Exoproteome Perspective on the Bile Stress Response of Lactobacillus johnsonii.
ABSTRACT: Probiotics must not only exert a health-promoting effect but also be capable of adapting to the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Probiotics in the GI tract must survive the cell wall-disrupting effect of bile acids. We investigated the exoproteome of Lactobacillus johnsonii PF01 and C1-10 under bile stress. A comparative analysis revealed the similarities between the two L. johnsonii exoproteomes, as well as their different responses to bile. The large number of metabolic proteins in L. johnsonii revealed its metabolic adaptation to meet protein synthesis requirements under bile stress. In addition, cell wall modifications occurred in response to bile. Furthermore, some extracellular proteins of L. johnsonii may have moonlighting function in the presence of bile. Enolase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, 50s ribosomal protein L7/L12, and cellobiose-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugar transporter were significantly upregulated under bile stress, suggesting a leading role in the collective bile stress response of L. johnsonii from its exoproteome perspective.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacterial exported proteins represent key components of the host-pathogen interplay. Hence, we sought to implement a combined approach for characterizing the entire exoproteome of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and goats. RESULTS: An optimized protocol of three-phase partitioning (TPP) was used to obtain the C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteins, and a newly introduced method of data-independent MS acquisition (LC-MSE) was employed for protein identification and label-free quantification. Additionally, the recently developed tool SurfG+ was used for in silico prediction of sub-cellular localization of the identified proteins. In total, 93 different extracellular proteins of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified with high confidence by this strategy; 44 proteins were commonly identified in two different strains, isolated from distinct hosts, then composing a core C. pseudotuberculosis exoproteome. Analysis with the SurfG+ tool showed that more than 75% (70/93) of the identified proteins could be predicted as containing signals for active exportation. Moreover, evidence could be found for probable non-classical export of most of the remaining proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative analyses of the exoproteomes of two C. pseudotuberculosis strains, in addition to comparison with other experimentally determined corynebacterial exoproteomes, were helpful to gain novel insights into the contribution of the exported proteins in the virulence of this bacterium. The results presented here compose the most comprehensive coverage of the exoproteome of a corynebacterial species so far.
Project description:The exoproteome of parasitic protists constitutes extracellular proteins that play a fundamental role in host-parasite interactions. Lytic factors, especially secreted proteases, are capable of modulating tissue invasion, thereby aggravating host susceptibility. Despite the important role of exoproteins during infection, the exoproteomic data on Histomonas meleagridis are non-existent. The present study employed traditional 1D-in-gel-zymography (1D-IGZ) and micro-LC-ESI-MS/MS (shotgun proteomics), to investigate H. meleagridis exoproteomes, obtained from a clonal virulent and an attenuated strain. Both strains were maintained as mono-eukaryotic monoxenic cultures with Escherichia coli. We demonstrated active in vitro secretion kinetics of proteases by both parasite strains, with a widespread proteolytic activity ranging from 17 kDa to 120 kDa. Based on protease inhibitor susceptibility assay, the majority of proteases present in both exoproteomes belonged to the family of cysteine proteases and showed stronger activity in the exoproteome of a virulent H. meleagridis. Shotgun proteomics, aided by customized database search, identified 176 proteins including actin, potential moonlighting glycolytic enzymes, lytic molecules such as pore-forming proteins (PFPs) and proteases like cathepsin-L like cysteine protease. To quantify the exoproteomic differences between the virulent and the attenuated H. meleagridis cultures, a sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra mass spectrometric (SWATH-MS) approach was applied. Surprisingly, results showed most of the exoproteomic differences to be of bacterial origin, especially targeting metabolism and locomotion. By deciphering such molecular signatures, novel insights into a complex in vitro protozoan- bacteria relationship were elucidated.
Project description:Analysis of the culture supernatant exoproteins produced by two PFGE clusters of high-level gentamicin and ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis from the UK and Ireland revealed two distinct protein profiles. This grouping distinguished OG1RF and GelE metalloprotease-expressing isolates from JH2-2 and other GelE-negative isolates. The integrity of the fsrABDC operon was found to determine the exoproteome composition, since an fsrB mutant of strain OG1RF appeared very similar to that of strain JH2-2, and complementation of the latter with the fsrABDC operon produced an OG1RF-like exoproteome. The proteins present in the supernatant fraction of OG1RF were separated using 2D gels and identified by mass spectrometry and comprised many mass and pI variants of the GelE and SprE proteases. In addition cell wall synthesis and cell division proteins were identified. An OG1RF fsrB mutant had a distinct exoprotein fraction with an absence of the Fsr-regulated proteases and was characterised by general stress and glycolytic proteins. The exoproteome of the OG1RF fsrB mutant resembles that of a divIVA mutant of E. faecalis, suggestive of a stress phenotype.
Project description:The interest in examining the subset of proteins present in the extracellular milieu, the exoproteome, has been growing due to novel insights highlighting their role on extracellular matrix organization and biofilm formation, but also on homeostasis and development. The cyanobacterial exoproteome is poorly studied, and the role of cyanobacterial exoproteins on cell wall biogenesis, morphology and even physiology is largely unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive examination of the Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 exoproteome under various growth conditions. Altogether, 139 proteins belonging to 16 different functional categories have been identified. A large fraction (48%) of the identified proteins is classified as "hypothetical", falls into the "other categories" set or presents no similarity to other proteins. The evidence presented here shows that Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is capable of outer membrane vesicle formation and that these vesicles are likely to contribute to the exoproteome profile. Furthermore, the activity of selected exoproteins associated with oxidative stress has been assessed, suggesting their involvement in redox homeostasis mechanisms in the extracellular space. Finally, we discuss our results in light of other cyanobacterial exoproteome studies and focus on the potential of exploring cyanobacteria as cell factories to produce and secrete selected proteins.
Project description:This study aimed at investigating the extracellular and cell wall-associated proteins (exoproteome) of Lactobacillus plantarum DC400 when cultivated on modified chemically defined medium (CDM) supplemented with the chemically synthesized pheromone plantaricin A (PlnA) or cocultured with L. plantarum DPPMA20 or Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis DPPMA174. Compared to monoculture, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis showed that the exoproteome of L. plantarum DC400 was affected by PlnA and cocultivation with strains DPPMA20 and, especially, DPPMA174. The highest similarity of the 2-DE maps was found between DC400 cells cultivated in monoculture and in coculture with strain DPPMA20. Almost all extracellular proteins (22 spots) and cell wall-associated proteins (40 spots) which showed decreased or increased levels of synthesis during growth in CDM supplemented with PlnA and/or in coculture with strain DPPMA20 or DPPMA174 were identified. On the basis of the sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, changes to the exoproteome concerned proteins involved in quorum sensing (QS), the transport system, stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and glycolysis, oxidation/reduction processes, the proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, cell wall and catabolic processes, and cell shape, growth, and division. Cultivation with PlnA and cocultivation with strains DPPMA20 and, especially, DPMMA174 markedly increased the capacity of L. plantarum DC400 to form biofilms, to adhere to human Caco-2 cells, and to prevent the adhesion of potential intestinal pathogens. These phenotypic traits were in part related to oversynthesized moonlighting proteins (e.g., DnaK and GroEL, pyruvate kinase, enolase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) in response to QS mechanisms and interaction with L. plantarum DPPMA20 and, especially, L. sanfranciscensis DPPMA174.
Project description:Bacteria from the Roseobacter clade are abundant in surface marine ecosystems as over 10% of bacterial cells in the open ocean and 20% in coastal waters belong to this group. In order to document how these marine bacteria interact with their environment, we analyzed the exoproteome of Phaeobacter strain DSM 17395. We grew the strain in marine medium, collected the exoproteome and catalogued its content with high-throughput nanoLC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics. The major component represented 60% of the total protein content but was refractory to either classical proteomic identification or proteogenomics. We de novo sequenced this abundant protein with high-resolution tandem mass spectra which turned out being the 53 kDa RTX-toxin ZP_02147451. It comprised a peptidase M10 serralysin domain. We explained its recalcitrance to trypsin proteolysis and proteomic identification by its unusual low number of basic residues. We found this is a conserved trait in RTX-toxins from Roseobacter strains which probably explains their persistence in the harsh conditions around bacteria. Comprehensive analysis of exoproteomes from environmental bacteria should take into account this proteolytic recalcitrance.
Project description:Wound-colonizing microorganisms can form complex and dynamic polymicrobial communities where pathogens and commensals may co-exist, cooperate or compete with each other. The present study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between different bacteria isolated from the same chronic wound of a patient with the genetic blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Specifically, this involved two different isolates of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis and Klebsiella oxytoca. Particular focus was attributed to interactions of S. aureus with the two other species, because of the high staphylococcal prevalence among chronic wounds. Intriguingly, upon co-cultivation, none of the wound isolates inhibited each other's growth. Since the extracellular proteome of bacterial pathogens is a reservoir of virulence factors, the exoproteomes of the staphylococcal isolates in monoculture and co-culture with B. thuringiensis and K. oxytoca were characterized by Mass Spectrometry to explore the inherent relationships between these co-exisiting bacteria. This revealed a massive reduction in the number of staphylococcal exoproteins upon co-culturing with K. oxytoca or B. thuringiensis. Interestingly, this decrease was particularly evident for extracellular proteins with a predicted cytoplasmic localization, which were recently implicated in staphylococcal virulence and epidemiology. Furthermore, our exoproteome analysis uncovered potential cooperativity between the two different S. aureus isolates. Altogether, the observed exoproteome variations upon co-culturing are indicative of unprecedented adaptive mechanisms that set limits to the production of secreted staphylococcal virulence factors.
Project description:Verticillium wilt, caused by the Verticillium dahliae phytopathogen, is a devastating disease affecting many economically important crops. Previous studies have shown that the exoproteome of V. dahliae plays a significant role in this pathogenic process, but the components and mechanisms that underlie this remain unclear. In this study, the exoproteome of V. dahliae was induced in a cotton-containing C'zapek-Dox (CCD) medium and quantified using the high-throughput isobaric tag technique for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). Results showed that the abundance of 271 secreted proteins was affected by the CCD medium, of which 172 contain typical signal peptides generally produced by the Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These enhanced abundance proteins were predominantly enriched in carbohydrate hydrolases; 126 were classified as carbohydrate-active (CAZymes) and almost all were significantly up-regulated in the CCD medium. Results showed that CAZymes proteins 30 and 22 participate in pectin and cellulose degradation pathways, corresponding with the transcription levels of several genes encoded plant cell wall degradation enzyme activated significantly during cotton infection. In addition, targeted deletion of two pectin lyase genes (VdPL3.1 and VdPL3.3) impaired wilt virulence to cotton. This study demonstrates that the V. dahliae exoproteome plays a crucial role in the development of symptoms of wilting and necrosis, predominantly via the pathogenic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation as part of host plant infection.
Project description:At low density, Bacillus cereus cells release a large variety of proteins into the extracellular medium when cultivated in pH-regulated, glucose-containing minimal medium, either in the presence or absence of oxygen. The majority of these exoproteins are putative virulence factors, including toxin-related proteins. Here, B. cereus exoproteome time courses were monitored by nanoLC-MS/MS under low-oxidoreduction potential (ORP) anaerobiosis, high-ORP anaerobiosis, and aerobiosis, with a specific focus on oxidative-induced post-translational modifications of methionine residues. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the exoproteome dynamics indicated that toxin-related proteins were the most representative of the exoproteome changes, both in terms of protein abundance and their methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) content. PCA also revealed an interesting interconnection between toxin-, metabolism-, and oxidative stress-related proteins, suggesting that the abundance level of toxin-related proteins, and their Met(O) content in the B. cereus exoproteome, reflected the cellular oxidation under both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.
Project description:Cellular proteomes and exoproteomes are dynamic, allowing pathogens to respond to environmental conditions to sustain growth and virulence. Bacillus cereus is an important food-borne pathogen causing intoxication via emetic toxin and/or multiple protein exotoxins. Here, we compared the dynamics of the cellular proteome and exoproteome of emetic B. cereus cells grown at low (16 °C) and high (30 °C) temperature. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based shotgun proteomics analysis identified 2063 cellular proteins and 900 extracellular proteins. Hierarchical clustering following principal component analysis indicated that in B. cereus the abundance of a subset of these proteins-including cold-stress responders, and exotoxins non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and hemolysin I (cereolysin O (CLO))-decreased at low temperature, and that this subset governs the dynamics of the cellular proteome. NHE, and to a lesser extent CLO, also contributed significantly to exoproteome dynamics; with decreased abundances in the low-temperature exoproteome, especially in late growth stages. Our data therefore indicate that B. cereus may reduce its production of secreted protein toxins to maintain appropriate proteome dynamics, perhaps using catabolite repression to conserve energy for growth in cold-stress conditions, at the expense of virulence.