Meteorin-like/Meteorin-β protects heart against cardiac dysfunction.
ABSTRACT: Meteorin-like/Meteorin-β (Metrnl/Metrnβ) is a secreted protein produced by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that exerts metabolic actions that improve glucose metabolism. The role of Metrnβ in cardiac disease is completely unknown. Here, we show that Metrnβ-null mice exhibit asymmetrical cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and enhanced signs of cardiac dysfunction in response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and aging. Conversely, adeno-associated virus-mediated specific overexpression of Metrnβ in the heart prevents the development of cardiac remodeling. Furthermore, Metrnβ inhibits cardiac hypertrophy development in cardiomyocytes in vitro, indicating a direct effect on cardiac cells. Antibody-mediated blockage of Metrnβ in cardiomyocyte cell cultures indicated an autocrine action of Metrnβ on the heart, in addition to an endocrine action. Moreover, Metrnβ is highly produced in the heart, and analysis of circulating Metrnβ concentrations in a large cohort of patients reveals that it is a new biomarker of heart failure with an independent prognostic value.
Project description:We have described a novel cytokine encoded by a gene called Meteorin-like (Metrnl). Metrnl is a small (?28 kDa) secreted protein expressed by activated macrophages and barrier tissues (mucosa and skin). Metrnl production by bone marrow macrophages is induced by several cytokines including TNF-?, IL-17?, IL-12, and IL-4 and inhibited by IFN-? and TGF-?. Metrnl expression in macrophages is also induced by LPS, and its levels in circulation are associated with inflammatory responses in vivo. Furthermore, Metrnl regulates the production of several cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. We have produced a Metrnl-/- mouse, which is viable and shows normal development. However, it exhibits dysregulated cytokine production, alterations in IgG production, and is highly susceptible to LPS in a sepsis model. Furthermore, older Metrnl-/- mice develop inflammatory lesions, suggesting that Metrnl participates in the control of inflammatory responses. Taken together, these observations indicate that Metrnl encodes a novel immunoregulatory cytokine associated with inflammatory responses that we have designated Meteorin-?.
Project description:Meteorin-like (METRNL) protein is a newly identified myokine that functions to modulate energy expenditure and inflammation in adipose tissue. Herein, we aim to investigate the potential role and molecular basis of METRNL in doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. METRNL was found to be abundantly expressed in cardiac muscle under physiological conditions that was decreased upon DOX exposure. Cardiac-specific overexpression of METRNL by adeno-associated virus serotype 9 markedly improved oxidative stress, apoptosis, cardiac dysfunction and survival status in DOX-treated mice. Conversely, knocking down endogenous METRNL by an intramyocardial injection of adenovirus exacerbated DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and death. Meanwhile, METRNL overexpression attenuated, while METRNL silence promoted oxidative damage and apoptosis in DOX-treated H9C2 cells. Systemic METRNL depletion by a neutralizing antibody aggravated DOX-related cardiac injury and dysfunction in vivo, which were notably alleviated by METRNL overexpression within the cardiomyocytes. Besides, we detected robust METRNL secretion from isolated rodent hearts and cardiomyocytes, but to a less extent in those with DOX treatment. And the beneficial effects of METRNL in H9C2 cells disappeared after the incubation with a METRNL neutralizing antibody. Mechanistically, METRNL activated SIRT1 via the cAMP/PKA pathway, and its antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities were blocked by SIRT1 deficiency. More importantly, METRNL did not affect the tumor-killing action of DOX in 4T1 breast cancer cells and tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, cardiac-derived METRNL activates SIRT1 via cAMP/PKA signaling axis in an autocrine manner, which ultimately improves DOX-elicited oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Targeting METRNL may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention of DOX-associated cardiotoxicity.
Project description:Cytokines are involved in many functions of the immune system including initiating, amplifying and resolving immune responses. Through bioinformatics analyses of a comprehensive database of gene expression (BIGE: Body Index of Gene Expression) we observed that a small secreted protein encoded by a poorly characterized gene called meteorin-like (METRNL), is highly expressed in mucosal tissues, skin and activated macrophages. Further studies indicate that Metrnl is produced by Alternatively Activated Macrophages (AAM) and M-CSF cultured bone marrow macrophages (M2-like macrophages). In the skin, METRNL is expressed by resting fibroblasts and IFN?-treated keratinocytes. A screen of human skin-associated diseases showed significant over-expression of METRNL in psoriasis, prurigo nodularis, actinic keratosis and atopic dermatitis. METRNL is also up-regulated in synovial membranes of human rheumatoid arthritis. Taken together, these results indicate that Metrnl represents a novel cytokine, which is likely involved in both innate and acquired immune responses.
Project description:The immune system plays a multifunctional role throughout the regenerative process, regulating both pro-/anti-inflammatory phases and progenitor cell function. In the present study, we identify the myokine/cytokine Meteorin-like (Metrnl) as a critical regulator of muscle regeneration. Mice genetically lacking Metrnl have impaired muscle regeneration associated with a reduction in immune cell infiltration and an inability to transition towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Isochronic parabiosis, joining wild-type and whole-body Metrnl knock-out (KO) mice, returns Metrnl expression in the injured muscle and improves muscle repair, providing supportive evidence for Metrnl secretion from infiltrating immune cells. Macrophage-specific Metrnl KO mice are also deficient in muscle repair. During muscle regeneration, Metrnl works, in part, through Stat3 activation in macrophages, resulting in differentiation to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. With regard to myogenesis, Metrnl induces macrophage-dependent insulin-like growth factor 1 production, which has a direct effect on primary muscle satellite cell proliferation. Perturbations in this pathway inhibit efficacy of Metrnl in the regenerative process. Together, these studies identify Metrnl as an important regulator of muscle regeneration and a potential therapeutic target to enhance tissue repair.
Project description:Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. The benefits of exercise are partly attributed to its anti-inflammatory effect, but whether exercise can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in obese adipose tissue remains unknown. Meteorin-like (METRNL), a recently discovered myokine, has been implicated in mediating the effect of exercise on metabolism. Herein, we examined the effect of exercise and METRNL on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were subjected to treadmill exercise for 8 weeks. A subgroup of HFD mice was switched to normal chow with the exercise intervention. Exercise and diet attenuated weight gain, fat accumulation, and insulin resistance in obese mice. In addition, exercise downregulated gene and protein levels of inflammasome markers, including NLRP3 and caspase-1, in adipose tissue. In isolated bone marrow-derived macrophages, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was suppressed in the exercise group, as confirmed by the downregulation of IL-1β and IL-18. Exercise significantly enhanced the expression of METRNL in various muscle depots, and further in vitro analysis revealed that recombinant METRNL treatment inhibited IL-1β secretion in macrophages. In conclusion, exercise exerts its anti-inflammatory action by suppressing adipose tissue NLRP3 inflammasome, and this is, in part, associated with METRNL induction in muscle and its anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing pandemic associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation. Meteorin-like hormone (METRNL) is an adipomyokine that is linked to T2D. Our objective was to evaluate the changes in METRNL levels in T2D and obesity and assess the association of METRNL levels with irisin. Overall, 228 Arab individuals were enrolled. Plasma levels of METRNL and irisin were assessed using immunoassay. Plasma levels of METRNL and irisin were significantly higher in T2D patients than in non-diabetic patients (p < 0.05). When the population was stratified based on obesity, METRNL and irisin levels were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese individuals (p < 0.05). We found a significant positive correlation between METRNL and irisin (r = 0.233 and p = 0.001). Additionally, METRNL and irisin showed significant correlation with various metabolic biomarkers associated with T2D and Obesity. Our data shows elevated METRNL plasma levels in individuals with T2D, further exacerbated with obesity. Additionally, a strong positive association was observed between METRNL and irisin. Further studies are necessary to examine the role of these proteins in T2D and obesity, against their ethnic background and to understand the mechanistic significance of their possible interplay.
Project description:Exercise training benefits many organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Using the recently identified isoform of PGC1-? (PGC1-?4) as a discovery tool, we report the identification of meteorin-like (Metrnl), a circulating factor that is induced in muscle after exercise and in adipose tissue upon cold exposure. Increasing circulating levels of Metrnl stimulates energy expenditure and improves glucose tolerance and the expression of genes associated with beige fat thermogenesis and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Metrnl stimulates an eosinophil-dependent increase in IL-4 expression and promotes alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which are required for the increased expression of the thermogenic and anti-inflammatory gene programs in fat. Importantly, blocking Metrnl actions in vivo significantly attenuates chronic cold-exposure-induced alternative macrophage activation and thermogenic gene responses. Thus, Metrnl links host-adaptive responses to the regulation of energy homeostasis and tissue inflammation and has therapeutic potential for metabolic and inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk of developing a myriad of endocrinologic and metabolic derailments. Moreover, PCOS is a leading cause of habitual abortion, also known as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Meteorin-like protein (Metrnl) is a newly discovered adipokine with the potential to counteract the metaflammation. This study aimed at determining the associations of serum Metrnl levels with homocysteine, hs-CRP, and some components of metabolic syndrome in PCOS-RPL and infertile PCOS patients.This case-control study was conducted in 120 PCOS patients (60 PCOS-RPL and 60 infertile) and 60 control. Serum hs-CRP and homocysteine were assessed using commercial kits, while adiponectin, Metrnl, FSH, LH, free testosterone and insulin levels were analyzed using ELISA technique. Serum Metrnl levels were found to be lower in PCOS patients when compared to controls (67.98 ± 26.66 vs. 96.47 ± 28.72 pg/mL, P <0.001)). Furthermore, serum adiponectin levels were lower, while free testosterone, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, homocysteine, and hs-CRP were significantly higher in PCOS group compared to controls. Moreover, serum Metrnl correlated with BMI, adiponectin, and homocysteine in controls, and inversely correlated with FBG, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR in PCOS group and subgroups. Besides, it inversely correlated with hs-CRP in control, and PCOS group and subgroups. These findings revealed a possible role of Metrnl in the pathogenesis of PCOS and RPL. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for future studies to prove this concept.
Project description:AIMS:Adipose tissue releases adipokines that play important roles in metabolic and cardio-cerebro-vascular homeostasis. This study was to discover novel adipokines using caloric restriction model. METHODS:Adipokine candidates were captured by gene array and bioinformatics analysis and verified by preparation of recombinant protein and antibody. RESULTS:We established a potential secreted protein database containing 208 genes and identified a novel adipokine, Subfatin, that was the highest expressed in subcutaneous fat of both rodents and humans among 15 detected tissues. The secreted mammalian Subfatin was a glycosylated protein. Subfatin was located diffusely throughout the adipose tissue except lipid droplets, with comparable expression between adipocytes and stromal cells, but much lower expression in macrophages than adipocytes. Subfatin was downregulated in white adipose tissue of caloric restriction rats, whereas dramatically upregulated during white adipocyte differentiation as well as in white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Subfatin was annotated as Meteorin-like (Metrnl) in public databases, a similar transcript of Meteorin (Metrn, also known as glial cell differentiation regulator). Meteorin displayed a brain-specific expression and was scarce in various adipose tissues, in contrast to the tissue expression patterns of Subfatin. CONCLUSIONS:Subfatin is a novel adipokine regulated by adipogenesis and obesity, with tissue distribution different from its homologue Meteorin.
Project description:Chronic endurance exercise training induces morphological and metabolic alterations including mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rodents. A myokine called meteorin-like (Metrnl) is associated with morphological and metabolic adaptation and increased in blood after acute resistance exercise. However, the effects of chronic resistance exercise training (RT), which aims to increase muscle mass and strength, on WAT and BAT are unclear. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the effects of RT on morphological and metabolic parameters in WAT and BAT and on plasma Metrnl concentrations. We applied electrical stimulation to both legs of rats as RT three times a week for 4 weeks. RT reduced adipocyte size in subcutaneous WAT but induced no changes in mitochondrial and thermogenesis proteins. In BAT, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1?) protein levels and mitochondrial content markers were significantly higher in the RT group compared with the control group. A significant positive correlation was found between the expression of PGC-1? in BAT and plasma Metrnl concentrations. These results suggest that plasma Metrnl is associated with PGC-1? and mitochondrial biogenesis in BAT. This study describes a potential role of RT in preventing metabolic diseases via altering WAT and BAT and increasing plasma Mertnl concentrations.