Structural and Biochemical Analyses Reveal that Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits the Shikimate Pathway.
ABSTRACT: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic compound with well-known antibacterial properties against pathogens. In this study, structural and biochemical characterization was used to show the inhibitory role of CGA against the enzyme of the shikimate pathway, a well-characterized drug target in several pathogens. Here, we report the crystal structures of dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS), the second enzyme of the shikimate pathway, from Providencia alcalifaciens (PaDHQS), in binary complex with NAD and ternary complex with NAD and CGA. Structural analyses reveal that CGA occupies the substrate position in the active site of PaDHQS, which disables domain movements, leaving the enzyme in an open and catalysis-incompetent state. The binding analyses by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) show that CGA binds to PaDHQS with KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) values of 6.3??M and 0.5??M, respectively. In vitro enzyme inhibition studies show that CGA inhibits PaDHQS with a Ki of 235?±?21??M, while it inhibits the growth of Providencia alcalifaciens, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli with MIC values of 60 to 100??M. In the presence of aromatic amino acids supplied externally, CGA does not show the toxic effect. These results, along with the observations of the inhibition of the 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) regulatory domain by CGA in our previous study, suggest that CGA binds to shikimate pathway enzymes with high affinity and inhibits their catalysis and can be further exploited for designing novel drug-like molecules.IMPORTANCE The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of herbicides and antimicrobial agents, as it is essential in plants, bacteria, and apicomplexan parasites but absent in humans. The enzymes of shikimate pathway are conserved among bacteria. Thus, the inhibitors of the shikimate pathway act on wide range of pathogens. We have identified that chlorogenic acid targets the enzymes of the shikimate pathway. The crystal structure of dehydroquinate synthase, the second enzyme of the pathway, in complex with chlorogenic acid and enzymatic inhibition studies explains the mechanism of inhibition of chlorogenic acid. These results suggest that chlorogenic acid has a good chemical scaffold and have important implications for its further development as a potent inhibitor of shikimate pathway enzymes.
Project description:The disease bacterial blight results in serious production losses of rice in Asian countries. The aroB gene encoding dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS), which is a potential antibiotic target, was identified from the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). DHQS plays an essential role in the synthesis of aromatic compounds in the shikimate pathway. The aroB gene (Xoo1243) was cloned from Xoo and the corresponding DHQS protein was subsequently overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and yielded crystals that diffracted to 2.5 A resolution. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 118.2, c = 98.2 A. According to a Matthews coefficient calculation, the crystal contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding V(M) of 2.06 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 40.4%.
Project description:The anti-tuberculosis (TB) agent IMB-T130 was speculated to be a multi-target compound. In this research, we found that IMB-T130 inhibits the catalytic activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis 3-dehydroquinate synthase (MtDHQS), the enzyme in the second step of the shikimate pathway. IMB-T130 was identified as a selective inhibitor of MtDHQS with an IC50 value of 0.87??g/mL. The interaction between the compound and protein was analysed by surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. Based on the in silico molecular docking results, the essential amino acids in the binding pocket were then confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Overexpression of DHQS reduced the antibacterial activity of IMB-T130 in cells, verifying that DHQS is the target of IMB-T130. IMB-T130 inhibited standard and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains by targeting DHQS. Our findings improve our understanding of MtDHQS and make it to be a potential target for new anti-TB drug discovery.
Project description:Dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS) catalyses the second step of the shikimate pathway to aromatic compounds. DHQS from the archaeal hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli but was partially solubilised when KCl was included in the cell lysis buffer. A purification procedure was developed, involving lysis by sonication at 30°C followed by a heat treatment at 70°C and anion exchange chromatography. Purified recombinant P. furiosus DHQS is a dimer with a subunit Mr of 37,397 (determined by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry) and is active over broad pH and temperature ranges. The kinetic parameters are K(M) (3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate) 3.7??M and k(cat) 3.0?sec(-1) at 60°C and pH 6.8. EDTA inactivates the enzyme, and enzyme activity is restored by several divalent metal ions including (in order of decreasing effectiveness) Cd(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+). High activity of a DHQS in the presence of Cd(2+) has not been reported for enzymes from other sources, and may be related to the bioavailability of Cd(2+) for P. furiosus. This study is the first biochemical characterisation of a DHQS from a thermophilic source. Furthermore, the characterisation of this hyperthermophilic enzyme was carried out at elevated temperatures using an enzyme-coupled assay.
Project description:Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate cyclases are enzymes that utilize the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, to generate cyclic precursors of many bioactive natural products, such as the antidiabetic drug acarbose, the crop protectant validamycin, and the natural sunscreens mycosporine-like amino acids. These proteins are phylogenetically related to the dehydroquinate (DHQ) synthases from the shikimate pathway and are part of the more recently recognized superfamily of sugar phosphate cyclases, which includes DHQ synthases, aminoDHQ synthases, and 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthases. Through genome mining and biochemical studies, we identified yet another subset of DHQS-like proteins in the actinomycete Actinosynnema mirum and the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca DW4/3-1. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to 2-epi-valiolone, which is predicted to be an alternative precursor for aminocyclitol biosynthesis. Comparative bioinformatics and biochemical analyses of these proteins with 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthases (EEVS) and desmethyl-4-deoxygadusol synthases (DDGS) provided further insights into their genetic diversity, conserved amino acid sequences, and plausible catalytic mechanisms. The results further highlight the uniquely diverse DHQS-like sugar phosphate cyclases, which may provide new tools for chemoenzymatic, stereospecific synthesis of various cyclic molecules.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hydroxycinnamates (HCs) are mainly produced in plants. Caffeic acid (CA), p-coumaric acid (PA), ferulic acid (FA) and sinapic acid (SA) are members of the HC family. The consumption of HC by human might prevent cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. The solubility of HCs is increased through thioester conjugation to various compounds such as quinic acid, shikimic acid, malic acid, anthranilic acid, and glycerol. Although hydroxycinnamate conjugates can be obtained from diverse plant sources such as coffee, tomato, potato, apple, and sweet potato, some parts of the world have limited availability to these compounds. Thus, there is growing interest in producing HC conjugates as nutraceutical supplements. RESULTS: Hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (HCTs) including hydroxycinnamate-CoA shikimate transferase (HST) and hydroxycinnamate-CoA quinate transferase (HQT) were co-expressed with 4-coumarateCoA:ligase (4CL) in Escherichia coli cultured in media supplemented with HCs. Two hydroxycinnamoyl conjugates, p-coumaroyl shikimates and chlorogenic acid, were thereby synthesized. Total 29.1 mg/L of four different p-coumaroyl shikimates (3-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 4-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,4-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, and 4,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate) was obtained and 16 mg/L of chlorogenic acid was synthesized in the wild type E. coli strain. To increase the concentration of endogenous acceptor substrates such as shikimate and quinate, the shikimate pathway in E. coli was engineered. A E. coli aroL and aroK gene were mutated and the resulting mutants were used for the production of p-coumaroyl shikimate. An E. coli aroD mutant was used for the production of chlorogenic acid. We also optimized the vector and cell concentration optimization. CONCLUSIONS: To produce p-coumaroyl-shikimates and chlorogenic acid in E. coli, several E. coli mutants (an aroD mutant for chlorogenic acid production; an aroL, aroK, and aroKL mutant for p-coumaroyl-shikimates production) were made and each mutant was tested using an optimized construct. Using this strategy, we produced 235 mg/L of p-coumaroyl-shikimates and 450 mg/L of chlorogenic acid.
Project description:This investigation cultured Cecropia obtusifolia cells in suspension to evaluate the effect of nitrate deficiency on the growth and production of chlorogenic acid (CGA), a secondary metabolite with hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity that acts directly on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using cell cultures in suspension, a kinetics time course was established with six time points and four total nitrate concentrations. The metabolites of interest were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the metabolome was analyzed using directed and nondirected approaches. Finally, using RNA-seq methodology, the first transcript collection for C. obtusifolia was generated. HPLC analysis detected CGA at all sampling points, while metabolomic analysis confirmed the identity of CGA and of precursors involved in its biosynthesis. Transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes and enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of CGA. C. obtusifolia probably expresses a key enzyme with bifunctional activity, the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT/HCT), which recognizes shikimic acid or quinic acid as a substrate and incorporates either into one of the two routes responsible for CGA biosynthesis.
Project description:The shikimate pathway leads to the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids essential for protein biosynthesis and the production of a wide array of plant secondary metabolites. Among them, quinate is an astringent feeding deterrent that can be formed in a single step reaction from 3-dehydroquinate catalyzed by quinate dehydrogenase (QDH). 3-Dehydroquinate is also the substrate for shikimate biosynthesis through the sequential actions of dehydroquinate dehydratase (DQD) and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) contained in a single protein in plants. The reaction mechanism of QDH resembles that of SDH. The poplar genome encodes five DQD/SDH-like genes (Poptr1 to Poptr5), which have diverged into two distinct groups based on sequence analysis and protein structure prediction. In vitro biochemical assays proved that Poptr1 and -5 are true DQD/SDHs, whereas Poptr2 and -3 instead have QDH activity with only residual DQD/SDH activity. Poplar DQD/SDHs have distinct expression profiles suggesting separate roles in protein and lignin biosynthesis. Also, the QDH genes are differentially expressed. In summary, quinate (secondary metabolism) and shikimate (primary metabolism) metabolic activities are encoded by distinct members of the same gene family, each having different physiological functions.
Project description:The bacterial genus Providencia is Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, which have been isolated from a variety of environments and organisms, ranging from humans to animals. Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii are the most common clinical isolates, however, these three species differ in their pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation. Genomes of 91 isolates of the genus Providencia were investigated to clarify their genetic diversity, focusing on virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes, and environmental adaptation genes. Our study revealed an open pan-genome for the genus Providencia containing 14,720 gene families. Species of the genus Providencia exhibited different functional constraints, with the core genes, accessory genes, and unique genes. A maximum-likelihood phylogeny reconstructed with concatenated single-copy core genes classified all Providencia isolates into 11 distant groups. Comprehensive and systematic comparative genomic analyses revealed that specific distributions of virulence genes, which were highly homologous to virulence genes of the genus Proteus, contributed to diversity in pathogenicity of Providencia alcalifaciens, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii. Furthermore, multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes of isolates of Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii were predominantly due to resistance genes from class 1 and 2 integrons. In addition, Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii harbored more genes related to material transport and energy metabolism, which conferred a stronger ability to adapt to diverse environments. Overall, our study provided valuable insights into the genetic diversity and functional features of the genus Providencia, and revealed genetic mechanisms underlying diversity in pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and environmental adaptation of members of this genus.
Project description:Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a rich source of compounds promoting human health (phytonutrients), among them caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), mainly represented by chlorogenic acid (CGA), and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQAs). The enzymes involved in their biosynthesis belong to the large family of BAHD acyltransferases. Following a survey of the globe artichoke genome, we identified 69 BAHD proteins carrying the catalytic site (HXXXD). Their phylogenetic analysis together with another 43 proteins, from 21 species, representative of the BAHD family, highlighted their grouping in seven major clades. Nine globe artichoke acyltransferases clustered in a sub-group of Clade V, with 3 belonging to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and 2 to hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) like proteins. We focused our attention on the former, HQT1, HQT2, and HQT3, as they are known to play a key role in CGA biosynthesis. The expression of genes coding for the three HQTs and correlation of expression with the CQA content is reported for different globe artichoke tissues. For the first time in the globe artichoke, we developed and applied the virus-induced gene silencing approach with the goal of assessing in vivo the effect of HQT1 silencing, which resulted in a marked reduction of both CGA and diCQAs. On the other hand, when the role of the three HQTs was assessed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana through their transient overexpression, significant increases in mono- and diCQAs content were observed. Using transient GFP fusion proteins expressed in N. benthamiana leaves we also established the sub-cellular localization of these three enzymes.
Project description:The AROM protein is a pentadomain protein catalysing steps two to six in the prechorismate section of the shikimate pathway in microbial eukaryotes. On the basis of amino acid sequence alignments and the properties of mutants unable to utilize quinic acid as a carbon source, the AROM protein has been proposed to be homologous throughout its length with the proteins regulating transcription of the genes necessary for quinate catabolism. The QUTR transcription repressor protein has been proposed to be homologous with the three C-terminal domains of the AROM protein and one-fifth of the penultimate N-terminal domain. We report here the results of experiments designed to overproduce the QUTR and AROM proteins and their constituent domains in Escherichia coli, the purpose being to facilitate domain purification and (in the case of AROM), complementation of E. coli aro- mutations in order to probe the degree to which individual domains are stable and functional. The 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase domain of the AROM protein and the 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase-like domain of the QUTR spectroscopy and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The CD spectra were found to be virtually superimposable. The fluorescence emission spectra of both domains had the signal from the tryptophan residues almost completely quenched, giving a tyrosine-dominated spectrum for both the AROM- and QUTR-derived domains. This unexpected observation was demonstrated to be due to a highly unusual environment provided by the tertiary structure, as addition of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride gave a typical tryptophan-dominated spectrum for both domains. The spectroscopy experiments had the potential to refute the biologically-based proposal for a common origin for the AROM and QUTR proteins; however, the combined biophysical data are consistent with the hypothesis. We have previously reported that the AROM dehydroquinate synthase and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase are stable and functional as individual domains, but that the 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase is only active as part of the complete AROM protein or as a bi-domain fragment with dehydroquinate synthase. Here we report that the aromA gene (encoding the AROM protein) of Aspergillus nidulans contains a 53 nt intron in the extreme C-terminus of the shikimate dehydrogenase domain. This finding accounts for the previously reported observation that the AROM protein was unable to complement aroE- (lacking shikimate dehydrogenase) mutations in E. coli. When the intron is removed the correctly translated AROM protein is able to complement the E. coli aroE- mutation. An AROM-derived shikimate dehydrogenase domain is, however, non-functional, but function is restored in a bi-domain protein with e-dehydroquinate dehydratase. This interaction is not entirely specific, as substitution of the 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase domain with the glutathione S-transferase protein partially restores enzyme activity. Similarly an AROM-derived shikimate kinase domain is non-functional, but is functional as part of the complete AROM protein, or as a bi-domain protein with 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase.