and IF samples were collected before and after treatment and analyzed by next-generation sequencing.
ResultsForty-three HBM and 49 IF samples were collected and sequenced. Overall, in 43 HBM samples, 1,190 microbial species belonging to 684 genera, 245 families, 117 orders, and 56 classes were detected. In 49 IF samples, 372 microbial species belonging to 195 genera, 79 families, 42 orders, and 18 classes were identified. Eight of 20 most abundant genera in both HBM and IF samples overlapped: Streptococcus (14.42%), Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Veillonella, which were highly abundant in the HBM samples; and Bifidobacterium (27.397%), Bacteroides, and Faecalibacterium, which were highly abundant in the IF samples. Several major bacterial genera and species were detected in the HBM and IF samples after probiotic treatment, illustrating complex changes in the microbiomes upon treatment.
ConclusionThis is the first Korean microbiome study in which the effect of different probiotic intake by the mother on the microbiota in HBM and IF samples was investigated. This study provides a cornerstone to further the understanding of the effect of probiotics on the mother and infant microbiomes.